CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 695

_id 9bee
authors Gerzso, J. Michael
year 2001
title Automatic Generation of Layouts of an Utzon Housing System via the Internet
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 202-211
summary The article describes how architectural layouts can be automatically generated over the Internet. Instead of using a standard web server sending out HTML pages to browser client, the system described here uses an approach that has become common since 1998, known as three tier client/server applications. The server part of the system contains a layout generator using SPR(s), which stands for “Spatial Production Rule System, String Version”, a standard context- free string grammar. Each sentences of this language represents one valid Utzon house layout. Despite the fact that the system represents rules for laying out Utzon houses grammatically, there are important differences between SPR(s) and shape grammars. The layout generator communicates with Autocad clients by means of an application server, which is analogous to a web server. The point of this project is to demonstrate the idea that many hundreds or thousands of clients can request the generation of all of the Utzon layouts simultaneously over the Internet by the SPR(s) server, but the server never has to keep track when each client requested the generation of all of the layouts, or how many layouts each client has received.
keywords Internet, Spatial-Production-Rules Grammars, Utzon
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 7054
authors Gibson, Ian and Kvan, Thomas
year 2001
title The use of Rapid Prototyping for Architectural Concept Modelling
source Proc. 2nd Annual Conf. on Rapid Technologies, Rapid Product Development Association of South Africa, 14-15 November, 2001, pp. 27-35
summary This paper describes how Rapid Prototyping technology has been integrated into a conceptual design course in the Department of Architecture in The University of Hong Kong. Students have been using this technology for nearly 3 years now and the demand for models and the range and complexity of the models is ever increasing. A number of factors have been found to be of general interest; including the constraints of technology used; the use of colour; material and texture; and applications. Some observations on use of software are also included. As a result of this program; a large research project is now looking into the differences in the teaching of design and conceptual modelling to Architectural and Mechanical Engineering students.
keywords Rapid Prototyping; Architectural Design; Learning
series other
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id avocaad_2001_06
id avocaad_2001_06
authors Giovanni De Paoli
year 2001
title Architectural design and procedural models - A radical change of language to design in architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The history of architecture and its teaching clearly reveal how representations of the image and drawing have changed over centuries. Today, computers are increasingly found at the desks of architecture professionals and students, but their usage remains restricted to technical functions and what is commonly known as CAD (computer-assisted design), in architecture is often simply the other CAD (computer-assisted drawing).This presentation deals with architectural design, particularly at its earliest stage. Our objective is to propose a model for describing the architectural concept that meets the needs of architects through software. Only then will they really be able to use computers as an aid to design by overcoming the obstacles that presently keep us from making full use of them.This has led me to propose an avenue of exploration that examines projection through an object’s properties, and a method of computer-assisted design that makes use of procedural models. These procedural models consist of geometric operators and operators that define the properties, characteristics and performance of a building — operators which I have termed “semantic”.This research fits into a paradigm that leads to representation of the building through functions that can be called with parameters and encapsuled in an algorithm, making it possible to create procedural models that assist with the design. This approach opens up a means of integrating the logos with the figurative representation where drawing is used instead of words to convey the architectural concept.The example of a procedural model shows how we can use a generic model to produce a volume model with all the characteristics belonging to the same family of objects. This type of model can serve not only to illustrate the result of a process, or to draw connections among buildings on the basis of their construction process, or to test the validity of a rule typical of a set of objects, but also to integrate, through a functional language, semantic operators which to date have been excluded from the initial design phase. This descriptive mechanism is extremely powerful in making it possible to establish relationships among the functions and properties of a building and the purpose of the architectural project.The scientific contribution of this research is to test the hypothesis that we can use computer tools to manipulate operators which enable the architect to reappropriate a complex design of the building, and open up new lines of investigation into integrating geometric and knowledge-based systems into a unified representation. The declarative approach for creating three-dimensional scenes fits into this perspective.It is now a matter of exploring the possibility of working on a “common morphology” shared by everyone involved in the design process by rewriting the functions or by converting the functions used for representation, or else through a functional dialect (language) that allows for dialectic relationships among all types of operators and the actions of the protagonists in the architectural design process.
series AVOCAAD
email Giovanni.De.Paoli@Umontreal.CA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id eaa2
authors Godart, C., Halin, G., Bignon, J.C. Bouthier, C., Malcurat, O. and Molli, P.
year 2001
title Implicit or explicit coordination of virtual teams in building design
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 429-434
summary This paper describes the conclusions of a reflection driven by a virtual team, composed of three research teams (one in computing at LORIA, one in telecommunications at France Telecom R&D, and a last one in building construction and design at CRAI) in the context of a common project. The topic of this project is the coordination of a virtual team in the context of a virtual enterprise, with experiments in the field of building construction. More precisely, our goal is to define a model of cooperative work allowing the partners of a building construction to coordinate their efforts in an efficient way.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 811d
authors Goulthorpe, M., Burry, M. and Dunlop, G.
year 2001
title Aegis Hyposurface©: The Bordering of University and Practice
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 344-349
summary Throughout history, profound technological shifts have been accompanied by significant cultural changes. The current shift from a technical paradigm based on physical, mechanical production to one based on electronic media impacts on forms of architectural practice in unexpected ways. The use of design software not only enhances graphic and modeling capacity but also reveals new possibilities for both form generation and fabrication. At a more subtle level it may influence the patterns of thought and creativity that have underpinned traditional forms of architectural practice. This paper examines the implications of the redefined praxis by considering the new role of ‘town and gown’ in the production of the interactive hypersurface: the AegisHypersurface©, the first working prototype of which was unveiled in March 2001.
keywords Real-Time Animation, Interactive Architecture, Hypersurface
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id f8b3
authors Gross, M.D., Do, E.Y.-L. and Johnson, B.R.
year 2001
title The Design Amanuensis. An Instrument for Multimodal Design Capture and Playback
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 1-13
summary The Design Amanuensis supports design protocol analysis by capturing designers’ spoken and drawing actions and converting speech to text to construct a machine-readable multimedia document that can be replayed and searched for words spoken during the design session or for graphical configurations.
keywords Protocol Analysis, Recording, Design Process Research
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ecaade2009_014
id ecaade2009_014
authors Haeusler, Matthias Hank
year 2009
title Media-Augmented Surfaces: Embedding Media Technology into Architectural Surface to Allow a Constant Shift between Static Architectural Surface and Dynamic Digital Display
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 483-490
summary The way screens are attached to architecture at present limits architectural surfaces to carriers of signs. The research presented in this paper offers a possible solution that allows architectural surfaces to be both a space-defining element that has certain architectural material qualities and at the same time allows media technology to be embedded. These surfaces can alter their state from static material to dynamic image in an instance. The paper presents a prototype capable of fulfilling this requirement. It also positions the research within the architectural discussion by comparing it to works of others and confirming its research value by reference to work in a similar direction. Finally, the paper evaluates the research and concludes that it could offer a ‘fabric’ to be used as a sort of media clothing for architecture in the electronic age (Ito, 2001).
wos WOS:000334282200058
keywords Media facade technology, media-augmented spaces, architectural screen design, media architecture, digital displays
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2010_020
id caadria2010_020
authors Ham, Jeremy J.
year 2010
title Working outside of the system: engaging in Web 2.0 to enhance learning and teaching in the design studio
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 209-218
summary The Deakin Studies Online (DSO) Learning Management System (LMS) forms the fundamental basis for tertiary education at Deakin University. This LMS is founded on Web 1.0 principles, however significant potential exists for engagement in Web 2.0 technologies to support learning and teaching in the design studio. A digitally enhanced design curriculum is discussed starting with html-based reflective folios in 2001, the use of blogs for reflection and resource creation and culminating in a Web 2.0 design studio based on social networking.
keywords Learning management systems, blogs, Web 2.0, learning and teaching, design education
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2008_44_session4b_357
id caadria2008_44_session4b_357
authors Ham, Jeremy
year 2008
title Developing The a+b/online Virtual Gallery
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 357-363
summary The a+b/online project is an exemplar of a comprehensive online resource that includes Virtual Galleries, resources, digital case studies and an image repository ( Throughout its development since 2001, the project has expanded to include several thousand digital objects. This paper discusses the development of the a+b/online site and outlines some of the issues associated with its development. The current state of the project is discussed in relation to the current paradigm of citizen media including blogs.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/05/06 11:22

_id 943c
authors Hendricx, A. and Neuckermans, H.
year 2001
title The object model at the core of the IDEA+ design environment
source Beheshti, R. (ed), Advances in Building Informatics, Proceedings of the 8th EuropIA International Conference on the application of Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Image Processing to Architecture, Building Engineering & Civil Engineering, Delft, The Netherlands, April 25-27, 2001, pp. 113-125
summary This paper focuses on three different aspects in which the IDEA+ core model differs from many other product modelling research initiatives: the systematic approach in the construction of the model, the respect for the evolutionary nature of architectural design, and the use of actual and complete design cases to test the model. Key words: CAAD, product modelling, integrated design environment, MERODE 1 The IDEA+ project: towards an integrated design environment In spite of the extensive use of all kinds of hardware and software in the architectural offices, the use of computers still does not contribute essentially to better architecture. For the CAD packages on the one hand, they have proven to be an efficient alternative for the traditional drawing board. Yet they fail in the early conceptual stage of design where creativity and exploration play the leading role. For computational tests and analysis tools on the other hand, they can hardly handle the typical absence o
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architects—like other designers—tend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses—in the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiqued—results in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as “movement”, “guiding” and/or “rest” plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id e9b1
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2001
title Destination: Practice – Towards a maintenance contract for the architect’s degree
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 090-099
summary Addressing the subject of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) in architectural design, we present a Web-based design assistant for student- and professional architects called DYNAMO. Its main objective is to initiate and nurture the life-long process of learning from (design) experience as suggested by CBR’s cognitive model. Rather than adopting this model as such, DYNAMO extrapolates it beyond the individual by stimulating and intensifying several modes of interaction. One mode – the focus of this paper – concerns the interaction between the realm of design education and the world of practice. DYNAMO offers a platform for exchanging design efforts and insights, in the form of cases, between both parties, which perfectly chimes with the current tendency towards life-long learning and continuing education. Just like our university advises graduates to ‘Take a maintenance contract with your degree’, architecture schools may encourage recently qualified architects to subscribe to DYNAMO. To what extent the tool can fulfill this role of maintenance contract is discussed at the end of the paper, which reports on how DYNAMO was used and appreciated by professional architects at different levels of expertise.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Web-Based Learning, Digital Repositories
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 668b
authors Heylighen, Ann
year 2001
title End, means and method - Three roles of design(ing) technology in design research
source Digital Creativity, Volume 12, No. 2, 2001 (ISSN 1462-6268), pp. 103-105
summary This article explores an approach to design research in which the development of design technology plays a key role. It presents the author's Ph.D. research on the role of cases in architectural design. The research aimed at investigating the applicability of Case-Based Design (CBD) to the domain of architecture. To this end, the author adopted and confronted different stakeholder perspectives, one of which is that of CBD technology developer. By consequence, a considerable part of the research covers the design, implementation and evaluation of a CBD tool to support architects/designers. The research did not have a strictly instrumental aim, but wanted to provide insights for the field of architectural design on both a theoretical and a technological level. While the tool itself aimed at providing architects with valuable design support, making the tool was used as a method to develop a better understanding of current CBD technology. Moreover, the resulting tool turned out to be an effective means to examine the role and impact of cases in architectural design. Rather than reporting on the outcome of the research, the main objective of the article is to make a methodological reflection on the possibilities and limitations of this approach.
keywords Design Research, Architectural Design, CAAD, Case-Based Design
series journal paper
last changed 2002/11/14 07:38

_id caadria2007_233
id caadria2007_233
authors Hoseini, Ali Ghaffarian; Rahinah Ibrahim
year 2007
title Using Social Network Analysis for Visualising Spatial Planning During Conceptual Design Phase
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Spatial diagramming exercises with clients are difficult when most clients are not able to visualize the end results of their requirements. This paper would like to introduce a computational tool—Social Network Analysis (SNA)—commonly used in the communications field to study relationships between people we believe can resolve this visualization problem. Our research intent is to affirm whether or not we can use SNA as a spatial planning tool during conceptual building design. We posit that since the nodes and structural relationships between the nodes may have similar architectural characteristics, the tool would enable architects to make changes by moving any spaces on a floor plan while safely maintaining their spatial relationships to other spaces. In this paper, we would like to develop a proof-of-concept model using an available SNA tool to facilitate spatial diagramming visualization during conceptual design phase. We tested the use of a SNA tool at four levels. The first level determined whether we could develop spatial relationship between functional spaces (such as the living room must be adjacent to the front entry). The second level is on setting priorities values for the different nodes and the linkages. The third level determined whether we could develop grouping relationship between several functional spaces that have a common characteristic (such as public versus private spaces) on one horizontal plane. The final fourth level determined whether we could develop multiple layers that are connected by one common connector (such as a staircase in a double-story house). Our models are validated intellectually by visual comparison between our model and another diagramming by Nooshin (2001) that was developed manually. We are most interested in the fourth level because complexity in the spatial diagramming exercises is caused by multi-layered spatial arrangements at the horizontal and vertical planes. We expect our study to provide us guidelines in developing a prototype for a spatial diagramming tool using SNA, which architects can use to resolve visualization problems when conducting the exercise with their clients.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id caadria2003_b6-1
id caadria2003_b6-1
authors Howe, A.S., Kang, P. and Nasari, Omid
year 2003
title Digiosk Digital Design to Robotic Deployment in Two Months
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 811-826
summary In this paper, we discuss Kit-of-parts Theory and how it applies to the design, manufacture, and operation of a small robotic deployable demonstration structure called the Digiosk (Howe, 2001). "Kit-of-parts Theory" refers to the study and application of objectoriented building techniques, where building components are predesigned / pre-engineered / pre-fabricated for inclusion in joint-based (linear element), panel-based (planar element), module-based (solid element), and deployable (time element) construction systems. The Digiosk is an exposition display kiosk that was designed and manufactured digitally, and brought from concept to robotic functionality in a short period of time. Using kinematic mechanisms the cylinder opens up and deploys into a 2.7m cubical display booth complete with integral power and network connections. The kiosk was designed using a solid modeler, from which data was extracted to drive digital manufacturing processes. Owing to the well-developed understanding of Kit-of-parts Theory and the new "kinematic architecture" principles, the paperless process yielded a working prototype only eight weeks after initial conceptualization. The paper concludes with a discussion of how these concepts can be applied to large-scale projects and design processes.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id 78e7
authors Hu, Wen-Chang
year 2001
title A comparative observation on applying knowledge between intuitive design and theoretical design
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 65-70
summary Akin provides the main idea of this paper, "It is necessary to understand intuitive-design to predict the performance criteria useful in developing appropriate tools for machine-design or design-method." This paper discussing the knowledge applied in design bases on previous studies and focuses on theoretical-design. Firstly, the relationship between theoretical design and other kind of design is addressed. Secondly, a cognitive model is proposed and to be the basis of discussion. Thirdly, two cognitive experiments are conducted, and then analysis including coding scheme is discussed.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 5a98
authors Huang, Ching-Hui
year 2001
title A preliminary study of spatializing cyberspace
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 27-37
summary The spatial nature of cyberspace has not yet fully defined. This paper presents both analogous and comparative approach to reveal the spatial nature of cyberspace based on a conventional architecture theory, Space Syntax. Two types of city, the physical and the virtual, are compared in order to realize the configurational properties of cyberspace. The findings of this study indicate that the theoretical assumptions of existing architecture theories need to be altered so that cyberspace can be well interpret and understand.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 0c14
authors Huang, Ching-Hui
year 2001
title A Preliminary Study of Spatializing Cyberspace - A Cognitive Approach
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 511-516
summary The purpose of this study is to reveal some aspects of the spatial nature of cyberspace by applying a cognitive approach, which is to decode cyberspatial cognition generated from the spatial experiences of an architectural designer. Two types of cities, the physical and the virtual, are compared in order to further realize the spatial knowledge of cyberspace. The results of this research indicate that understanding spatial characteristics of virtual environment can base upon investigating cognitive sketches. In addition, architectural designers might benefit from the findings of this study.
keywords Cyberspace, Physical City, Virtual City, Cyberspatial Cognition
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id ea05
authors Huang, Jeffrey and Schroepfer, Thomas
year 2002
title i+a: Explorations in Emerging Architectural / Typologies and Design Processes
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 1-12
summary In this paper, we describe Internet and Architecture (i+a), a research and teaching program, startedfour years ago at Harvard Design School, to explore the possibilities that lie in the convergence of aphysical with a virtual architecture. The approach starts with the analysis of everyday verbs and thechanges that occur in the virtualization of everyday situations, and moves on to critically rethinkexisting architectural typologies and develop new architectures that combine physical and virtualcomponents. This paper describes our experiences with the approach in the year 2001-2002. Wepresent samples of design projects as illustrative examples of new architectural typologies thatcombine the physical and virtual, and describe how incorporating technologies for virtual collaborationinto the design process can enhance architectural practice in the broadest sense.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 6b40
authors Huang, Y.H., Liu, Y.T., Lin, C.Y., Chen, Y.T., Chiu, Y.-C., Oh, S., Kaga, A. and Sasada, T.
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in the design process
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 231-239
summary Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling, animations, and virtual reality, different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels. This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in the renew project of old Hsinchu, Taiwan. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed. This study not only provides insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2002/09/05 07:26

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