CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0b10
authors Strehlke, Kai and Engeli, Maia
year 2001
title Roomz]&[connectionz]. Scenarios in Space and Time
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 173-186
summary New opportunities for architectonic design and representation in threedimensional virtual spaces have arisen thanks to computers, networks, and new media in general. An environment with unique three-dimensional interfaces for the creation of spatial scenarios has been developed. The possibilities were explored in two successive courses in architecture and new media. Design in space and time, the investigation of special characteristics of digital spaces and the creation of a hyperstructure were the main topics of the creative work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Three-Dimensional User Interface, Narrative Structures, Webbased Environment, Digital Space Design, Architectonic Representation
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id b9e7
authors Verstijnen, I. Heylighen, A., Wagemans, J. and Neuckermans, H.
year 2001
title Sketching, Analogies, and Creativity - on the Shared Research Interests of Psychologists and Designers
source J. S. Gero, B. Tversky and T. Purcell (eds), 2001, Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design, II - Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, Australia
summary Paper and pencil sketching, visual analogies, and creativityare intuitively interconnected in design. This paper reports on previousand current research activities of a psychologist (the 1st author) and anarchitect/designer (the 2nd author) on issues concerning sketching andanalogies, and analogies and creativity respectively. In this paper wetried to unite these findings into a combined theory on how sketching,analogies, and creativity interrelate. An appealing theory emerges. It ishypothesized that with no paper available or no expertise to use it,analogies can be used to support the creative process instead of sketches.This theory, however, is a tentative one that needs more research to beconfirmed.
series other
last changed 2003/05/02 09:15

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 444b
authors Barrionuevo, Luis F.
year 2001
title Positioning of Buildings in a Land
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 493-499
summary Configurational studies are useful tools to architectural designing, since they help to understand the grouping of objects in the space (two-dimensional and/or threedimensional). The designer, after a classification of objects that satisfies the needs set to a group of objects, impose some restrictions to the objects that will govern the composition. These restrictions are those that will define the result through operations carried out by the designer. Among these operations the location of buildings in a determined area and the particular environmental qualities condition the final result. This work presents the results obtained by means of the implementation of a computing program of the type Evolution Program (EP) implemented in language C. The implementation of the program is explained in the first part of the paper. In the second part the successive steps are described. The numerical results obtained with the mentioned program are shown graphically. Examples of different complexity level illustrate the discussion of the theoretical matters.
keywords Positioning Buildings, Configurational Studies, Evolutionary Design, Evolutionary Algorithms, Evolutionary Programming
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 5225
authors Gomez de Silva Garza, Andres and Maher, Mary Lou
year 2001
title Using Evolutionary Methods for Design Case Adaptation
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 180-191
summary Case-based reasoning (CBR) provides a methodology for directly using previous designs in the development of a new design. An aspect of CBR that is not well developed for designing is the combination and adaptation of previous designs. The difficulty with this aspect of case-based design is partly due to the extensive amounts of specialised knowledge needed to select the appropriate features of a previous design to include in the new design and the adaptation of these features to fit the context of a new design problem. In this paper we present a design process model that combines ideas from CBR and genetic algorithms (GA’s). The CBR paradigm provides a method for the overall process of case selection and adaptation. The GA paradigm provides a method for adapting design cases by combining and mutating their features until a set of new design requirements and constraints are satisfied. We have implemented the process model and illustrate the model for residential floor plan layout. We use a set of Frank Lloyd Wright prairie house layouts as the case base. The constraints used to determine whether new designs proposed by the process model are acceptable are taken from feng shui, the Chinese art of placement. This illustration not only clarifies how our process model for design through the evolutionary adaptation of cases works, but it also shows how knowledge sources with distinct origins can be used within the same design framework.
keywords Evolutionary Design, Case-Based Reasoning, Floor Plan Layout
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id ga0114
id ga0114
authors Hung, C.K., Frazer, J.H. and Xi, T.M.
year 2001
title Interactive Evolutionary Design in a Hierarchical Way
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper introduces a computational system framework for enhancing design in an evolutionary manner. The framework provides a structure for supporting design activities at the conceptual design stage at different levels of representation and manipulation. With this framework, designers can interactively manipulate design data and develop a solution in ahierarchical manner. Furthermore this system framework provides explorative and adaptive ability through its inter-links with a number of computational evolutionary and generative modules. In this paper, this system framework and its application in the design of wine glasses are presented.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 9057
authors Knight, M., Bandyopadhyay, S., Berridge, P. and Brown, A.
year 2001
title Digital Hindcasting - Critical Analysis through Virtual Reconstruction
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 529-533
summary Manah is an abandoned oasis settlement in Oman. During what is termed the “Golden period” in the region’s cultural development the settlement became on of the most important cultural centres of the interior. For a long period Manah stood as the seat of learning in sciences and arts. A current project is underway to establish, as far as possible, how the settlement evolved; how tribal, cultural, religious and social factors impinged on Manah as it grew over the years. The work described here is directed as applying computational methods to augment the analysis and critical review of that evolution. We are aiming to explain the evolutionary process using computer mediated techniques, working backwards from the current state, to the inception of the settlement; hence the term Digital Hindcasting.
keywords Reconstruction, Critical Analysis, Settlements
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id ga0109
id ga0109
authors Lewis, Chak Chan
year 2001
title Defects Defined by Form Making Method for Improving Generative Design System
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Evolutionary-based Generative Design System (GDS) is generally designed for industrial designers during the early stage of conceptual design. Although “additive” Rapid Prototyping (RP) methods are commonly applied for the physical realization, grown Surfaces Object (SO) created from these GDS still has room to be considered to a combined workable volume,especially for the more complex design. The inarticulate processes from GDS to Generative Production System (GPS) are linking up with different aspects and contexts as well as the conventional Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/RP integration, which has been conducted for along time. There are design constraints existing between 3D SO in industry design representation and feasible 3D production solution. Perception to object designing with knowledge is limited at SO forming by incomplete interpretations. Meanwhile, it is difficult to discern the problemsof incomplete object generation as hidden illegal design occurred from time to time because of the design constraints, despite the completion of the design representation. It has led to some of the invalidity of surface feature at the end. The reconstruction of the RP process ofthe SO pre-processing procedure can help to clarify these defects with thickness requirement in generative production. The aim of this paper is to verify an effective generative design strategy as a possibility ofimplementing method(s) or tool. They will be built within a surface-oriented GDS by mapping a valid object directly accepted by any RP system without any influence on generative object creating. Through the involvement of Form Making processes of RP from selected instants with their solid phenomena, evidences are used for defending this viewpoint.Throughout the process, generative design method and CAD method have been utilized for the creation of virtual form. The 3D printer and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology with “trial and error” method were employed in the RP processes.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id d3d4
authors Sato, Tomoya and Hagiwara, Masafumi
year 2001
title IDSET: Interactive Design System using Evolutionary Techniques
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 33 (5) (2001) pp. 367-377
summary In this paper, we propose a tool-creating support system named IDSET (Interactive Design System using Evolutionary Techniques). Two kinds of Stages are used in theproposed IDSET: Stages where fundamental shapes are generated and Stages where they are combined. At each Stage, new shapes are generated by the system usingevolutionary techniques, and they are shown to the user. The user's creativity is stimulated by this process. Since the system begins with creating parts instead of usingparts that are prepared in advance, various novel tools can be formed. The user only has to evaluate the displayed tools, not to have to make them. A system to create toolsthat are composed of two fundamental parts has been implemented as an example of the proposed system. Computer experiments have been carried out, and various toolsand artistic shapes have been created. Some shapes which human beings could not easily envisage were included in the created shapes. This underlines the effectiveness ofthe proposed IDSET.
keywords Interactive Design, Evolutionary Techniques, Tool-Creating Support System
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 2005_787
id 2005_787
authors Veikos, Cathrine
year 2005
title The Post-Medium Condition
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 787-794
summary Theorists in art, architecture and visual media have described the digital world as a world of mediumlessness and proclaimed that the medium of a work, once the ontological determinant for the classification of the arts, is rendered meaningless by recent technological and cultural developments (Krauss, 2000; Negroponte, 1995; Manovich, 2001). Although indebted to specific media-based techniques and their attendant ideologies, software removes the material reality of techniques to an immaterial condition where the effects of material operations are reproduced abstractly. This paper asserts that a productive approach for digital design can be found in the acknowledgement that the importance of the digital format is not that it de-materializes media, but that it allows for the maximum intermingling of media. A re-conceptualization of media follows from this, defined now as, a set of conventions derived from the material conditions of a given technical support, conventions out of which to develop a form of expressiveness that can be both projective and mnemonic (Krauss, 2000). The paper will focus on the identification of these conventions towards the development of new forms of expressiveness in architecture. Further demonstration of the intermingling of materially-based conventions is carried out in the paper through a comparative analysis of contemporary works of art and architecture, taking installation art as a particular example. A new design approach based on the maximum intermingling of media takes account of integrative strategies towards the digital and the material and sees them as inextricably linked. In the digital “medium” different sets of conventions derived from different material conditions transfer their informational assets producing fully formed, material-digital ingenuity.
keywords Expanded Architecture, Art Practice, Material, Information, ParametricTechniques, Evolutionary Logics
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 90b5
authors Zhou, Qi and Krawczyk, Robert J.
year 2001
title From CAD to iAD: A survey of Internet application in the AEC industry
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 392-397
summary The internet is becoming increasingly more valuable in the field of architectural design that what we conventionally called CAD might soon be changed to iAD (internet Aided Design) (Zhou and Krawczyk 2000). In order to have a clear vision of what iAD will be or could be, we should first examine what is currently available. This research focuses on an investigation of selected web vendors, which are typical and most influential in providing internet related services for the AEC industry. Our purpose for doing this survey is: to understand the progress and development of internet application in the AEC industry, identify the technology used in this area, determine the advantages and deficiencies of current practice and develop a base for future research in proposing a evolutionary model of internet Aided Design for architecture.
keywords Internet Aided Design, Web-Based Application, On-Line Collaboration
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 7897
authors Achten, Henri and De Vries, Bauke
year 2001
title Multiple Sketch Users in DDDoolz
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 153-162 [Book ordering info:]
summary This paper presents DDDoolz, a desktop-VR three-dimensional voxel sketchtool. DDDoolz is developed in the Design Systems Group to explore the use of Virtual Reality technology in the early design stage. The aim is to offer a sketch-like environment in VR with an unobtrusive interface. The paper presents DDDoolz, how it is used in education and with partners in architectural practice, and some future developments. As an extension to current functionality, the possibility of multiple users at the same time will be developed in the system for the {ACCOLADE} workshop.
series other
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 9c0c
authors Af Klercker, Jonas and HenrichsÈn, Jan
year 2001
title Can simulations in VE support architects in solving complex design problems?
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 77-82 [Book ordering info:]
summary Building design is facing development of industrialization of the production on the one hand and more complex 'One of a Kind' products on the other. This will be for rebuilding of a large stock of existing buildings and what can be left to new production. In both cases the results of the design process have to be solid to guarantee a successful product. In both cases an integrated and careful design process is absolutely crucial. The demands on the built environment make the systems of buildings more and more complex and have to be handled by a lot of different expertise. To avoid the 'Relay Race' of today the design teams of tomorrow must work much more integrated. To make integrated solutions, which means simultaneous constrains on all systems, the experts of different fields have to understand more of how all engaged systems relate and influence each other. Communication then consists of complex situations and processes that have to be understood and related to reality. In this aspect a multidimensional Virtual Environment interface has advantages and has been successfully used in design processes in other industries. In this paper the problems that have to be studied are for example Methodical, Conceptual, Technical and Process economical.
series other
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 12e3
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E., Che Zulkhairi, A. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2002
title Interactive Storytelling and Its Role in the Design Process
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 151-158
summary Projects of ever increasing complexity and size have incited the need for new and robust design methodologies and tools in an effort to manage complexity, lower costs, ascertain quality and reduce risk. Technology convergence through the growing availability of networked computers, rapid progress in Computer Aided Design (CAD) and information management have encouraged the undertaking of even more complex designs that demand high degrees of interaction, collaboration and the efficient sharing and dissemination of information. It is suggested that interactive storytelling and interactive design (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2001) techniques that use non-linear information mapping systems can be deployed to assist users as they navigate information that is structured to address localized needs as they arise. The design process is a collaborative effort that encompasses diverse knowledge disciplines and demands the management and utilization of available resources to satisfy the needs of a single or set of goals. It is thought that building industry specialists should work close together in an organised manner to solve design problems as they emerge and find alternatives when designs fall short. The design process involves the processing of dynamic and complex information, that can be anything from the amount of soil required to level lands - to the needs of specific lightings systems in operation theatres. Other important factors that affect the design process are related to costs and deadlines. This paper will demonstrate some of our early findings in several experiments to establish nonlinear storytelling. It will conclude with a recommendation for a plausible design of such a system based on experimental work that is currently being conducted and is reaching its final stages. The paper will lay the foundations of a possible path to implementation based on the concept of multi-path animation that is appropriate for structuring the design process as used in the building industry.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2a2d
authors Baesler, F.A., Sepúlveda, J., Thompson, W., García, R.A., Pezo, M.B. and Rodríguez, P.M.
year 2001
title EL USO DE SIMULACIÓN EN EL ANÁLISIS DEL FLUJO DE PACIENTES EN SISTEMAS DE SALUD (The Use of Simulation in the Analysis of the Flow of Patients in Health Systems)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 86-88
summary This paper presents the results of three research projects developed by the authors oriented to the use of simulation as a tool for process improvement at the emergency room and cancer treatment center of the Orlando Regional Health Care Systems Hospital in the USA. The results obtained showed that simulation is as powerful tool for reducing patients waiting time. A second phase of this study presents the idea of integrating simulation and virtual reality techniques. This methodology would allow to explore digitally new alternatives for architectonic design linked to the development of activities over time.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ddss2004_ra-177
id ddss2004_ra-177
authors Ballas, D., R. Kingston, and J. Stillwell
year 2004
title Using a Spatial Microsimulation Decision Support System for Policy Scenario Analysis
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 177-191
summary This paper discusses the potential of a spatial microsimulation-based decision support system for policy analysis. The system can be used to describe current conditions and issues in neighbourhoods, predict future trends in the composition and health of neighbourhoods and conduct modelling and predictive analysis to measure the likely impact of policy interventions at the local level. A large dynamic spatial micro-simulation model is being constructed for the population of Leeds (approximately 715,000 individuals) based on spatial microsimulation techniques in conjunction with a range of data, including 2001 Census data for Output Areas and sample data from the British Household Panel Survey. The project has three main aims as follows: (i) to develop a static microsimulation model to describe current conditions in Leeds; (ii) to enable the performance of ‘What if?’ analysis on a range of policy scenarios; and (iii) to develop a dynamic microsimulation model to predict future conditions in Leeds under different policy scenarios. The paper reports progress in meeting the above aims and outlines the associated difficulties and data issues. One of the significant advantages of the spatial microsimulation approach adopted by this project is that it enables the user to query any combination of variables that is deemed desirable for policy analysis. The paper will illustrate the software tool being developed in the context of this project that is capable of carrying out queries of this type and of mapping their results. The decision support tool is being developed to support policy-makers concerned with urban regeneration and neighbourhood renewal.
keywords Spatial Microsimulation, Spatial Decision Support Systems, Geotools
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 8646
authors Barelkowski, Robert
year 2001
title Referential Information Systems as a Source of Architectural Design Solutions in P.R.S. Method
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 486-492
summary The paper presents the work on planning procedures improved with basic information technology mechanisms. These procedures are extended according to P.R.S. method, containing three main elements: planning, references and seminars. The focus is on references to show four different appearances of referential data. Paper snapshots the theoretical background of reference, its methodological implementation with computer techniques support, practical formulation, collecting and composition of reference and finally the impact, references can have on architectural design solutions.
keywords Spatial Planning, Planning Methods, GIS, CAD, Spatial References
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cf2003_m_040
id cf2003_m_040
authors BAY, Joo-Hwa
year 2003
title Making Rebuttals Available Digitally for Minimising Biases in Mental Judgements
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 147-156
summary The problem of heuristic biases (illusions) discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) that can lead to errors in judgement by human designers, when they use precedent knowledge presented graphically (Bay 2001). A Cognitive framework of belief, goal, and decision, and a framework of representation of architectural knowledge by Tzonis are used to map out the problem of heuristic biases in the human mind. These are used to discuss what aspects of knowledge can be presented explicitly and digitally to users to make rebuttal more available for human thinking at the cognitive level. The discussion is applicable to both inductive and analytic digital knowledge systems that use precedent knowledge. This discussion is targeted directly at means of addressing bias in the human mind using digital means. The problem of human bias in machine learning and generalisation are discussed in a different paper, and the problems of international or non-intentional machine bias are not part of discussion in this paper.
keywords analogy, bias, design thinking, environmental design, heuristics
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/22 06:26

_id 1752
authors Beheshti, Reza and Michels, Ralph
year 2001
title The global GIS: a case study
source Automation in Construction 10 (5) (2001) pp. 597-606
summary Geographic information systems (GIS) play a crucial role in the management of the environment and allocation of resources in many application domains. We discuss appropriate technologies and their requirements including the GIS technology issues such as data acquisition, database technology and interoperability tools as well as the availability of suitable models. In this paper, the project I-VOIR is discussed which is a prototype for GIS inquiries via the Internet for inland shipping traffic. Our conclusions are based on the evaluation of this project.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

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