CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 649

_id 7e52
authors Achten, Henri
year 2001
title Normative Positions in Architectural Design - Deriving and Applying Design Methods
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 263-268
summary This paper presents a recently finished course of eight weeks where CAAD skills, design methodology, and architectural theory are combined to discuss possible perspectives on the use of the computer in design, and its influence on architecture. In the course, three contemporary architects were studied; Peter Eisenman, Ben van Berkel, and Greg Lynn. Each was discussed on aspects of ontology (which are the elements of discourse), design method (design process and organization of the process), and the use of the computer (techniques and approaches). These were linked with design theory, architectural theory, and CAD-theory. The reflection on the work of the architects resulted in a number of design methods for each architect. The design methods were adapted to the available technologies in the university as well as to the scope of the exercise, since the period of eight weeks for an exercise cannot compete with design processes in practice that take many participants and much time. The students then applied the design methods to a design task: student housing and an exhibition pavilion on the campus area of the university. The task was so devised, that students could focus on either architectural or urban design level with one of the design methods. Also, the choice of architects and accompanying design methods was made in such a way that students with low, medium, and advanced computer skills could take part in the course and exercise. In a workshop held at the Czech Technical University (CVUT) in Prague, the same procedure was used in a one-week period for a different design task, but in an otherwise almost identical setting with respect to the CAAD software used. The methods and material were easily transferred to the other setting. The students were able to cope with the task and produced surprising results in the short time span available. The paper will provide an overview of the course, discuss the pedagogical implications of the work, and discuss how this particular work can be generalized to incorporate other architects and approaches.
keywords CAAD: Design Methods, Pedagogy
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 7400
authors Rizal, H. and Ahmad Rafi, M.E.
year 2002
title The Impact of Internet Enabled Computer Aided Design (iCAD) in Construction Industry
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 085-92
summary The advent of the Internet has opened up and given, particularly, the developing countries and the world in general, a transformation into collective intelligence (Levy, 1998) societies linked to digital communication (Rafi, 2001). Apart from large corporations, the rapid evolution of border-less communication has also synergise between the art and science expertise to form low-cost internet-based networks that have become multi-million dollar companies within a short period of time (e.g. Linux) (Rafi, 2001). In the context of architectural designs and construction industries, the birth of Internet-based CAD (iCAD) solutions has offered a new dimension to architectural practice. The function of CAD has expanded as a tool to communicate and collaborate as well as to better control all phases of the architectural practices. This paper will review the current available iCAD tools and explore the possible utilisation of iCAD in architectural practices. The opportunities for modifying current professional practice standards to best use iCAD will be rationalised as well as the elements in ensuring the effectiveness of iCAD implementation. The final component of the paper will be an evaluation framework to measure the value of iCAD in an architectural practice. The framework will become an early platform for an architectural practice to decide and plan their future in utilising and applying iCAD in the most efficient way.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
email rizalhusin@hotmail.com
last changed 2006/09/29 05:18

_id 5d55
authors Billger, Monica and d’Élia, Stefano
year 2001
title Colour appearance in virtual reality: a comparison between a full-scale room and a virtual reality simulation
source AIC Colour 2001, The 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, Rochester, NY.
summary The main goal of our project is to make VR applications usable for the planning of light and colour. To enable reliable simulations, we both need to develop better rendering methods and carefully study the appearance of light and colour in real rooms and in virtual environments. Assessments of real rooms are compared to simulations of the same rooms in immersive Virtual Reality (3D-cube). In this paper, we will present the outcome of a pilot study and discuss specific problems associated with the prospect of comparing reality to Virtual Reality. We will account for the experience of the room and go into details on the experience and perception of light. Indeed, the problems of getting enough light in the 3D-cube and of simulating the light situation of a real room affect colour appearance.
keywords Virtual Reality, VR, 3D-cube, Colour Appearance, Light Perception, Visual Assessments, Simulations
series other
email billger@arch.chalmers.se
last changed 2002/09/05 07:58

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id a40c
authors Inkinen, Tommi
year 2001
title A city revised: representing or recreating the urban space as a polygon experience – a discussion of the case of virtual Turku
source CORP 2001, Vienna, pp. 351-354
summary The Internet has provided a new means to represent urban space. The development of modelling languages,like VRML, has given us the tools to recreate urban locations on the net. In this paper, the virtual image ofTurku, a city located in Southwest Finland is discussed. My approach is twofold. Firstly, I focus on the‘official’ city web-page and its two dimensional textual appearance. This constitutes the essence of virtualcity as ‘public’ project. Secondly, there is a challenging new field that combines aspects from computersciences, urban studies and Internet research. This refers to three-dimensional city models that are used torepresent an exact copy of the material space of cities. The analysis is based on interpretation of interviewsand contents of the two site structures. The following conclusions are proposed. The mission of a virtualpublic city is twofold: it is a local project, purposed to build a new and efficient medium to connect theadministration and citizens; and it is also a global/national project, a medium of advertising and givingknowledge of the tourist possibilities and attractions. On the other hand, the private virtual city project isbased on potential future incomes. It is a means of gaining profit via expanding possibilities provided by ecommerce.
series other
email toalin@utu.fi
more www.corp.at
last changed 2002/12/19 11:18

_id avocaad_2001_01
id avocaad_2001_01
authors Maria Musat
year 2001
title 3D Intelligent Representations for the Facility Management Practice
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary New field, growing very fast since the nineteen eighties, facility management takes care of our built environment. As owners and users together become more and more aware of the importance that healthy built environment has for their lives, the need for high quality tools to help them manage their buildings, throughout their transformations, are growing in demand. The market is overflowed with 2D applications assembled in different information systems that have no links one to another. Intranets, that offer direct links between alphanumerical and 2D graphical databases, are considered nowadays the top tools for facility management experts. Nevertheless the sophistication of this information systems, we should not forget the fact that built environment is always 3D. Therefore, the representations not only should be 3D as well, but also they should include some of the intelligence that builders and managers have, in order to ease their tasks during the life cycle of the buildings. Health and life of our built environment bases on the quality of the management process. However their importance was pointed in the first paragraph, there are yet no norms to intelligently describe our buildings as to take the most profit of their 3D representations. Both owners and managers seem to be impressed by accurate renderings of the building models. They seem to forget that behind these models, the useful information for the facility management is the appearance of the built environment. No intelligent applications have yet been developed based on this information. Our goal is to examine the facility management specific needs in information and to research and define a coherent norm that could intelligently describe 3D representations of complex buildings for this practice.
series AVOCAAD
email mmusat@sprint.ca
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 1e1a
authors Moeck, Martin
year 2001
title On top-down architectural lighting design. Constraint-based generation of light sources
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 331-348
summary One key problem of architectural lighting design is to specify goals that relate to aesthetics. Since visibility is an important criterion for many visual tasks and objects, heuristics from industrial lighting and visual inspection can be used to describe the appearance of objects relevant to architectural lighting design, and to derive corresponding light sources. This has the potential to bring computation time in the range of near-interactive rates. A combination of two constraining inputs, which are the specification of desired material appearance and the selection of highlights and shadows can be successfully used in determining light sources.
keywords Top-Down Design, Constraint Satisfaction Optimisation, Lighting Design, Visual Performance Criteria
series CAAD Futures
email mmoeck@ukans.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 4664
authors Russell, Peter
year 2001
title Visualising Non-Visual Building Information
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 546-551
summary Architecture can be understood as a process and as an object. In both forms, it consists of a complex of mass, monetary, energy and information flows that occur over time scales ranging from hours and days to centuries. The parts or elements making up buildings and the processes involved in producing, maintaining, using and disposing of them are highly intertwined and multi-dimensional. The field of Architecture can range from complete building stocks down to individual buildings, their elements, and the materials and processes making up these elements. What is more, it is also necessary to introduce time as a dimension in order to model the complete life cycle of buildings. Current CAD systems concentrate primarily on the replication of the traditional drawing process (sometimes in three dimensions) and the visualisation of the finished building. While these models describe the geometry and visual appearance of buildings, the bulk of the information about the building remains unseen. Recently developed systems such as the German LEGOE system have combined a materials database with specification and CAD systems, which allows for a more comprehensive description of the building. However, this additional information is displayed either rudimentarily or as lists of numbers. The information describing the position or visual quality of building elements is, in fact, minuscule in comparison to that describing the properties of the materials involved, their production methods, the energy needed to produce, transport and install the elements, and information concerning toxicology and environmental issues. What is more, these materials are not simply in situ, but can be considered to flow through the building. These flows also occur at widely varying rates according to the type of material and the type of building. The view is taken that buildings are actually temporary repositories of various “flows” which occupy the building during its lifetime. Thus seen, the various aspects of a building at a certain stage of its life are taken to be the total sum of its inputs and outputs at any given time. Currently, its complexity and the lack of cognitive assistance in its presentation limit the understanding of this information. The author postulates that to better understand this information, visual displays of this “non-visual” building information are needed, at least for those who, like architects, are more visually inclined. The paper describes attempts made to go beyond conventional two-dimensional charts, which have tended to only complicate understanding. This is partly due to the need to display a high number of dimensions in one space. Examples are shown of experimental visual displays using three-dimensional graphs created in VRML as well as a “remodelling” of the building based on statistical rather than spatial information to form a building “artefact”. The remodelled artefacts are based on a null-value three-dimensional form and are then modified according to the specific database information without changing their topology. These artefacts are initially somewhat idiosyncratic, but become more useful when a large enough population has been created. With sufficient numbers, it is possible to compare and classify the artefacts according to their visually discernible attributes. The classification of the artefacts is useful in understanding building types independent of their formal “architectural” or spatial qualities, particularly with age-use-classes. The paper also describes initial attempts to create building information landscapes that unfold from the artefacts allowing detailed views of the summarised information displayed by the individual artefacts.
keywords Building Information, Visualisation, VRML, Life Cycle Analysis
series eCAADe
email peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id ecaade03_373_117_wittkopf
id ecaade03_373_117_wittkopf
authors Wittkopf, Stephen K. and Foo, E-Jin
year 2003
title Discussing Image-Based Modeling Technology for 3D Digital Archival of Physical Architecture Models
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 373-380
summary Besides drawings, physical models are important forms of representation commonly used for architectural design. They can serve as a useful resource for teaching and research, provided there is a proper archiving system that allows easy retrieval. Architectural models in 3D digital format seem to be able to overcome the limitation of physical constraints – they can be easily accessed anytime and anywhere over the Internet. The most common way of 3D model documentation is through geometric-based 3D CAD software. Image-based modeling (IM) allows the 3D digital model to be created from photographic images. Debevec (1998) investigated the hybrid geometry- and image-based approach whilst Tsou (2002) and Hawkins (2001) focused on the application of IM for GIS and digitizing cultural artifacts respectively. This paper aims to compare physical models and their IM counterparts in terms of communication of vital architectural information. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the extent the IM model resembled the physical predecessor in terms of its geometry and visual appearance qualities/faithfulness. A survey was subsequently carried out to compare their performance in terms of the communication of vital architectural information about building designs to the observers. The tabulated results were then examined to help understand the opportunities and weakness of IM for 3D archival of physical architecture models
keywords Image-based modeling, architecture model, digital archiving, design resource
series eCAADe
email akiskw@nus.edu.sg
more http://www.arch.nus.edu.sg/akiskw
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id 5ac1
authors Bourdakis, Vassilis
year 2001
title On Developing Standards for the Creation of VR City Models
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 404-409
summary The paper is an inclusive summary of research work on creating VR city models carried out over the last six years in the UK and Greece aiming to put into discussion the guidelines/ rules developed by the author. The paper is structured in three sections referring to the main stages in terms of either technical expertise and problem solving or conceptual structuring of information: creation of 3D city models, CAAD versus VR in digital city modelling and finally utilizing digital city models. The expected outcome of the work presented is the establishment of a body of knowledge that will facilitate the development of standards and guidelines for the creation of city models. There are obvious advantages in having a compatible set of city 3D models. On the other hand, there are different rules to be followed and issues to be solved, according to the scale of the model, level of detail that is needed—all these rules relate to the projected use of the model.
keywords Digital City Models, 3D Modelling, Virtual Reality, Urban Planning
series eCAADe
email v.bourdakis@prd.uth.gr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e7e7
authors Popova, M., Johansson, P. and Lindgren, H.
year 2001
title Case-based Reasoning in Collaborative Design: The role of product models and information structures
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 92-97
summary This paper discusses methods for information management through the rational application of IT within collaborative design. We explore the possible integration of the platforms of case-based reasoning and information structures. We examine the potential combination of existing techniques (CAD-tools, word processors, general applications, WWW) and standards (IFC, national classification systems) into a system for information management. We focus on the designers’ use of heterogeneous information and the further development of a prototype based on product-model and process-model technology. Today, XML helps us structure various kinds of information before the system performs case-based reasoning sessions. The aim is to promote efficient and flexible information management in a casebased design process. Through the use of standardized product models, this information will be sharable and suitable for reuse and feedback. The more often the information is reused, the more general and adaptable it becomes i.e. it evolves. This scenario requires, though, efficient information management in the design office: a quality system for evaluating the information for reuse, consequent use of standardized product models and IT.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Product Models, Information Structures, Collaborative Design And Construction Process
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 9fe2
authors Almeida da Silva, A.B., Serón Arbeloa, F.J., Magallón Lacarta, J.A. and Félix, N.R.
year 2001
title PICTÓRICA O CIENTÍFICA? LA ACTIVIDAD DE GENERACIÓN DE IMÁGENES SINTÉTICAS EN EL CONTEXTO DE ENSEÑANZA (Pictoric or Scientific? The Activity of Generation of Synthetic Images in the Teaching Context)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 192-194
summary This work is restricted to the field of Graphics Representation in Architecture, analyzing the use of illumination models which are present at the software usually used for the development of images to describe the architectural objects. The differences between the real scene and the equivalences structured into the world of computer graphics related to the illumination models and light, are specially specified. This work analyses the categories of architectural problems associated to each of the available models; questions how this associations are included in architectural teaching context and studies how associated they are during the academic studies of the architect.
series SIGRADI
email adribord@ufpel.tche.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 24d2
authors Da Costa Silva, Heitor
year 2001
title MODELOS: FORMA E CONFORTO NA ARQUITETURA (Models: Form and Environment in Architecture)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 51-53
summary The work presents a research project in its first phase of implementation. The research project deals with the manufacturing of architectural models which use new technology, for thermal and lighting investigation and using one heliodon as means of building assessment. The models to be produced will be chosen from built examples of the Modern Architecture of the XX Century. Initially virtual models will be constructed and afterwards the models will be printed in 3D. Once the three dimensional models were built they will be examined in one heliodon to evaluate their thermal and light performance. Also the models will be used as means of calibrating the heliodon itself. Lately the models will be incorporate as building examples for projects museum.
series SIGRADI
email heitor@prisma.unisinos.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id avocaad_2001_08
id avocaad_2001_08
authors Ivanka Iordanova, Temy Tidafi
year 2001
title Design assistance by complexity-supporting precedents' modelling
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design processes imply complexity at every stage of the development of a project. On one hand, this complexity is rarely taken into consideration by the currently used CAD programs. On the other hand, recent theoretical researches indicate that a large proportion of architectural design processes are based on precedents as a source of inspiration or as a basis for reflection. A precedent is usually seen as a sketch, as a picture, as a drawing or as a visual memory of an architectural object or space. Recent research enlarges this concept into at least two directions: (1) precedents are looked for not only in the architectural space, and (2) it’s not only the visual aspect of a precedent that is important, but also its internal logic and structure, the know-how associated to it, and the actions needed for its creation. Usually, architectural design knowledge is implicitly presented by precedents. This design knowledge is applied to design-objects having various levels of generality, at different states of detailing and expected to be dynamically transformed during the following stages of design. Having in mind these characteristics of precedents called for during the architectural design process, we propose to join their visual representation with a description of their most important characteristics: structural organisation, way of production, functional organisation, spatial composition, etc. These can be either described or modelled by the original author, or interpreted by the precedent’s ‘user’. These design-knowledge models can be of use in several ways: (1) providing a library for search of precedents by semantic analogy, (2) offering ready-to-use capsules of design knowledge for new design situations, (3) enriching the ‘design world’ of the user-architect. We have implemented the proposed method of complexity-supporting precedents’ modelling by the means of the functional programming SGDL-Scheme language. The models (a programming function or a structure of programming functions) describe the actions necessary for the creation of an object (or its digital representation) and the structural organisation between the models in order to generate new, more complex ones. The concept of describing actions instead of shapes, provides a multi-level applicability of the models. Visual presentations (digital maquettes, images or animations) of newly generated objects can be stored in a visual-library of the assistant, thus creating a new ‘precedent’ that can be referred to in future by visual analogy. The design-knowledge that has generated the new object, is stored and linked to the image. Thus, the visual stimulus of a precedent can be joined with functional characteristics, production procedures and/or semantic meaning of the object. The paper will present the ‘engine’ of the proposed assistant, its organisation, as well as digital models of precedents that have served as a basis for the design of new architectural objects or structures. The assistant is conceived as an open, complexity supporting structure that can be further developed by the ‘user-architect’. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed assistant.
series AVOCAAD
email Ivanka.Iordanova@videotron.ca, Temy.Tidafi@Umontreal.ca
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id b405
authors Chiu, M.-L., Lin, Y.-M., Lee, C.-H. and Tsai, P.-H.
year 2001
title Teaching rapid prototyping in cad studios for creative design
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 307-310
summary This paper is intended to study the characteristics of digital tools and applying the rapid prototyping (RP) technology to the architectural design studio. The examples and experience of using RP are presented.
series CAADRIA
email mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id d746
authors Coyne, R., Lee, J., Duncan, D. and Ofluoglu, S.
year 2001
title Applying web-based product libraries
source Automation in Construction 10 (5) (2001) pp. 549-559
summary This paper presents progress on a research project about on-line libraries of product information as used by architects, engineers and other design professionals. We present product library assistant intranet, PLA(id), which is a system programmed in Java for organising product library information on the World-Wide Web (WWW). PLA(id) is to be used experimentally in practice contexts to elicit insights into the applicability of on-line libraries of product information.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 8652
authors Han, Seung-Hoon and Turner, James A.
year 2001
title An Architectural Approach to Virtual Reality Support of Multi-user Environments
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 439-452
summary The Internet and its multimedia component, the World Wide Web (WWW), are the essential technological foundations, and the tools to construct cyberspace on these foundations are beginning to be created. Two of those tools are the network programming language, Java, and the 3D graphics standard for the Internet, the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) which has the ability to support programmable behavior. This paper documents at experiment with the use of networks with Java-VRML connectivity, applying it to a collaborative system which will make it possible for multiple users to navigate and dynamically update an architectural VR environment.
keywords Collaborative Design, Distributed Virtual Environments, Multi-User, Internet
series CAAD Futures
email hshoon@umich.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 78e7
authors Hu, Wen-Chang
year 2001
title A comparative observation on applying knowledge between intuitive design and theoretical design
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 65-70
summary Akin provides the main idea of this paper, "It is necessary to understand intuitive-design to predict the performance criteria useful in developing appropriate tools for machine-design or design-method." This paper discussing the knowledge applied in design bases on previous studies and focuses on theoretical-design. Firstly, the relationship between theoretical design and other kind of design is addressed. Secondly, a cognitive model is proposed and to be the basis of discussion. Thirdly, two cognitive experiments are conducted, and then analysis including coding scheme is discussed.
series CAADRIA
email wenchanghu@kimo.com.tw
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 0c14
authors Huang, Ching-Hui
year 2001
title A Preliminary Study of Spatializing Cyberspace - A Cognitive Approach
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 511-516
summary The purpose of this study is to reveal some aspects of the spatial nature of cyberspace by applying a cognitive approach, which is to decode cyberspatial cognition generated from the spatial experiences of an architectural designer. Two types of cities, the physical and the virtual, are compared in order to further realize the spatial knowledge of cyberspace. The results of this research indicate that understanding spatial characteristics of virtual environment can base upon investigating cognitive sketches. In addition, architectural designers might benefit from the findings of this study.
keywords Cyberspace, Physical City, Virtual City, Cyberspatial Cognition
series eCAADe
email chuang@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

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