CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id d146
authors He, Jie
year 2001
title CAD Study in Visual Analysis of the Visual Sustainability for China Urban Natural Landscape Planning
source Chinese University of Hong Kong
summary In this thesis a GIS-based CAD system prototype of evaluating visual quality of urban natural landscape environment is presented. This prototype is an indispensable component of the integrative Visual Sustainability research, and offers a calculable and visualizable technique to urban visual natural landscape assessment. This scientific method provides precise data to estimate the visibility of natural landscape in urban construction actuality. Furthermore, it can also work out supporting information for maintaining and protecting valuable visual landscape resources in further planning. Introduction of this methodology intends to improve the natural landscape cooperation in China urban planning through visual protection. Combining with popular CAD software such as AutoCAD and Microstation, the research team uses ArcView GIS software and its 3D Analyst extension to accomplish a set of research procedure, which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis. In addition, this system can create simultaneous 3D scenes or hire other information media as reference tools for professional analysis, design consultation and intercommunication. The core technologies of this proposed system are viewshed calculation and overlay analysis. In viewshed analysis, human visual characteristics are simulated by a series of ergonomics parameters of viewpoints. Viewshed of each viewpoint can be calculated into vector data and mapped by polygons identifying which region is visible and which is not. Overlay function of the proposed system is used in visual sensibility analysis to achieve the division of higher visual sensible area which indicates the common visible area from different viewpoints. Additionally, viewshed maps and visual sensibility results can add more information to mark out the areas that can satisfy certain visual parameters such as appropriate visual angle or visual distance. These overlaying results can visualized the visible areas into hierarchical visual perception quality categories in order to define the visual landscape significance of particular planning regions. A case study was operated to evaluate this system. The case is in Zhongshan city, Guangdong Province of China. Jinzishan hill region is the study site that picked by collaborating discussion of research team and the local government. It is located on the edge of urban built-up area. Jinzishan massif is the prominent landscape element of the surrounding environment. There are three topics in Jinzishan visual perception in this paper. The first topic is the visual quality evaluation of the intersections of its surrounding road system. The second is the integrated visual perception of two main roads called Qiwandao and Bo’ailu. Finally is the analysis of the hill skyline visual quality in surrounding area. The analysis results in GIS vector data can be converted into popular data format and combined with other spatial information for practical application. And comments for future urban planning are collected and analyzed by professional responses to the computer-generated information investigation.
keywords Natural Landscaping; Computer-Aided Design; Landscape Architecture; City Planning; Geographic Information Systems
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id bb4f
authors He, Jie and Tsou Jin-Yeu
year 2001
title GIS-based Visual Perception Analysis of Urban Natural Landscape for Urban Planning Supporting: A Case Study of Jinzishan Hill Region
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 505-510
summary In this paper we present a GIS-based system prototype in evaluating visual perception quality of natural landscape within urban environment. Through a case study, we demonstrate the entire procedure which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis as well as design aiding presentation of this system. This system prototype offers a calculatable and visulizable technique to evaluate the visual quality of urban natural landscape in either actual situation or planning future. Furthermore, we collaborate with local professional organization in a real urban site study to preparing regional planning instruction items by means of this system.
keywords GIS, Urban Natural Landscape, Visual Perception, Viewshed, Jinzishan
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 6006
authors Liu, Yu-Tung and Bai, Rui-Yuan
year 2001
title The Hsinchu experience: a computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment
source Automation in Construction 10 (3) (2001) pp. 337-343
summary This paper examines the procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) proposed by Rahman and reviews the use of computer-aided design (CAD) applications in urban projects in the real world. A preliminary computerized procedure for VIAA is proposed. An experiment was conducted in our laboratory to verify the preliminary procedure. In order to further study the revised procedure in real urban projects, it was also applied into the renew project of The Eastern Gate Plaza located in the center of Hsinchu, Taiwan from 1996 to 1998. Based on the face-to-face discussions with Hsinchu habitants, government officials, and professional designers, a final computerized procedure for VIAA is concluded.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id caadria2007_233
id caadria2007_233
authors Hoseini, Ali Ghaffarian; Rahinah Ibrahim
year 2007
title Using Social Network Analysis for Visualising Spatial Planning During Conceptual Design Phase
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Spatial diagramming exercises with clients are difficult when most clients are not able to visualize the end results of their requirements. This paper would like to introduce a computational tool—Social Network Analysis (SNA)—commonly used in the communications field to study relationships between people we believe can resolve this visualization problem. Our research intent is to affirm whether or not we can use SNA as a spatial planning tool during conceptual building design. We posit that since the nodes and structural relationships between the nodes may have similar architectural characteristics, the tool would enable architects to make changes by moving any spaces on a floor plan while safely maintaining their spatial relationships to other spaces. In this paper, we would like to develop a proof-of-concept model using an available SNA tool to facilitate spatial diagramming visualization during conceptual design phase. We tested the use of a SNA tool at four levels. The first level determined whether we could develop spatial relationship between functional spaces (such as the living room must be adjacent to the front entry). The second level is on setting priorities values for the different nodes and the linkages. The third level determined whether we could develop grouping relationship between several functional spaces that have a common characteristic (such as public versus private spaces) on one horizontal plane. The final fourth level determined whether we could develop multiple layers that are connected by one common connector (such as a staircase in a double-story house). Our models are validated intellectually by visual comparison between our model and another diagramming by Nooshin (2001) that was developed manually. We are most interested in the fourth level because complexity in the spatial diagramming exercises is caused by multi-layered spatial arrangements at the horizontal and vertical planes. We expect our study to provide us guidelines in developing a prototype for a spatial diagramming tool using SNA, which architects can use to resolve visualization problems when conducting the exercise with their clients.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id 3645
authors Tsou, Jin-Yeu
year 2001
title Strategy on applying computational fluid dynamic for building performance evaluation
source Automation in Construction 10 (3) (2001) pp. 327-335
summary Predicting and evaluating building performance plays an important role in the training of responsible architects. Building performance includes issues such as: structural stability, acoustic quality, natural lighting, thermal comfort, and ventilation and indoor air quality. These types of analyses are often laborious, non-intuitive, and non-graphical. As a result, these important issues do not arouse the enthusiasm of architecture students or building professionals. The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) research team proposes to explore and develop a long-term strategy to apply scientific visualization on teaching and research in environmental technology and building performance. This paper presents the development process and results of research projects for applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on building performance evaluation. CFD On-line Teaching project's aim is to develop a web-based training course for architecture students to apply CFD simulation on design problem solving. Each lesson not only illustrates basic principles regarding airflow in the building design, it also contains CFD sample files with predefined flow cells for students to test different concepts. GiLin Temple project's aim is to apply CFD simulation on investigating the wind resistance of Tong Dynasty heavy timber structure. Airflow information generated in the project includes the visual representation of the pressure distribution and velocity field on all slices through the temple, and the tracking of particles as they flow around or through a building. The China housing residential airduct study focuses on simulating the indoor airflow regarding the airduct design of China Experimental Urban Housing Scheme. The visual representation of the pressure distribution and velocity field in the airducts provides vital information for helping China Housing Research Center improve the current design.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id fc1f
authors Zhang, Z., Tsou, J.-Y. and Hall, T.W.
year 2001
title Web-Based Virtual-Reality for Collaboration on Urban Visual Environment Assessment
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 781-794
summary This research aims to facilitate public participation in urban landscape visual assessment (ULVA). To support virtual collaboration in ULVA, it is desirable to provide both quantitative analysis and 3D simulation over the Internet. Although the rendering of urban models in common web browser plug-ins often lacks vividness compared with native workstation applications, the integration of VRML modeling and Java programming proves effective in sharing and rendering urban scenes through a familiar web interface. The ULVA simulation supports not only static scene rendering, but also interactive functional simulations. They include the viewpoint setting up, view corridor and panorama generation. Although popular VRML viewers such as CosmoPlayer provide similar functions, users are often disoriented by the interface. The obfuscation inhibits people’s immersion in the virtual urban environment and makes the assessment inconvenient. To eliminate such disorientation and improve users’ feelings of immersion, we integrate both a two-dimensional map and a three-dimensional model of the urban area in the user interface. The interaction between 2D map and 3D world includes the matching of avatar positions, visualization of avatar posture, and the setting up of viewpoints and view corridors. To support a web-based urban planning process, the system adopts client/server architecture. The city map is managed by a specific database management system (DBMS) on the server side. Users may retrieve information for various “what if” simulations. The system automatically remodels the virtual environment to respond to users’ requests.
keywords Geographic Information Systems, Internet, Urban Landscape, Visual Assessment, Virtual Reality
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id d742
authors McGill, Miranda
year 2001
title A Visual Approach for Exploring Computational Design
source MIT, Department of Architecture
summary This thesis concerns the use of computers for learning about computational design and shape grammars. It discusses how software can be developed to create “microworlds” for designing, and how to take into account the needs of designers whilst retaining a transparency of process in computational design. The broader context pertains to the learning and practice of design. Through analysis of computation in a workshop setting, consideration is given to the role of the computer as a facilitator for designing with shape grammars. Prototype software for facilitating the learning of shape grammars, called Shaper2D, was created as a focus for this study. It is written in the Java programming language for cross-platform compatibility, and is available both as an applet and stand-alone application.
keywords Computational Design; CAD; Design Education; Shape Grammars; Exploratory Learning
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/05/13 04:09

_id 81ba
authors Bilda, Zafer
year 2001
title Designers‚ Cognition in Traditional versus Digital Media during Conceptual Design
source Bilkent University Ankara Turkey
summary Designers depend on representations to externalize their design thoughts. External representations are usually in the form of sketches (referred to as traditional media) in architectural design during the conceptual design. There are also attempts to integrate the use of digital representations into the conceptual design in order to construct a digital design medium. This thesis aims at gaining an insight on designers’ cognitive processes while sketching in digital versus traditional media. The analysis of cognitive processes of designers based on their protocols is necessary to reveal their design behavior in both media. An experiment was designed employing six interior architects (at Bilkent University) solving an interior space planning problem by changing the design media they work with. In order to encode the design behavior, a coding scheme was utilized so that inspecting both the design activity and the responses to media transition was possible in terms of primitive cognitive actions of designers. The analyses of the coding scheme constituents, which are namely segmentation and cognitive action categories enabled a comparative study demonstrating the effect of the use of different media in conceptual design phase. The results depicted that traditional media had advantages over the digital media such as supporting perception of visual-spatial features, and organizational relations of the design, production of alternative solutions and better conception of the design problem. These results also emerged implications for the computer aid in architectural design to support the conceptual phase of the design process. 
keywords Design Cognition; Protocol Analysis; Sketching; Digital Media
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/05/01 18:14

_id 6756
authors Butler, K.S., Rincón, H., Maria Lane, K. and Brand, R.
year 2001
title Construyendo una ciudad sostenible en la frontera: planificación de la ciudad de Colombia, Nuevo León, México [Constructing A Sustainable City In the Border: Planning of the City of Colombia, Nuevo León, Mexico ]
source 2da Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Maracaibo (Venezuela) december 2001, pp. 194-203
summary The policy rationale for promotion of urban development in the Mexico-Texas borderland of Nuevo León is likely to be sustained and even strengthened. The University of Texasí participation in new town planning for Colombia spans at least three hierarchical levels with students, faculty members, practitioners and government officials joining efforts. At the ìstudio levelî, students completed a comprehensive landscape assessment for portions of the future city using GPS surveying and GIS database and modeling. Graduate students, using field data, updated 2000 maps/shapefiles, and spatial modeling as an analysis tool, created a series of spatial models to produce useful information about the study areaís inherent suitability for agriculture, human settlement and preservation. This work culminated in a research symposium, planning charrette, refinement of land use and infrastructure assumptions, and the development of masterplan elements for the future city. In contrast to the professional firm, the project provides unique opportunities for intensive learning and applied research that contribute to the ecological, social and economic well-being of new cities and developing regions,
keywords USA-Mexico Border; Sustainable Development; Regional Planning; Arch View
series other
email,, maria@lane.web,
last changed 2003/02/14 07:29

_id 7655
authors Okeil, Ahmad and El Araby, Mostafa
year 2003
title Realism vs. Reality in Digital Reconstruction of Cities
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary The digital reconstruction of existing cities using virtual reality techniques is being increasingly used. For consultants, municipalities and planning departments these models provide decision support through visual simulations (El Araby, 2001). For academia they provide a new tool for teaching students urban design and planning (Okeil, 2001). For authorities they provide a tool for promoting the city on the world wide web trying to attract more businesses and tourists to it. The built environment is very rich in detail. It does not only consist of open spaces surrounded by abstract buildings but it also includes many smaller objects such as street furniture, traffic signs, street lights, different types of vegetation and shop signs for example. All surfaces in the built environment have unique properties describing color, texture and opacity. The built environmentis dynamic and our perception is affected by factors such as pedestrian movement, traffic, environmental factors such as wind, noise and shadows. The built environment is also shaped by the accumulation of changes caused by many influences through time. All these factors make the reconstruction of the built environment a very complex task. This paper tries to answer the question: how realistic the reconstructed models of urban areas can be. It sees “Realism“ as a variable floating between three types of realties. The reality of the physical environment which we are trying to represent. The reality of the digital environment which will host the digitally reconstructed city. And the reality of the working environment which deals with the problem of limitation of resources needed to digitally reconstruct the city. A case study of building a 3D computer model of an urban area in the United Arab Emirates demonstrates that new time-saving techniques for data acquisition can enhance realism by meetingbudget limitations and time limitations.
keywords Virtual Reality; Photo Realism; Texture Maps; 3D Modeling; Urban Design
series other
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id d2fb
authors Lima, F.C., Nunes Cosenza, C.A., Lima, P.R. and Rheingantz, P.A.
year 2001
title MAQUETE VIRTUAL APLICADA EM DIAGNÓSTICO DE ADEQUAÇÃO: EDIFÍCIO CORPORATIVO DO INPI / RJ - BRASIL (Virtual Model Applied to Adequacy Diagonosis: INPI Corporate Building (Rio de Janeiro - Brasil))
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 291-294
summary This paper presents a case study were computer aided graphic modelling was applied for environmental diagnostics of the INPI building at Rio de Janeiro. The research improved a walk-thought analysis in order to identify user conditions (ergonomics, layout, maintenance, security, etc.). Using CAD / PC, we developed a virtual model of the building and its workspaces, and both the results of diagnosis applied forms, updated plants and photos were organised in the virtual model, linked to a database containing tables with elements of the case study. This database is intended to support decisions in organisational planning, by query (SQL routines) on virtual model (CAD), providing graphically visualised answers and extracts of data search results.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 4664
authors Russell, Peter
year 2001
title Visualising Non-Visual Building Information
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 546-551
summary Architecture can be understood as a process and as an object. In both forms, it consists of a complex of mass, monetary, energy and information flows that occur over time scales ranging from hours and days to centuries. The parts or elements making up buildings and the processes involved in producing, maintaining, using and disposing of them are highly intertwined and multi-dimensional. The field of Architecture can range from complete building stocks down to individual buildings, their elements, and the materials and processes making up these elements. What is more, it is also necessary to introduce time as a dimension in order to model the complete life cycle of buildings. Current CAD systems concentrate primarily on the replication of the traditional drawing process (sometimes in three dimensions) and the visualisation of the finished building. While these models describe the geometry and visual appearance of buildings, the bulk of the information about the building remains unseen. Recently developed systems such as the German LEGOE system have combined a materials database with specification and CAD systems, which allows for a more comprehensive description of the building. However, this additional information is displayed either rudimentarily or as lists of numbers. The information describing the position or visual quality of building elements is, in fact, minuscule in comparison to that describing the properties of the materials involved, their production methods, the energy needed to produce, transport and install the elements, and information concerning toxicology and environmental issues. What is more, these materials are not simply in situ, but can be considered to flow through the building. These flows also occur at widely varying rates according to the type of material and the type of building. The view is taken that buildings are actually temporary repositories of various “flows” which occupy the building during its lifetime. Thus seen, the various aspects of a building at a certain stage of its life are taken to be the total sum of its inputs and outputs at any given time. Currently, its complexity and the lack of cognitive assistance in its presentation limit the understanding of this information. The author postulates that to better understand this information, visual displays of this “non-visual” building information are needed, at least for those who, like architects, are more visually inclined. The paper describes attempts made to go beyond conventional two-dimensional charts, which have tended to only complicate understanding. This is partly due to the need to display a high number of dimensions in one space. Examples are shown of experimental visual displays using three-dimensional graphs created in VRML as well as a “remodelling” of the building based on statistical rather than spatial information to form a building “artefact”. The remodelled artefacts are based on a null-value three-dimensional form and are then modified according to the specific database information without changing their topology. These artefacts are initially somewhat idiosyncratic, but become more useful when a large enough population has been created. With sufficient numbers, it is possible to compare and classify the artefacts according to their visually discernible attributes. The classification of the artefacts is useful in understanding building types independent of their formal “architectural” or spatial qualities, particularly with age-use-classes. The paper also describes initial attempts to create building information landscapes that unfold from the artefacts allowing detailed views of the summarised information displayed by the individual artefacts.
keywords Building Information, Visualisation, VRML, Life Cycle Analysis
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 3e6a
authors Wittkopf, Stephen
year 2001
title I-Light, a webbased learning system for architectural lighting design
source TU Darmstadt
summary With the rising meaning of architectural lighting also the requirement at appropriate light planning rises. The possibilities of digital instruments were realized by several lamp manufacturers, which use 3D-CAD to present visualizations and use the Internet for their distribution. However in the field of universities it is important to offer instruments and methods with which the interaction of light and architecture can be learned descriptive, comprehensibly and interactively. Introductory in a theoretical section the bases of light planning and learn-educational concepts are pointed out. Parallel the state of the art in the areas of computer-aided learning and the light simulation is presented and evaluated regarding the learn-educational suitability. Thereupon an action requirement is formulated, which designates a new integration of the individual areas. It flows into the development of an interactive Web-based training system for the design with light - I-Light - whose concept and implementation in the following sections is described. In an application of examples the author points out finally, how this innovative connection of the Internet, 3D-CAD and simulation supports a better understanding of the medium light in the architecture perception. A new virtual light laboratory forms the core of this training system, in which architectural planning examples can be represented three-dimensional and changed interactively. A developed semantic scene model ensures for the fact that lighting, materials and delimitation surfaces are varied didactically appropriately and compared, so that visual effects and important interrelation can be assumed and checked. The author orients itself at the methodology by simulation and merges 3D-CAD and light simulation programs into the training system. The calculated photo-realistic picture is regarded not - as otherwise usual - as presentation material, but as interactive tools. Since 3D-CAD and light simulation programs presuppose much application knowledge, the author does not pursue to confront the user with these complex programs. He developed a new system with a Web-based graphic surface, that enables 3D-scenes to be loaded, be changed and stored easily (front-end). Furthermore it enables the remote control to an automatic, photo-realistic simulation on push of a button on an external high end render machine, that is connected via Internet, where at least all files are externally stored. For the operation of the front-end is only an average PC with a standard Webbrowser necessary. For the receiving station the author develops a new interface, which extends a standard Web server by the new possibility of storing and executing lighting simulations (back-end). The system presented by the author differs in the didactical concept and in the technical implementation from the solutions existing so far in similar areas. The interactive virtual light laboratories of the architectural planning examples represent a new beginning of Web-based learning environments. To the selected tools (HTML, Java, VRML, Web server, Lightscape) there yet exist no matured alternatives.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 5d55
authors Billger, Monica and d’Élia, Stefano
year 2001
title Colour appearance in virtual reality: a comparison between a full-scale room and a virtual reality simulation
source AIC Colour 2001, The 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, Rochester, NY.
summary The main goal of our project is to make VR applications usable for the planning of light and colour. To enable reliable simulations, we both need to develop better rendering methods and carefully study the appearance of light and colour in real rooms and in virtual environments. Assessments of real rooms are compared to simulations of the same rooms in immersive Virtual Reality (3D-cube). In this paper, we will present the outcome of a pilot study and discuss specific problems associated with the prospect of comparing reality to Virtual Reality. We will account for the experience of the room and go into details on the experience and perception of light. Indeed, the problems of getting enough light in the 3D-cube and of simulating the light situation of a real room affect colour appearance.
keywords Virtual Reality, VR, 3D-cube, Colour Appearance, Light Perception, Visual Assessments, Simulations
series other
last changed 2002/09/05 07:58

_id ddss9829
id ddss9829
authors De Hoog, J., Hendriks, N.A. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 1998
title Evaluating Office Buildings with MOLCA(Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment)
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment) is a project that aims to develop a tool that enables designers and builders to evaluate the environmental impact of their designs (of office buildings) from a environmental point of view. The model used is based on guidelinesgiven by ISO 14000, using the so-called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The MOLCA project started in 1997 and will be finished in 2001 resulting in the aforementioned tool. MOLCA is a module within broader research conducted at the Eindhoven University of Technology aiming to reduce design risks to a minimum in the early design stages.Since the MOLCA project started two major case-studies have been carried out. One into the difference in environmental load caused by using concrete and steel roof systems respectively and the role of recycling. The second study focused on biases in LCA data and how to handle them. For the simulations a computer-model named SimaPro was used, using the world-wide accepted method developed by CML (Centre for the Environment, Leiden, the Netherlands). With this model different life-cycle scenarios were studied and evaluated. Based on those two case studies and a third one into an office area, a first model has been developed.Bottle-neck in this field of study is estimating average recycling and re-use percentages of the total flow of material waste in the building sector and collecting reliable process data. Another problem within LCA studies is estimating the reliability of the input data and modelling uncertainties. All these topics will be subject of further analysis.
keywords Life-Cycle Assessment, Office Buildings, Uncertainties in LCA
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id acadia16_140
id acadia16_140
authors Nejur, Andrei; Steinfeld, Kyle
year 2016
title Ivy: Bringing a Weighted-Mesh Representations to Bear on Generative Architectural Design Applications
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 140-151
summary Mesh segmentation has become an important and well-researched topic in computational geometry in recent years (Agathos et al. 2008). As a result, a number of new approaches have been developed that have led to innovations in a diverse set of problems in computer graphics (CG) (Sharmir 2008). Specifically, a range of effective methods for the division of a mesh have recently been proposed, including by K-means (Shlafman et al. 2002), graph cuts (Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008; Katz and Tal 2003), hierarchical clustering (Garland et al. 2001; Gelfand and Guibas 2004; Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008), primitive fitting (Athene et al. 2004), random walks (Lai et al.), core extraction (Katz et al.) tubular multi-scale analysis (Mortara et al. 2004), spectral clustering (Liu and Zhang 2004), and critical point analysis (Lin et al. 20070, all of which depend upon a weighted graph representation, typically the dual of a given mesh (Sharmir 2008). While these approaches have been proven effective within the narrowly defined domains of application for which they have been developed (Chen 2009), they have not been brought to bear on wider classes of problems in fields outside of CG, specifically on problems relevant to generative architectural design. Given the widespread use of meshes and the utility of segmentation in GAD, by surveying the relevant and recently matured approaches to mesh segmentation in CG that share a common representation of the mesh dual, this paper identifies and takes steps to address a heretofore unrealized transfer of technology that would resolve a missed opportunity for both subject areas. Meshes are often employed by architectural designers for purposes that are distinct from and present a unique set of requirements in relation to similar applications that have enjoyed more focused study in computer science. This paper presents a survey of similar applications, including thin-sheet fabrication (Mitani and Suzuki 2004), rendering optimization (Garland et al. 2001), 3D mesh compression (Taubin et al. 1998), morphin (Shapira et al. 2008) and mesh simplification (Kalvin and Taylor 1996), and distinguish the requirements of these applications from those presented by GAD, including non-refinement in advance of the constraining of mesh geometry to planar-quad faces, and the ability to address a diversity of mesh features that may or may not be preserved. Following this survey of existing approaches and unmet needs, the authors assert that if a generalized framework for working with graph representations of meshes is developed, allowing for the interactive adjustment of edge weights, then the recent developments in mesh segmentation may be better brought to bear on GAD problems. This paper presents work toward the development of just such a framework, implemented as a plug-in for the visual programming environment Grasshopper.
keywords tool-building, design simulation, fabrication, computation, megalith
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id sigradi2006_c012b
id sigradi2006_c012b
authors Rodriguez Barros, Diana and Carmena, Sonia
year 2006
title Estudio Descriptivo de Prácticas Padagógicas Mediadas por Tecnologías Digitales en Facultades de Arquitectura y Diseño asociadas a la buena Enseñanza [Descriptive study of pedagogical practices mediated by digital technologies in school of architecture and design, associated to the good education]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 191-194
summary It is presented a descriptive type study link to the documentary investigation. It is considers to understand, interpretate and critically reconstruct the present practices of proyectual education in studio of school of architecture and design of the region in virtual surroundings, tie to good education. It was used the Burbules & Callister (2001) new emergent postecnocratic approach. It is boarded from the perspective of the authors, in its natural scenes, in its all complexity and its implicances. One worked with a quanti-qualitative methodology, where revision techniques, analysis, evaluation and interpretation of documental textual and visual materials from primary sources were integrated. One has been based on the selection of exposed works in Sigradi congresses, since its creation in 1997 to the present, with extended and updated versions of the authors. As conclusions are recognized professors that show expertise and disciplinar control, that develop investigation tasks tie to the education practices, that incorporate technologies valuating limitations and advantages, and that has recognized the multiple implicit effects in the technologically mediated practices.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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