CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 713

_id 75a9
authors Epstein, Susan L.
year 2001
title Toward Autonomous Layout Design / An AI Approach
source J. S. Gero, B. Tversky and T. Purcell (eds), 2001, Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design, II - Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, Australia
summary 5{esign poses challenging problems for the traditionalAI problem-solving paradigm, but surmountable ones. Two systemsfor autonomous two-dimensional layout design are described, withparticular attention to the ways in which they devise solutions. Humanexpertise inspired and informed both systems. Their pragmatic approachesoffer important lessons for design problem solving
series other
last changed 2003/05/02 09:13

_id e4a7
authors Espina B., Jane J.
year 2001
title La tecnologia digital en las edificaciones arquitectonicas de la modernidad [The Digital Tecnology In Modern Architectural Constructions]
source 2da Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Maracaibo (Venezuela) december 2001, pp. 136-145
summary This paper gives an overview of the experience developed by Computer Graphics II course of department of Communication in School of Architecture and Design of University of Zulia which was initiated since 1999.The work describes the methodology used by two groups of objectives: general of the course and those generated by experiences in two levels: one as analysis instruments and the other one during process of design. Course is looking for trainning in CAD system uses by 3D representation of modern buildings, so at the end of the experience students were succeed : 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, 2) quick visualization and efficient volumetric representation, 3) make a digital format library of differents buildings of the city and 4) comprehension and historic knowledge of city. CAD systems used for representation of 2d and 3D drawings offer to architects tools as color, textures, shadows, plus generation of different points of view as isometrics, perspectives and realistic representations. The digital format of the selected buildings gives to drafts an additional value.
keywords Modern Architecture; Three-Dimensional; Realistic Representation; CAD Systems; Digital Format
series other
last changed 2003/02/14 07:29

_id a58e
authors Evans, S. and Hudson-Smith, A.
year 2001
title Information Rich 3D Computer Modeling of Urban Environments
source Working Paper 35, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis Working Papers; London, August 2001
summary We are living in an increasingly information rich society. Geographical Information Systems now allow us to precisely tag information to specific features, objects and locations. The Internet is enabling much of this information to be accessed by a whole spectrum of users. At CASA we are attempting to push this technology towards a three-dimensional GIS, that works across the Internet and can represent significant chunks of a large city. We believe that the range of possible uses for such technology is diverse, although we feel that urban planning is an area that can benefit greatly. An opportunity to push this ìplanning technologyî arose when CASA won a tender from Hackney Council to develop a dynamic website for community participation in the process of regenerating the Woodberry Down Estate. This is a run down part of northeast London that is undergoing a major redevelopment. CASA has developed a system that not only informs the local residents about the redevelopment process but it also enables them to use dynamic visualisations of the ìbefore and after effectsî of different plans, and then to discuss and vote on the variety of options.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id b62d
authors Field, M.
year 2001
title Designer chaos
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 33 (5) (2001) pp. 349-365
summary We describe the design and software implementation of a large class of algorithms based on ideas from chaotic dynamics, symmetry and iterated function systems. We alsoindicate some of the uses of these algorithms, and the associated software, in artistic endeavors as well as in classes for senior students in Art and Design.
keywords Symmetry, Chaotic Dynamics, Symmetric Chaos, Iterated Function Systems, Wallpaper Patterns
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id cf2007_585
id cf2007_585
authors Fischer, Thomas
year 2007
title Enablement or Restriction? On supporting others in making (sense of things)
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / 978-1-4020-6527-9 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / 978-1-4020-6527-9] Sydney (Australia) 11–13 July 2007, pp. 585-598
summary In this paper I present and reflect upon a five-year investigation of designing digital tools for designing in the area of architectural space grid structures. I understand design as a novelty and knowledge generating conversational process as described by Pask (see Scott 2001) and Glanville (2000). Furthermore, I regard making design tools as a design task in itself, rendering this paper a reflection on designing for designing. This paper gives a report on observations I made during the toolmaking study, and subsequently contextualizes these observations using second-order cybernetic theory. This reflection focuses on different relationships between observers and systems, on conditions under which observers construct knowledge and on limits of supporting others in this activity.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2007/07/06 10:47

_id 8805
authors Flemming, U., Erhan, H.I. and Ozkaya, I.
year 2001
title Object-Oriented Application Development in CAD
source Technical Report 48-01-01. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, Institute of Complex Engineered Systems
summary This report describes a graduate interdisciplinary course offered to students in the graduate program of the School of Architecture at Carnegie Mellon and related departments in fall 2000. The motivation was the realization that when commercial CAD (Computer-Aided Design) systems recently switched from procedural application programming languages to object-oriented ones, third-party application must undergo a significant cognitive retooling"; i. e. they must know more than the syntax and semantics of the new programming language to be used and must be able to employ appropriate software development strategies that are appropriate for the new paradigm. especially with respect to the importance of modeling, a distinguishing characteristic of object-oriented programming. The goal of the course was (a) to introduce and test strategies of object-oriented application development in general and in the context of MicroStation, a state-of-the-art commercial CAD package; (b) to develop-as a course team project-an interesting application that gives students practice with these strategies and team work; and (c) to document our approach and findings so that others can learn from them. The strategies introduced were the use-case approach of Jacobson et al. and the complementary object-modeling tools of Rumbaugh that were recently integrated into the Unified Modeling Language UML. The software platform supporting the course comprised MicroStation, JMDL (a superset of Java) and ProjectBank on the CAD side and RationalRose on the modeling side. The application developed by students in the course supports the generation of drawings for remodeling projects from a set of dgn files describing the existing state of the building to be remodeled. The course was supported by a grant and in-kind contributions from Bentley with matching funds from the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Technology Alliance (PITA)."
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id afe6
authors Funkhouser, Thomas
year 2001
title Modeling acoustics in virtual environments using the uniform theory of diffraction
source Siggraph 2001
summary Realistic modeling of reverberant sound in 3D virtual worlds provides users with important cues for localizing sound sources and understanding spatial properties of the environment. Unfortunately, current geometric acoustic modeling systems do not accurately simulate reverberant sound. Instead, they model only direct transmission and specular reflection, while diffraction is either ignored or modeled through statistical approximation. However, diffraction is important for correct interpretation of acoustic environments, especially when the direct path between sound source and receiver is occluded. The Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) extends geometrical acoustics with diffraction phenomena: illuminated edges become secondary sources of diffracted rays that in turn may propagate through the environment. In this paper, we propose an efficient way for computing the acoustical effect of diffraction paths using the UTD for deriving secondary diffracted rays and associated diffraction coefficients. Our main contributions are: 1) a beam tracing method for enumerating sequences of diffracting edges efficiently and without aliasing in densely occluded polyhedral environments; 2) a practical approximation to the simulated sound field in which diffraction is considered only in shadow regions; and 3) a real-time auralization system demonstrating that diffraction dramatically improves the quality of spatialized sound in virtual environments.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id avocaad_2001_11
id avocaad_2001_11
authors Gernot Pittioni
year 2001
title Handling of Complex Projects As Engineering-Partner of Planning Groups
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The collaborative handling of design activities is a growing matter of present planning processes. Most planning partners in the meantime have agreed on using CAD-systems. The common use of the design information is a vital factor which enables us to handle complex problems.The instruments offered by the CAD-systems are performing on a very low level. Many intelligent features get lost by data-transfer. But experience shows that more obstacles are built up by ineffective and insufficient use of the CAD-system and their properties.Huge efforts have to be done in improving the knowledge and the handling abilities of many users. They often do not even know that they are not using their systems in an appropriate way. In fact looking only at the plotted results nobody would guess that the data sometimes are entirely worthless for common use. This only turns out when complex projects rely on timesaving common data use and the partners get stuck in endless difficulties trying to get some information out of badly organised project files.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_06
id avocaad_2001_06
authors Giovanni De Paoli
year 2001
title Architectural design and procedural models - A radical change of language to design in architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The history of architecture and its teaching clearly reveal how representations of the image and drawing have changed over centuries. Today, computers are increasingly found at the desks of architecture professionals and students, but their usage remains restricted to technical functions and what is commonly known as CAD (computer-assisted design), in architecture is often simply the other CAD (computer-assisted drawing).This presentation deals with architectural design, particularly at its earliest stage. Our objective is to propose a model for describing the architectural concept that meets the needs of architects through software. Only then will they really be able to use computers as an aid to design by overcoming the obstacles that presently keep us from making full use of them.This has led me to propose an avenue of exploration that examines projection through an object’s properties, and a method of computer-assisted design that makes use of procedural models. These procedural models consist of geometric operators and operators that define the properties, characteristics and performance of a building — operators which I have termed “semantic”.This research fits into a paradigm that leads to representation of the building through functions that can be called with parameters and encapsuled in an algorithm, making it possible to create procedural models that assist with the design. This approach opens up a means of integrating the logos with the figurative representation where drawing is used instead of words to convey the architectural concept.The example of a procedural model shows how we can use a generic model to produce a volume model with all the characteristics belonging to the same family of objects. This type of model can serve not only to illustrate the result of a process, or to draw connections among buildings on the basis of their construction process, or to test the validity of a rule typical of a set of objects, but also to integrate, through a functional language, semantic operators which to date have been excluded from the initial design phase. This descriptive mechanism is extremely powerful in making it possible to establish relationships among the functions and properties of a building and the purpose of the architectural project.The scientific contribution of this research is to test the hypothesis that we can use computer tools to manipulate operators which enable the architect to reappropriate a complex design of the building, and open up new lines of investigation into integrating geometric and knowledge-based systems into a unified representation. The declarative approach for creating three-dimensional scenes fits into this perspective.It is now a matter of exploring the possibility of working on a “common morphology” shared by everyone involved in the design process by rewriting the functions or by converting the functions used for representation, or else through a functional dialect (language) that allows for dialectic relationships among all types of operators and the actions of the protagonists in the architectural design process.
series AVOCAAD
email Giovanni.De.Paoli@Umontreal.CA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 7d5e
authors González, Daniela and Burguez, Raúl
year 2001
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 156-158
summary Traditional narrative systems, such as literature, the cinema and the television, keep a linear design when developing a story, due to their own characteristics. Multimedia offers the possibility of developing a new narrative language. Multimedia fiction is based on the idea of working on a new medium, taking the previous ones as a starting point. In this new medium, the decisions taken by the user, will enable him to create his own version of the story. Work done in this field, have attempted to investigate and go deeper into these concepts.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 2004_444
id 2004_444
authors Ham, Jeremy J. and Dawson, Anthony
year 2004
title Managing Digital Resources for Design Education
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 444-450
summary This paper outlines the evolution of digital management systems used in the School of Architecture and building at Deakin University from 2001 to the present. These systems have been implemented to support a curriculum development programme in the design, construction and computing units. Two school-based information management systems are discussed in depth: low-tech network submission system and Bentley Systems Inc’s ProjectWise. Early experiences in using a universitybased system are also reported on. Lessons learnt from three years experience in managing digital resources for design education have informed the development of a growing digital culture in the architectural and construction management curricula. Whilst digital curriculum design and management systems supporting this curriculum have been developed effectively in this school, full optimization of IT to enhance design education is reliant on fundamental changes within traditional academic culture.
keywords Digital Management, Digital Curriculum, Design Education
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id caadria2010_020
id caadria2010_020
authors Ham, Jeremy J.
year 2010
title Working outside of the system: engaging in Web 2.0 to enhance learning and teaching in the design studio
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 209-218
summary The Deakin Studies Online (DSO) Learning Management System (LMS) forms the fundamental basis for tertiary education at Deakin University. This LMS is founded on Web 1.0 principles, however significant potential exists for engagement in Web 2.0 technologies to support learning and teaching in the design studio. A digitally enhanced design curriculum is discussed starting with html-based reflective folios in 2001, the use of blogs for reflection and resource creation and culminating in a Web 2.0 design studio based on social networking.
keywords Learning management systems, blogs, Web 2.0, learning and teaching, design education
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id e6c5
authors Heintz, John L.
year 2001
title Coordinating virtual building design teams
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 65-76 [Book ordering info:]
summary Most research in design project management support systems treats the subject as an isolated objective problem. The goals to be met are defined in terms of a supposed universal view of the project, and now outside concerns are taken into account. While such approaches, including project simulation, may yield excellent results, they ignore what, for many projects, are the real difficulties. Design projects are not isolated. All participants have other obligations that compete with the given project for attention and resources. The various participants in the design process have different goals. For these reasons it is proposed that design project management can be best facilitated by tools which assist the participating actors to share suitable management information in order to make better co-ordination possible, while allowing the resource balancing between projects to occur in private. Such a tool represents the design project management task as a negotiation task that spans both projects and firms; the management of one project is the management of all. The model of design collaboration upon which the Design Coordination System (DeCo) is built was developed from 1) a heuristic case study used to gain insight into the ways in which designers co-ordinate their efforts, and 2) the application of the theory of the social contract as developed by John Rawls to the problem of design project management. The key innovation in the DeCo system is the shaping of the project management system around existing practices of collaborative project design management and planning. DeCo takes advantage of how designers already co-ordinate their work with each other and resolve disputes over deadlines and time lines. The advantage of DeCo is that it formalises these existing practices in order to accommodate both the increasing co-ordination burden and the difficulties brought about by the internationalisation of design practice. DeCo, the design project management system proposed here, provides a representation, a communications protocol, and a game theoretical decision structure. The combination of these three units provides users with the ability to exchange structured pictures of the project as seen from the points of view of individual actors. Further, it suggests a mechanism based on a specific principle of fairness for arriving at mutually acceptable project plans. The DeCo system permits the users freedom to manage their design processes as they will, while providing a basic compatibility between practices of design team members which supports their collaborative efforts to co-ordinate their design work.
series other
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id a16d
authors Heylighen, A. and Neuckermans, H.
year 2001
title A case base of Case-Based Design tools for architecture
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 33 (14) (2001) pp. 1111-1122
summary In the 1990s, Case-Based Design (CBD) seemed an appealing approach to develop intelligent design support. Based on an alternative view of human cognition, CBDsystems find new design solutions by adapting similar experiences from the past. Although several CBD applications have been built, a convincing breakthrough by thesesystems has yet to come. In search of reasons for this limited success, this article embarks on a critical review of the CBD approach. Its underlying cognitive model servesas a framework to analyse six CBD systems and to identify gaps in CBD research. The article focuses primarily on CBD applications for architecture, yet the findings maybe relevant for other design domains as well.
keywords Design Automation, Case-Based Design, Architecture
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id caadria2003_b6-1
id caadria2003_b6-1
authors Howe, A.S., Kang, P. and Nasari, Omid
year 2003
title Digiosk Digital Design to Robotic Deployment in Two Months
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 811-826
summary In this paper, we discuss Kit-of-parts Theory and how it applies to the design, manufacture, and operation of a small robotic deployable demonstration structure called the Digiosk (Howe, 2001). "Kit-of-parts Theory" refers to the study and application of objectoriented building techniques, where building components are predesigned / pre-engineered / pre-fabricated for inclusion in joint-based (linear element), panel-based (planar element), module-based (solid element), and deployable (time element) construction systems. The Digiosk is an exposition display kiosk that was designed and manufactured digitally, and brought from concept to robotic functionality in a short period of time. Using kinematic mechanisms the cylinder opens up and deploys into a 2.7m cubical display booth complete with integral power and network connections. The kiosk was designed using a solid modeler, from which data was extracted to drive digital manufacturing processes. Owing to the well-developed understanding of Kit-of-parts Theory and the new "kinematic architecture" principles, the paperless process yielded a working prototype only eight weeks after initial conceptualization. The paper concludes with a discussion of how these concepts can be applied to large-scale projects and design processes.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id 2fd6
authors Johnson, Brian R.
year 2001
title Unfocused Interaction in Distributed Workgroups. Establishing group presence in a web-based environment
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 401-414
summary Face-to-face human interaction is divided into "focused" and "unfocused" types. Unfocused interaction often conveys important content and context information and contributes to group cohesiveness and effectiveness. Research in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) and Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) is also concerned with human interaction. CMC tools, such as electronic mail, and CSCW tools, such as Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Group Support Systems (GSS) provide for focused interaction among members of distributed workgroups. However, little has been published regarding unfocused interaction in distributed workgroups, where group members' primary work activities hold "center-stage" and communication activities are peripheral, though this describes many distributed educational and work situations. A framework for studying this type of support using standard web browsers and server applications is described, and informal preliminary results are discussed. Opportunities for future support of peripheral awareness and unfocused interaction are also discussed.
keywords Distributed Workgroups, Unfocused Interaction, Presence, Collaboration
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id b15f
authors Kawasumi, N., Morozumi, M., Shounai, Y. and Homma, R.
year 2001
title The study of design interface for network collaboration
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 295-298
summary In this paper, we discuss about the design interface for the Virtual Design Studio projects and intend to develop the experimental prototype to evaluate our idea. Web pages and simple script, such as the digital bulletin board, are generally used for the network collaboration. But these systems require the extra work for designer to present his proposal on the web. So we propose the Visual Pinup Board that is possible to handle the registered design proposal like the actual pinup board and it can be used with common web browser.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 521e
authors Klein, M., Sayama, H., Faratin, P. and Bar-Yam, Y.
year 2001
title What Complex Systems Research Can Teach Us About Collaborative Design
source Proceedings of International Workshop on CSCW in Design, London, Ontario, Canada, pp. 5-12
summary Collaborative design is challenging because strong interdependencies between design issues make it difficult to converge on a single design that satisfies these dependencies and is acceptable to all participants. Complex systems research has much to offer to the understanding of these dynamics. This paper describes some insights from the complex systems perspective.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 887c
authors Knight, Michael and Brown, André
year 2001
title Towards a natural and appropriate Architectural Virtual Reality: the nAVRgate project. Past, present, future
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 139-149
summary The lure of virtual environments is strong and the apparent potential is enticing. But questions of how Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues should be handled and married with best practice in Human-Human Interaction (HHI) remains largely unresolved. How should architectural images and ideas be most appropriately represented, and how should designers interact and react through this computer mediated medium? Whilst there is never likely to be unanimity in answer to such questions, we can develop new ideas and new systems, test them, report on them and invite comment. The nature and novelty of virtual environments is such that refinements and innovations are likely to come from a variety of sources and in a variety of ways. The work described here explains the evolution and current plans for the development of a particular approach that has been developed and refined by the authors. Low-cost, effective and appropriate are the key words that have driven the developments behind the evolving nAVRgate system that has arisen from this work, and that is described here.
keywords Virtual Environments, Navigation, Interaction, Perception
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

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