CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 36

_id c123
authors Yip, Michael and Plume, Jim
year 2001
title The use of digital spatial narratives to express design ideas and concepts
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 351-355
summary This paper reports on work undertaken by design students over the past couple of years experimenting with the advanced use of digital media to understand and express complex design concepts. The students are required to move beyond the conventional use of such tools to model design intents, and to challenge preconceptions of the nature of representation through spatialisation of the relationship between signifier/signified/referent, and through digital 3D sketches. These have become known as digital spatial narratives. The purpose of this paper is to expose and reflect on the outcomes of these thematic explorations. It discusses both the techniques that have emerged in their formation as well as the broad range of animation types that have resulted from that process.
series CAADRIA
email J.Plume@unsw.edu.au
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id ga0132
id ga0132
authors Abe, Yoshiyuki
year 2001
title Beyond the math visualization - Geometrica and Stochastica
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Mathematically controlled imaging process provides attractive results because of its infinite scaling capabilities with some other elements that contribute to the visualization. Its global/local and precise manipulation of parameters holds potential for realizing an unpredictable horizon of imagery. When it meets the artist's taste, this method could be a strong enough system of creation, and I have been producing images using the surfaces of hyperbolic paraboloid. On the other hand, a method absolutely free from the geometric parameter manipulation is possible with a stochastic process [1]. Like the technique of pendulum in photography, while its production rate of acceptable result is very low, its potential of generating a strong visual message is also very attractive. It is possible to set stochastic elements at any stage of the process, and conditional probability on those elements, or the hierarchy of probability management characterizes the probability distribution. Math space has no light. No gravity. No color on the math surfaces. And the math equation providesonly the boundary in 3D or higher mathematical dimensions. The fact means that artists can keep artistic reality with their unique tastes in colors on the surface and light sources, and this is the most important element of the math based imaging. Being able to give artists' own choice of colors and that the artist may take only right ones from the results of a stochastic process guarantee the motif and aesthetics of artist could be reflected onto the work.
series other
email y.abe@ieee.org
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id d9f0
authors Bhavnani, S.K., Reif, F. and John, B.E.
year 2001
title Beyond Command Knowledge: Identifying and Teaching Strategic Knowledge for Using Complex Computer Applications
source Proceedings of CHI' 01 (2001), 229-236
summary Despite experience, many users do not make efficient use of complex computer applications. We argue that this is caused by a lack of strategic knowledge that is difficult to acquire just by knowing how to use commands. To address this problem, we present efficient and general strategies for using computer applications, and identify the components of strategic knowledge required to use them. We propose a framework for teaching strategic knowledge, and show how we implemented it in a course for freshman students. In a controlled study, we compared our approach to the traditional approach of just teaching commands. The results show that efficient and general strategies can in fact be taught to students of diverse backgrounds in a limited time without harming command knowledge. The experiment also pinpointed those strategies that can be automatically learned just from learning commands, and those that require more practice than we provided. These results are important to universities and companies that wish to foster more efficient use of complex computer applications.
keywords Strategies; Training; Instruction; GOMS
series other
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 57b1
authors Glanville, Ranulph
year 2001
title Not Aping the Past: Mirror Men
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 29-42 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary To collaborate is to work together. To work, in my thinking, together presumes participation. When I talk of collaboration, I talk with the notion of participation in mind. I shall often write of participation as an alternative term to collaboration, in this paper. I am interested in anything that may enhance our creativity (as designers). There are those whose interest in collaboration is different, and equally justifiable. The main part of the title is from a quote by the composer Harrison Birtwistle, who said: ìTradition is not aping the past but making the future.î The intention in what I write is to suggest ways in which Information and Communication Technology can be used, not to ape the past, but to make the future, especially by enhancing our potential to act creatively. I do this by introducing facets of ideas in fragments, so they can interact with each other, rather than forming the great, separate arches of traditional arguments, one after the other. For me, collaboration is more than co-operation or co-ordination. It must involve novelty, the creation of something beyond the expected and more than an improvement a quantum step.
series other
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id e9b1
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2001
title Destination: Practice – Towards a maintenance contract for the architect’s degree
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 090-099
summary Addressing the subject of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) in architectural design, we present a Web-based design assistant for student- and professional architects called DYNAMO. Its main objective is to initiate and nurture the life-long process of learning from (design) experience as suggested by CBR’s cognitive model. Rather than adopting this model as such, DYNAMO extrapolates it beyond the individual by stimulating and intensifying several modes of interaction. One mode – the focus of this paper – concerns the interaction between the realm of design education and the world of practice. DYNAMO offers a platform for exchanging design efforts and insights, in the form of cases, between both parties, which perfectly chimes with the current tendency towards life-long learning and continuing education. Just like our university advises graduates to ‘Take a maintenance contract with your degree’, architecture schools may encourage recently qualified architects to subscribe to DYNAMO. To what extent the tool can fulfill this role of maintenance contract is discussed at the end of the paper, which reports on how DYNAMO was used and appreciated by professional architects at different levels of expertise.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Web-Based Learning, Digital Repositories
series ACADIA
email ann.heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id a760
authors Laurini, R.
year 2001
title Information Systems for Urban Planning
source Taylor & Francis London and New York
summary Urban planners who need to design information systems require an understanding of systems analysis, data acquisition and GIS. Planners have moved beyond drawing land use plans, to examining the evolution of urban activities to monitor and analyze urban societal and environmental problems. Novel tools, like using multimedia information systems and GIS, will become an increasingly important, eventually essential part of the job. Both practitioners and students will find this book useful, provided they have an adequate grounding in computing, data analysis and GIS and they are looking to use and design computer systems for developing maps and written statements for city planning.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8d1a
authors Martens, Bob and Voigt, Andreas
year 2001
title Virtual and full-scale modeling: A collection of resources
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 201-204
summary In this paper the relationship between Virtual and Full-scale Mo-deling will be traced back. A number of publications supports the dis-semination of existing knowledge resp. experiences. Although a series of biannual EFA-Conferences (European Full-scale Modeling Association) produced a remarkable number of useful papers, the "scientific output" beyond this platform remained to be so far in the dust of gray literature. On the other hand the rapid growing interest for computer applications and tools rediscovered the working area of 1:1 simulation more or less the other way around. Although the term VR in the nineties was strongly occupied by computer-interfaces resp. -representations, soon the insight gained in importance that reality is by far more complex than some 10.000 polygons. Furthermore, some kind of unproductive competition resp. defense of good old modeling tra-ditions versus promising computer technology seemed to act as the main activity. However, the fusion of Virtual and Full-Scale Mo-de-ling could indefinitely serve as a promising field of research.
series CAADRIA
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 1a92
authors Mirabelli, Paolo
year 2001
title Public Cyberspace Planning and Design. Architect’s role in the construction of the virtual city
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 42-46
summary Architects need to consider ICT not as a tool for design but as a space to be designed. The relation between this space and the physical city must be driven from an impact to a positive and needed expansion of the urban space; an occasion to support and foster social integration and development. To achieve this, it is needed to put an effort in evolving both planning and design techniques as well as public policies for this mixed (physical/ digital) urban space. The references for doing it may be found more in the history of technology developments then in the technology itself, but a wide contribution from diverse disciplines is needed. How to do this, it’s mostly to be found out through projects, in which architects can play the fundamental role of planners that coordinate the activities of actors involved, while taking care of the public interest. Many cities are progressively losing the space devoted to foster solid social structures, so a relevant focus for projects may be aimed at the design of public cyberspace to recover the building of local social networks. A starting point could be found in the Community Networking movement, which architects could build upon, using their design skills in order to evolve this kind of spaces beyond the spontaneous and random phase. A wide range of issues are to be addressed: from needed public policies to accessibility that must be provided to anybody in order to avoid sharpening social alienation due to cultural, economical or physical reasons. An experiment is going to be carried out within a local development project promoted in Rome.
keywords Cyberspace Design, Urban Planning, E-Society, Community Networking, Selfsustainable Local Development
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 7793
authors Montañez, Darién
year 2001
title TESIS: ARQ.PMA.76/00 (Thesis: ARQ.PMA.76/00)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 13-15
summary Chaos and disorder are adjectives repeated ad nauseam in contemporary discussions on the City of Panama and its architecture. This study intends to find an order in this apparent chaos and chart the development of Panamanian Architecture during the last 25 years. Going beyond the expected list of every important building of the period, we offer a vision of Architecture as a blob generated by these milestones and that envelops them, moving and changing shape with time. This fluctuating form, which is the Architecture of Panama from 1976 to 2000, is generated by using a Style Vs. Time graph, a diagram that allows us to plot each building according to its “style”.
series SIGRADI
email darienm@mac.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id cf2011_p115
id cf2011_p115
authors Pohl, Ingrid; Hirschberg Urs
year 2011
title Sensitive Voxel - A reactive tangible surface
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 525-538.
summary Haptic and tactile sensations, the active or passive exploration of our built surroundings through our sense of touch, give us a direct feeling and detailed information of space, a sense of architecture (Pallasmaa 2005). This paper presents the prototype of a reactive surface system, which focuses its output on the sense of touch. It explains how touch sensations influence the perception of architecture and discusses potential applications that might arise from such systems in the future. A growing number of projects demonstrate the strong impact of interaction design on the human senses and perception. They offer new ways of sensing and experiencing architectural space. But the majority of these interaction concepts focus on visual and auditory output-effects. The sense of touch is typically used as an input generator, but neglected as as a potential receiver of stimuli. With all the possibilities of sensors and micro-devices available nowadays, there is no longer a technical reason for this. It is possible to explore a much wider range of sense responding projects, to broaden the horizon of sensitive interaction concepts (Bullivant 2006). What if the surfaces of our surroundings can actively change the way it feels to touch them? What if things like walls and furniture get the ability to interactively respond to our touch? What new dimensions of communication and esthetic experience will open up when we conceive of tangibility in this bi-directional way? This paper presents a prototype system aimed at exploring these very questions. The prototype consists of a grid of tangible embedded cells, each one combining three kinds of actuators to produce divergent touch stimuli. All cells can be individually controlled from an interactive computer program. By providing a layering of different combinations and impulse intensities, the grid structure enables altering patterns of actuation. Thus it can be employed to explore a sort of individual touch aesthetic, for which - in order to differentiate it from established types of aesthetic experiences - we have created the term 'Euhaptics' (from the Greek ευ = good and άπτω = touch, finger). The possibility to mix a wide range of actuators leads to blending options of touch stimuli. The sense of touch has an expanded perception- spectrum, which can be exploited by this technically embedded superposition. The juxtaposed arrangement of identical multilayered cell-units offers blending and pattern effects of different touch-stimuli. It reveals an augmented form of interaction with surfaces and interactive material structures. The combination of impulses does not need to be fixed a priori; it can be adjusted during the process of use. Thus the sensation of touch can be made personally unique in its qualities. The application on architectural shapes and surfaces allows the user to feel the sensations in a holistic manner – potentially on the entire body. Hence the various dimensions of touch phenomena on the skin can be explored through empirical investigations by the prototype construction. The prototype system presented in the paper is limited in size and resolution, but its functionality suggests various directions of further development. In architectural applications, this new form of overlay may lead to create augmented environments that let inhabitants experience multimodal touch sensations. By interactively controlling the sensual patterns, such environments could get a unique “touch” for every person that inhabit them. But there may be further applications that go beyond the interactive configuration of comfort, possibly opening up new forms of communication for handicapped people or applications in medical and therapeutic fields (Grunwald 2001). The well-known influence of touch- sensations on human psychological processes and moreover their bodily implications suggest that there is a wide scope of beneficial utilisations yet to be investigated.
keywords Sensitive Voxel- A reactive tangible surface
series CAAD Futures
email inge@sbox.tugraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id avocaad_2001_12
id avocaad_2001_12
authors Pongratz, Perbellini
year 2001
title Intermedial Architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary A great part of our physical environment and existence is currently undergoing an epochal transformation from a solid to a liquid state on many layers of technological evolution. Optical phenomena and radical shifts in visuality, particularly manifest through media propagation are impacting on urban space in unpredictable ways. City - space is not only perceived as a physical place but also simultaneously inhabited as a virtual site. Both conditions form the hybrid of an urban realm, construed as surveillance, simulation, distraction and a relentless proliferation of information. Ultimately, all man-machine interfaces of hardware will be adequately infinitely machined. This process however will continue beyond the now experienced level of TV, video, cellular-phones and computers, incorporating interconnected surfaces of text, music and other kind of data. The surrounding sensorium will penetrate the phenomenological tissue of our nervous system to the extent that we are unconsciously fluidly interacting. Behavioral properties of matter and their smooth transmittal of visual, sound and tactile sensations, will provide an intellectual and sensual presence which renders space and its perception as being liquefied. Also the interrelation between the exterior and interior usage will be smooth and multidimensional, as the building’s envelopes are capable to alter their properties in response to contextual changes or movements. A redefinition of the disciplines of architecture and urban planning responds to the changes in cultural, social, political and economical milieus.
series AVOCAAD
email info@pongratz-perbellini.com
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4664
authors Russell, Peter
year 2001
title Visualising Non-Visual Building Information
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 546-551
summary Architecture can be understood as a process and as an object. In both forms, it consists of a complex of mass, monetary, energy and information flows that occur over time scales ranging from hours and days to centuries. The parts or elements making up buildings and the processes involved in producing, maintaining, using and disposing of them are highly intertwined and multi-dimensional. The field of Architecture can range from complete building stocks down to individual buildings, their elements, and the materials and processes making up these elements. What is more, it is also necessary to introduce time as a dimension in order to model the complete life cycle of buildings. Current CAD systems concentrate primarily on the replication of the traditional drawing process (sometimes in three dimensions) and the visualisation of the finished building. While these models describe the geometry and visual appearance of buildings, the bulk of the information about the building remains unseen. Recently developed systems such as the German LEGOE system have combined a materials database with specification and CAD systems, which allows for a more comprehensive description of the building. However, this additional information is displayed either rudimentarily or as lists of numbers. The information describing the position or visual quality of building elements is, in fact, minuscule in comparison to that describing the properties of the materials involved, their production methods, the energy needed to produce, transport and install the elements, and information concerning toxicology and environmental issues. What is more, these materials are not simply in situ, but can be considered to flow through the building. These flows also occur at widely varying rates according to the type of material and the type of building. The view is taken that buildings are actually temporary repositories of various “flows” which occupy the building during its lifetime. Thus seen, the various aspects of a building at a certain stage of its life are taken to be the total sum of its inputs and outputs at any given time. Currently, its complexity and the lack of cognitive assistance in its presentation limit the understanding of this information. The author postulates that to better understand this information, visual displays of this “non-visual” building information are needed, at least for those who, like architects, are more visually inclined. The paper describes attempts made to go beyond conventional two-dimensional charts, which have tended to only complicate understanding. This is partly due to the need to display a high number of dimensions in one space. Examples are shown of experimental visual displays using three-dimensional graphs created in VRML as well as a “remodelling” of the building based on statistical rather than spatial information to form a building “artefact”. The remodelled artefacts are based on a null-value three-dimensional form and are then modified according to the specific database information without changing their topology. These artefacts are initially somewhat idiosyncratic, but become more useful when a large enough population has been created. With sufficient numbers, it is possible to compare and classify the artefacts according to their visually discernible attributes. The classification of the artefacts is useful in understanding building types independent of their formal “architectural” or spatial qualities, particularly with age-use-classes. The paper also describes initial attempts to create building information landscapes that unfold from the artefacts allowing detailed views of the summarised information displayed by the individual artefacts.
keywords Building Information, Visualisation, VRML, Life Cycle Analysis
series eCAADe
email peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 7261
authors Seebohm, Thomas and Chan, Dean
year 2001
title The Design Space of Schematic Palladian Plans for Two Villa Topologies
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 156-165
summary Given the plan topology for the layout of the rooms of a Palladian villa, we ask what is the design space of possible Palladian plans. What does this space look like in terms of dimensions and proportions? Two plan topologies are examined to throw some light on this question. One is that of the Villa Angarano while the other is that of the Villa Badoer. A Maple program was written for each topology to solve the equations for room proportions, to cycle through the possible proportional spacing of the underlying Tartan grid, and to plot out the possible plans in the design space. The programs eliminate from the design space those alternatives that violate basic Palladian constraints, such as no room having an aspect ration greater than 2:1, and such additional constraints that we and other authors have found. A selection of the plotted output of plans in the design space for each topology is presented as well as threedimensional plots showing the number of plan alternatives in different regions of the critical parameter space, namely, the length and aspect ratio of the plan. We believe that this is the first instance of enumerated Palladian plans which goes beyond topology to examine issues of dimension and proportion. One conclusion is that one cannot scale a Palladian plan topology to fit any set of overall dimensions.
keywords Palladio, Design Space, Villa, Plans, Rule-Based Generation
series ACADIA
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 8c88
authors Tweed, Christopher
year 2001
title Highlighting the affordances of designs. Mutual realities and vicarious environments
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 681-696
summary Computer-aided evaluation of predicted design performance is an enduring theme within CAAD research and practice. However, most evaluative systems address aspects of design that are readily amenable to formal or quantitative treatments. Analyses of how people use and interact with designs rarely progress beyond a narrow functionalism, in which ‘the user’ figures as a type with poorly defined needs and characteristics. This paper outlines a theory of actor-environment interaction based on Gibson’s notion of affordance as a precursor to exploring how computers can be used to highlight the affordances of designs. Two simple prototypes are described. The main conclusion is that while computers are unlikely to be able to detect affordances, they can generate and present information in ways that will enable human designers to appreciate more fully the possible implications of their designs for a broader range of potential occupants.
keywords Affordances, Human-Environment Interaction, Design Evaluation, Agents
series CAAD Futures
email c.tweed@qub.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 802d
authors Tweed, Christopher
year 2001
title The social context of CAAD in practice
source Automation in Construction 10 (5) (2001) pp. 617-629
summary The term 'application domain' crops up in many CAAD research papers and yet seldom is the domain described in any detail. In the absence of a detailed understanding of the application domain, CAAD research often substitutes a typical `designer' or `architect' as the end-user of developed systems. The end-user's beliefs, norms, values, history and other concrete characteristics are rarely fleshed out beyond a stereotypical, totalising view, which serves as an `ideal-type' that offers a psychological economy, avoiding the need for us to think too deeply about individual CAAD users. But, as anyone who has taught architecture or worked in practice will be aware, despite many shared interests and attitudes among a given group of designers, there is considerable variation across individuals, not just in skills but in general disposition or `styles' of comportment, which shape how individuals go about designing. Design research has mostly been blind to such variations. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to begin to fashion a set of questions that will enrich our knowledge and to suggest a framework that can be used to answer them.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 12e3
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E., Che Zulkhairi, A. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2002
title Interactive Storytelling and Its Role in the Design Process
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 151-158
summary Projects of ever increasing complexity and size have incited the need for new and robust design methodologies and tools in an effort to manage complexity, lower costs, ascertain quality and reduce risk. Technology convergence through the growing availability of networked computers, rapid progress in Computer Aided Design (CAD) and information management have encouraged the undertaking of even more complex designs that demand high degrees of interaction, collaboration and the efficient sharing and dissemination of information. It is suggested that interactive storytelling and interactive design (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2001) techniques that use non-linear information mapping systems can be deployed to assist users as they navigate information that is structured to address localized needs as they arise. The design process is a collaborative effort that encompasses diverse knowledge disciplines and demands the management and utilization of available resources to satisfy the needs of a single or set of goals. It is thought that building industry specialists should work close together in an organised manner to solve design problems as they emerge and find alternatives when designs fall short. The design process involves the processing of dynamic and complex information, that can be anything from the amount of soil required to level lands - to the needs of specific lightings systems in operation theatres. Other important factors that affect the design process are related to costs and deadlines. This paper will demonstrate some of our early findings in several experiments to establish nonlinear storytelling. It will conclude with a recommendation for a plausible design of such a system based on experimental work that is currently being conducted and is reaching its final stages. The paper will lay the foundations of a possible path to implementation based on the concept of multi-path animation that is appropriate for structuring the design process as used in the building industry.
series CAADRIA
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id avocaad_2001_18
id avocaad_2001_18
authors Aleksander Asanowicz
year 2001
title The End of Methodology - Towards New Integration
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The present paper is devoted to the deliberation on the genesis and development of designing from the point of view of the potential use of computers in the process. Moreover, it also presents the great hopes which were connected with the use of the systematic designing methods in the 1960’s, as well as the great disappointment resulting from the lack of concrete results. At this time a great deal of attention was paid to the process of design as a branch of a wider process of problem-solving. Many people believed that the intuitive methods of design traditionally used by architects were incapable of dealing with the complexity of the problems to be solved. Therefore, the basic problem was the definition of a vertical structure of the designing process, which would make it possible to optimise each process of architectural design. The studies of design methodology directed at the codification of the norms of actions have not brought about any solutions which could be commonly accepted, as the efforts to present the designing process as a formally logical one and one that is not internally “uncontrary” from the mathematical point of view, were doomed to fail. Moreover, the difficulties connected with the use of the computer in designing were caused by the lack of a graphic interface, which is so very characteristic of an architect’s workshop. In result, the methodology ceased to be the main area of the architect’s interest and efforts were focused on facilitating the method of the designer’s communication with the computer. New tools were created, which enabled both the automatic generation of diversity and the creation of forms on the basis of genetic algorithms, as well as the presentation of the obtained results in the form of rendering, animation and VRML. This was the end of the general methodology of designing and the beginning of a number of methods solving the partial problems of computer-supported design. The present situation can be described with the words of Ian Stewart as a “chaotic run in all directions”. An immediate need for new integration is felt. Cyber-real space could be a solution to the problem. C-R-S is not a virtual reality understood as an unreal world. Whilst VR could be indeed treated as a sort of an illusion, C-R-S is a much more realistic being, defining the area in which the creative activities are taking place. The architect gains the possibility of having a direct contact with the form he or she is creating. Direct design enables one to creatively use the computer technology in the designing process. The intelligent system of recognising speech, integrated with the system of virtual reality, will allow to create an environment for the designer – computer communication which will be most natural to the person. The elimination of this obstacle will facilitate the integration of the new methods into one designing environment. The theoretical assumptions of such an environment are described in the present paper.
series AVOCAAD
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ga0134
id ga0134
authors Buiani, Roberta
year 2001
title Virtual Exhibitions: How to put the gallery on-line?
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This research is part of a project I developed at York University and realized at the Walter Phillips Gallery at Banff Centre for the Arts. It originated from a preliminary survey on the galleries and museum’s approach to the web: how did these institutions engage with the virtualspace? What tools did they employ to display their content? How did they exploit internet in order to promote and advertise their content and transmit a certain message? Following the examination of several interfaces and modes of display, a list of recurrent strategies, needs andlacks was compiled. A further development of the research consisted in a practical attempt to include all the characteristics observed and to add the elements supposedly missing in a single project. The project examined two distinct and very different exhibitions which took place during the summerat the Walter Phillips Gallery in Banff: they were analysed, documented and rendered on-line using a popular animation software such as Flash.
series other
email robb@yorku.ca
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ga0120
id ga0120
authors Devetakovic, M.
year 2001
title Communicating Generic Process – Some Issues of Representation Related to Architectural Design
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary It is commonly the intent of an architect to represent the development of an idea from the early sketches to the final artefact, as well as to explain particular functions of its parts or complex construction processes. But the opening of the secret of generic process to the public - presenting a range of possibilities instead of one final solution and even involving external participants in the creation process - is brand new. The contemporary communication of architectural ideas presumes both – visual/formal representation and interaction. As a result of research in the field of communication in architecture, this paper is focused ongeneric process phenomena, in particular on issues of its representation. It is based on analysis of a wide range of examples that have appeared in recent years, either in electronic, printed or physical form. It offers a systematization of approaches to representation and discusses thepotential and limitations of each type – series of physical objects, sequences of graphics (single, linear, planar and spatial) and animation, as well as their combinations (sequences of animations). A particular emphasis is placed on increasing the functionality of sequence-basedrepresentation (interacting, navigating…) and its interdependence with animation as a special case. Finally, the author proposes a rethinking of the role of both the architect, who defines a system of possibilities rather than a single solution, and the information recipient, who becomes not merely a passive spectator, but a creative participant in the design process.
series other
email mdevetakovic@unitec.ac.nz
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

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