CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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References

Hits 1 to 20 of 712

_id 658d
authors Hirschberg, U.
year 2001
title Fake. space
source Engeli, Maia (ed.): Bits and Spaces. Architecture and Computing for Physical, Virtual, Hybrid Realms, Basel/Boston/Berlin: Birkhäuser Publishers for Architecture (pp 56-65)
summary In fake.space the students form an online community that jointly builds up the fake.space node system, in which the individual contributions are linked and can be viewed and navigated through in various ways. The topics of the nodes are different aspects and concepts of space, which were investigated using digital representations of the students" own homes. The main principle is that of contextuality: every work is created in reaction to an already existing one and it is also displayed in that context when it has been handed in. The entirety of all student works creates a collective narrative space which can be read and navigated through in various ways, producing a multitude of very personal stories. In this sense fake.space can be regarded as a digital city.
series other
email hirschberg@tugraz.at
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 7134
authors Penttilä, Hannu (Ed.)
year 2001
title Architectural Information Management [Conference Proceedings]
source 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1 / Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, 578 p.
summary Several common phrases, such as “information society” or “virtual reality” point out the fact that information technology, digital tools and numerous different services via various communication networks have become crucially important factors of our western lifestyle and living environment. The trends of the society reflects naturally the working environments of the construction field, architectural discipline being amongst them. It is almost inconceivable to even imagine an architect without computer-based tools anymore. This evolutional development process has, from historical perspective, only recently started. The process is constantly evolving and rapidly increasing our possibilities to use and enjoy these modern digital fruits. The sometimes unpredictable and rapid changes in our working environment should make architects nervous about the impacts of the changes. All those delicate methods and collective traditions of the several thousand year architectural discipline(!), just simply cannot be transferred into the digital realm in a few decades. Researchers and teachers should very carefully, but still open mindedly, critically explore, analyse and adjust the so-called “modern technology” into the world of architecture, construction, design, planning – and education. We are not just “endusers”, It is we, in fact, who should define what, where and how are we willing to use it(IT). The value of information is constantly growing in our society, and in the future it will evidently be even more so. The value of information is quite hard to define with measurable or agreed concepts, but information evidently contains value-factors. The information which the architects are creating, modifying and manipulating, contains essential and valuable core data concerning the whole built environment of our society. It affects the physical surroundings of our society, in which we will be living for decades – hence, the information has a historical basis. The architectural core information also very strongly affects the quality of life of our fellow citizens – consequently, it has deep social meaning. The essentials of architectural information relies on the tradition of centuries – hence, it clearly has acknowledged cultural values, which are also extremely difficult to quantify. So how could architectural information be described? The information covers a wide range of heterogeneous concepts, items, values, methods, tools, materials, true facts, rumours, intuition and knowledge, plus a multitude of yet undefined or unpredictable factors, which still have to be watched and prepared for. Since the information deals with common and general subjects, it should also be described with common and general concepts. On the other hand as the information is also concerned with the minutiae of specific projects, the architectural information should also be described with well identified and unique entities. With our digital tools we handle all information – including architectural – more and more digitally. We have to handle and manipulate information currently as digital data, which could be understood the ”raw material” of architectural information. Digital data becomes valuable information, when some kind of meaning or purpose to somebody can be attributed to it. In the early gloomy days of ”digital architecture” in the 1960’s and 1970’s, researchers tried to describe architectural artefacts and even design process mathematically. The details of architectural information were quite difficult to describe with binary alphanumeric information of main-frame machines. The architects’ tools development then led to a trend where architects could better represent and visualize the design objects digitally. The widespread and common use of 2D-drawing and 3D-modelling tools is still a very strong trend within our discipline. In fact it is “the way” the majority of architectural information is managed today. During the last 15–20 years, so-called conceptual modelling or product data modelling, done in various technical and construction field research units worldwide, has from one viewpoint clarified the basis and essence of architectural information. Hence, it’s not only CAD-software application development, but also elementary and theoretical research that gives us valuable help to survive among the ever growing seas of terabits of data in the future to come. Architectural information is something that simply cannot be described just with DWG-drawings or dummy scanned photographs any more. Although drawings and photos may contain very important bits of architectural documentation, we need ntimes more “complexity layers”, concepts and tools to manage and understand the essence of architectural information today. A proper way to manage the data we are working with, has to cover the whole architectural discipline. The methods and tools also have to be valid and flexible for several decades in the future.
keywords Information Management & Data Structuring, Education & Curricula, Modeling & City Planning
series eCAADe
email penttila@mittaviiva.fi
more http://www.hut.fi/events/ecaade/
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 89fe
authors Ferrar, Steve
year 2001
title The Nature of Non-Physical Space - Or how I learned to love cyberspace wherever it may be
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 208-213
summary More designers are concerned with the occupation of the virtual world, through immersive techniques, for example, than in using it as a means for conceptualising and theorising architectural space. The paper examines how architects think about space and how our consideration of nonphysical space might assist in spatial theory and in teaching. It also considers cyberspace fiction both in writing and film to see how it might help us think about space in a more liberating way. Architects and architectural teaching tends to focus on space as an element of construction rather than a theoretical proposition. By discussing imaginary spaces in greater depth we could encourage students to think about space and spatial concepts in a less rigid way. In particular the paper addresses the issues of interaction and transactions in these environments and how information is represented and accessed in an apparently threedimensional manner. In his book ‘Snow Crash’, Neil Stephenson deals with many ideas concerning not only architectural space but also universal space and its organisation in space and time. He uses metaphor in his depiction of the ultimate in information gathering and management. These are compelling ways in which to communicate ideas about threedimensional thinking, and information collection and management to students of architecture as well as helping architects with the theory and visualisation of non-physical space.
keywords Space: Virtual Reality, Cyberspace, Film, Literature
series eCAADe
email steve.ferrar@uce.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 4447
authors Levy, Adrián José
year 2001
title ESPACIOS REALES Y VIRTUALES GENERADOS POR MUSICA (Real and Virtual Spaces Generated by Music)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 151-152
summary This research work has as its main aim exploring a new digital designing process. This new way of creating spaces, known as ‘Architecture of data’ entails choosing any event of the everyday world, and through a process, generating either a real or virtual space. In this particular case, the chosen event is the music. Several melodies, some of them famous, others especially composed for this project, come to existence as original spaces. For each composition, many musical instruments are played, each of which is part of the final space. In doing so, new alternative designing processes emerge. This processes build non conventional spaces that might outline a whole new architecture. Different fields of knowledge, namely architecture, music, maths and computing sciences had to be brought together in order to achieve the present work.
series SIGRADI
email adrianl@tutopia.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id a64e
authors Liu, Yu-Tung
year 2001
title Spatial Representation of Design Thinking in Virtual Space
source J. S. Gero, B. Tversky and T. Purcell (eds), 2001, Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design, II - Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, Australia
summary “Space” has long been an important concept in architecture;and architectural spaces and forms have been continuously evolved dueto the appearance of new concepts of space. Since the invention ofInternet, new spaces have been created through the computer. Tounderstand how human beings in the digital age experience these newvirtual spaces, and to discover the implications of the possible newconcepts of space into the physical architectural world, this paperdiscusses the nature of virtual spaces by examining the verbal and visualelements involved in the creation of a sense of virtual spaces. All theverbal and visual elements of virtual spaces discovered through ourexperiments and interviews are presented. It is found that the three coreelements of both verbally and visually constructed virtual spaces are:movements, interactions, and acoustic effects. In addition, a comparisonbetween verbally and visually constructed spaces, and between physicaland virtual spaces are explored. Finally, further studies related to therole of digital media in the construction of a sense of space aresuggested at the end of this paper.
series other
email aleppo@arch.nctu.edu.tw
more http://www.arch.usyd.edu.au/kcdc/conferences/vr01/
last changed 2003/05/02 09:15

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 8c2d
authors Alvarado, Rodrigo García
year 2001
title PROJECTED SPACE: CHARACTERIZING THE “CYBRID ARCHITECTURE”.
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 285-287
summary The “cybrid architecture” has been defined like integration of physical and digital spaces. Based on the capability of electronic media to generate virtual environments (cyberspaces) which could be related to buildings. However, theoretical studies and contemporary works reveal a more complex relationship between media and constructions. Expressed in architectural characteristics that constitutes a new spatial quality, named here projected space. Hence the paper argues that “cybrid architecture” is not technological, but is a modification of conventional architectural space due to cultural evolution.
series SIGRADI
email rgarcia@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id a469
authors Brown, Andre and Berridge, Phil
year 2001
title Games One : Two : Three A triangle of virtual game scenarios for architectural collaboration
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 95-120 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary This paper is split into three parts, each of which deals with different aspects of, and approaches to, the collaboration process. Each of the approaches shares a common root in an aspect of games or gaming. Together the three approaches represent a tripartite attack on the spectrum of problems that need to be addressed to achieve successful collaboration. The first technique is dealt with in Game One One. This deals with the issue of encouraging collaboration. It is based on work using a role playing game scenario and is intended to allow construction industry professionals and clients to develop a common framework for discussion. It originally existed as a paper based game and is now being tested in a web-based environment. Game Two is based on work that has evolved from contemporary game and meeting place environments that have been attracting attention recently. Here internet-based three-dimensional worlds are used as a virtual replacement of real spaces and participants meet as avatars. In the architectural context we have investigated the potential for application of such 3D worlds as meeting, and discussion places where architectural information and ideas can be exchanged. In Game Three we take the idea that currently, virtual environments are still rather uncomfortable and unnatural in terms of human interaction, and in particular in the way that we move around and display architectural scenes. We develop the idea that games software incorporates techniques that make the representation of animated, interactive 3D architectural environments computationally efficient. We have augmented the software used in games environments and have considered how we construct architectural models and man-machine interfaces to improve the effectiveness of such environments in an architectural context.
series other
email andygpb@liverpool.ac.uk
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 7e02
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2002
title The Virtual Campus: A new place for (lifelong) learning?
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 472-477
summary 472 eCAADe 20 [design e-ducation] Modeling Real and Virtual Worlds Session 13 In the early spring of 2001 a collection of German universities founded a virtual faculty of architecture, which was named „Liquid Campus“. Current thinking about future forms of education in the field of architecture combined with over 4 years of experience with net-based design studios, led to questions about the future of existing universities, their buildings and their use. This problem was put to 43 students in the form of a design exercise to create a place for a virtual university. In the current situation, in which the administration of knowledge is more and more located on the internet, and even the so-called meeting places themselves can be virtualised through the help of video-conference-software, the exercise was to design a virtual campus in the framework and to carry out this design work in a simulation of distributed practice. Initial criticism of the project came from the students in that exemplary working methods were not described, but left for the students to discover on their own. The creation of a concept for the Liquid Campus meant that the participants had to imagine working in a world without the face to face contacts that form the basis (at present) of personal interaction. Additionally, the assignment to create or design possible links between the real and the virtual was not an easy task for students who normally design and plan real physical buildings. Even the tutors had difficulties in producing focused constructive criticism about a virtual campus; in effect the virtualisation of the university leads to a distinctive blurring of its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosophical approach to the design problem. The paper explores the implications of the student’s conclusions on the nature of the university in general and draws conclusions specific to architectural education and the role of architecture in this process.
series eCAADe
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 6a37
authors Fowler, Thomas and Muller, Brook
year 2002
title Physical and Digital Media Strategies For Exploring ‘Imagined’ Realities of Space, Skin and Light
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 13-23
summary This paper will discuss an unconventional methodology for using physical and digital media strategies ina tightly structured framework for the integration of Environmental Control Systems (ECS) principles intoa third year design studio. An interchangeable use of digital media and physical material enabledarchitectural explorations of rich tactile and luminous engagement.The principles that provide the foundation for integrative strategies between a design studio and buildingtechnology course spring from the Bauhaus tradition where a systematic approach to craftsmanship andvisual perception is emphasized. Focusing particularly on color, light, texture and materials, Josef Albersexplored the assemblage of found objects, transforming these materials into unexpected dynamiccompositions. Moholy-Nagy developed a technique called the photogram or camera-less photograph torecord the temporal movements of light. Wassily Kandinsky developed a method of analytical drawingthat breaks a still life composition into diagrammatic forces to express tension and geometry. Theseschematic diagrams provide a method for students to examine and analyze the implications of elementplacements in space (Bermudez, Neiman 1997). Gyorgy Kepes's Language of Vision provides a primerfor learning basic design principles. Kepes argued that the perception of a visual image needs aprocess of organization. According to Kepes, the experience of an image is "a creative act ofintegration". All of these principles provide the framework for the studio investigation.The quarter started with a series of intense short workshops that used an interchangeable use of digitaland physical media to focus on ECS topics such as day lighting, electric lighting, and skin vocabulary tolead students to consider these components as part of their form-making inspiration.In integrating ECS components with the design studio, an nine-step methodology was established toprovide students with a compelling and tangible framework for design:Examples of student work will be presented for the two times this course was offered (2001/02) to showhow exercises were linked to allow for a clear design progression.
series ACADIA
email tfowler@calpoly.edu
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 3ba0
authors Gu, N. and Maher, M.L
year 2001
title Designing Virtual Architecture: From Place to User Centred Design
source International Journal of Design Computing, vol 4
summary The internet and the World Wide Web have entered our daily lives and networked environments have become an important extension of our living environment. The effect of this is the definition of the place around us is expanded. Through the use of an architectural metaphor, we are now considering the use of place as a basis for organising our virtual environment and therefore raises the need for principles and models for designing virtual architecture. Virtual Architecture, or as others call it virtual worlds or cyberspace, interprets, represents and designs the World Wide Web as a place, which supports an extended range of online individual and collaborative activities. Different platforms currently in use for designing and implementing virtual architecture aim at providing 3D virtual worlds as the design outcome. This common aim has an emphasis on the visualisation of virtual architecture, resulting in an emphasis on the design of 3D place-like forms. In this article we present a range of development issues that lead us to change the focus from the design of place-centric to user-centric virtual architecture.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ea05
authors Huang, Jeffrey and Schroepfer, Thomas
year 2002
title i+a: Explorations in Emerging Architectural / Typologies and Design Processes
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 1-12
summary In this paper, we describe Internet and Architecture (i+a), a research and teaching program, startedfour years ago at Harvard Design School, to explore the possibilities that lie in the convergence of aphysical with a virtual architecture. The approach starts with the analysis of everyday verbs and thechanges that occur in the virtualization of everyday situations, and moves on to critically rethinkexisting architectural typologies and develop new architectures that combine physical and virtualcomponents. This paper describes our experiences with the approach in the year 2001-2002. Wepresent samples of design projects as illustrative examples of new architectural typologies thatcombine the physical and virtual, and describe how incorporating technologies for virtual collaborationinto the design process can enhance architectural practice in the broadest sense.
series ACADIA
email tschroepfer@gsd.harvard.edu
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 4cd0
authors Lee, Ming-Chun
year 2001
title SpaceMaker: A Symbol-based Three-dimensional Computer Modeling Tool for Early Schematic Development of the Architectural Design
source University of Washington, Design Machine Group
summary Designing architecture is an action of creating space. Architects start designing by making twodimensional (2-D) drawings in order to explore alternatives of spatial arrangement. However, architects are actually working with three-dimensional (3-D) space. They see 3-D space in their mind’s eye when making sketches in 2-D. It is thus valuable to help designers truly see 3-D space during designing. In addition, different spaces may have different functions and configurations of architectural components. Architects usually use text labels in their drawings to identify architectural concepts. They identify the function of space and remind themselves of the proposed configuration of architectural elements when labeling each space with a symbol. By recognizing the text label, it is possible to identify the architectural configuration of the space. Therefore, it is possible to create a 3-D modeling tool based on the recognition of labels in freehand sketches. This thesis introduces a symbol-based 3-D modeling tool – the SpaceMaker – that allows designers to make freehand floor-plan drawings to explore the initial concept of spatial layout and allows users to apply labels to identify different types of space. Finally, the program converts those floor plans into 3-D models according to the labels. In the SpaceMaker, a designer predefines a label by assigning it four boundary elements that encircle a space. When the designer draws the label in the sketch floor plan, the SpaceMaker then recognizes the label and constructs the space based on the defined boundary condition in a VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) format that enables the designer to view the 3-D space through a VRML enabled web browser.
series thesis:MSc
email mingchun@u.washington.edu
more http://dmg.caup.washington.edu/xmlSiteEngine/browsers/stylin/publications.html
last changed 2004/06/02 17:12

_id 8095
authors Mahrouq, Abdulrahman and Al-Haddad, Baha'uddin
year 2001
title Gaza City: Virtual space and the control of physical space
source CORP 2001, Vienna, pp. 397-402
summary The interaction between virtual space and physical space is increasingly gaining more importance and consideration [1]. Much of theinterest concentrates upon theorizing this interaction and investigating the different concepts behind it [2]. Another concern is toexplore aspects of the physical space through its virtuality especially in the field of architecture and urban design [3]. Yet with theevidence that the increasing pace of development in multimedia, information and communications technology is exerting vastchanges on the physical space, there is a disparate need for control over these very fast changes. Control of the physical space is themain subject of physical planning where it is crucial to develop new tools and procedures for better control of the urban change.Applications of data, information and communications technologies in urban planning and geographic information system (GIS)constitute one of the vital fields for the control and guidance of urban development.In Gaza Strip for example, unprecedented developments resulted after the declaration of the Palestinian- Israeli peace agreements in1994. Information and communications technologies and data sources were improved with the introduction of computers, moderntelephone and wireless communications and satellite imaging. The new developments began to impinge the existing British Mandatesystem and the physical planning process. The municipality of Gaza city took the lead and became the most important and activelocal planning institution to benefit from the new situation. Although the new developments are in their early stage, the positiveimpact on the planning process and the control over the built environment in the city are paramount.This paper aims at exploring the new developments of spatial technologies in the municipality of Gaza and their impact on theplanning conduct and the built environment in the city.
series other
more www.corp.at
last changed 2002/09/04 11:19

_id acadia05_024
id acadia05_024
authors Mathew, Anijo
year 2005
title Smart Homes for the Rural Population: New Challenges and Opportunities
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 24-35
summary “Smart” Homes (domestic environments in which we are surrounded by interconnected technologies that are more or less responsive to our presence and actions) seem increasingly plausible with the emergence of powerful mobile computing devices and real time context aware computing (Edwards and Grinter, 2001). Research at premier technology universities have given birth to home “labs” that experiment with sensors, cameras and monitors to study physical, behavioral and social consequences of such technologies on occupants of such homes. One of the most important problems that “smart” homes will eventually help to address is that of spiraling costs of healthcare. Using ubiquitous technologies to motivate healthy decisions can help prevent the onset of myriad medical problems (Intille, 2004). Moving the focus of attention from the health centers and hospitals to the working home through such technology interventions would eventually lead to decreased financial pressure on the traditional healthcare system. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in the design of “smart” technologies for preventive healthcare in rural homes. It summarizes findings from current ethnographic and demographic studies; and examines other contemporary research in the field of ubiquitous computing and “smart” homes. With the help of these studies, the paper lists different technical, social and functional challenges that we as designers may have to consider before designing “smart” homes for rural populations.
series ACADIA
email amathew@coa.msstate.edu
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id 1a92
authors Mirabelli, Paolo
year 2001
title Public Cyberspace Planning and Design. Architect’s role in the construction of the virtual city
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 42-46
summary Architects need to consider ICT not as a tool for design but as a space to be designed. The relation between this space and the physical city must be driven from an impact to a positive and needed expansion of the urban space; an occasion to support and foster social integration and development. To achieve this, it is needed to put an effort in evolving both planning and design techniques as well as public policies for this mixed (physical/ digital) urban space. The references for doing it may be found more in the history of technology developments then in the technology itself, but a wide contribution from diverse disciplines is needed. How to do this, it’s mostly to be found out through projects, in which architects can play the fundamental role of planners that coordinate the activities of actors involved, while taking care of the public interest. Many cities are progressively losing the space devoted to foster solid social structures, so a relevant focus for projects may be aimed at the design of public cyberspace to recover the building of local social networks. A starting point could be found in the Community Networking movement, which architects could build upon, using their design skills in order to evolve this kind of spaces beyond the spontaneous and random phase. A wide range of issues are to be addressed: from needed public policies to accessibility that must be provided to anybody in order to avoid sharpening social alienation due to cultural, economical or physical reasons. An experiment is going to be carried out within a local development project promoted in Rome.
keywords Cyberspace Design, Urban Planning, E-Society, Community Networking, Selfsustainable Local Development
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 7655
authors Okeil, Ahmad and El Araby, Mostafa
year 2003
title Realism vs. Reality in Digital Reconstruction of Cities
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary The digital reconstruction of existing cities using virtual reality techniques is being increasingly used. For consultants, municipalities and planning departments these models provide decision support through visual simulations (El Araby, 2001). For academia they provide a new tool for teaching students urban design and planning (Okeil, 2001). For authorities they provide a tool for promoting the city on the world wide web trying to attract more businesses and tourists to it. The built environment is very rich in detail. It does not only consist of open spaces surrounded by abstract buildings but it also includes many smaller objects such as street furniture, traffic signs, street lights, different types of vegetation and shop signs for example. All surfaces in the built environment have unique properties describing color, texture and opacity. The built environmentis dynamic and our perception is affected by factors such as pedestrian movement, traffic, environmental factors such as wind, noise and shadows. The built environment is also shaped by the accumulation of changes caused by many influences through time. All these factors make the reconstruction of the built environment a very complex task. This paper tries to answer the question: how realistic the reconstructed models of urban areas can be. It sees “Realism“ as a variable floating between three types of realties. The reality of the physical environment which we are trying to represent. The reality of the digital environment which will host the digitally reconstructed city. And the reality of the working environment which deals with the problem of limitation of resources needed to digitally reconstruct the city. A case study of building a 3D computer model of an urban area in the United Arab Emirates demonstrates that new time-saving techniques for data acquisition can enhance realism by meetingbudget limitations and time limitations.
keywords Virtual Reality; Photo Realism; Texture Maps; 3D Modeling; Urban Design
series other
email a.okeil@uaeu.ac.ae
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id avocaad_2001_12
id avocaad_2001_12
authors Pongratz, Perbellini
year 2001
title Intermedial Architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary A great part of our physical environment and existence is currently undergoing an epochal transformation from a solid to a liquid state on many layers of technological evolution. Optical phenomena and radical shifts in visuality, particularly manifest through media propagation are impacting on urban space in unpredictable ways. City - space is not only perceived as a physical place but also simultaneously inhabited as a virtual site. Both conditions form the hybrid of an urban realm, construed as surveillance, simulation, distraction and a relentless proliferation of information. Ultimately, all man-machine interfaces of hardware will be adequately infinitely machined. This process however will continue beyond the now experienced level of TV, video, cellular-phones and computers, incorporating interconnected surfaces of text, music and other kind of data. The surrounding sensorium will penetrate the phenomenological tissue of our nervous system to the extent that we are unconsciously fluidly interacting. Behavioral properties of matter and their smooth transmittal of visual, sound and tactile sensations, will provide an intellectual and sensual presence which renders space and its perception as being liquefied. Also the interrelation between the exterior and interior usage will be smooth and multidimensional, as the building’s envelopes are capable to alter their properties in response to contextual changes or movements. A redefinition of the disciplines of architecture and urban planning responds to the changes in cultural, social, political and economical milieus.
series AVOCAAD
email info@pongratz-perbellini.com
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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