CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 704

_id 7655
authors Okeil, Ahmad and El Araby, Mostafa
year 2003
title Realism vs. Reality in Digital Reconstruction of Cities
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary The digital reconstruction of existing cities using virtual reality techniques is being increasingly used. For consultants, municipalities and planning departments these models provide decision support through visual simulations (El Araby, 2001). For academia they provide a new tool for teaching students urban design and planning (Okeil, 2001). For authorities they provide a tool for promoting the city on the world wide web trying to attract more businesses and tourists to it. The built environment is very rich in detail. It does not only consist of open spaces surrounded by abstract buildings but it also includes many smaller objects such as street furniture, traffic signs, street lights, different types of vegetation and shop signs for example. All surfaces in the built environment have unique properties describing color, texture and opacity. The built environmentis dynamic and our perception is affected by factors such as pedestrian movement, traffic, environmental factors such as wind, noise and shadows. The built environment is also shaped by the accumulation of changes caused by many influences through time. All these factors make the reconstruction of the built environment a very complex task. This paper tries to answer the question: how realistic the reconstructed models of urban areas can be. It sees “Realism“ as a variable floating between three types of realties. The reality of the physical environment which we are trying to represent. The reality of the digital environment which will host the digitally reconstructed city. And the reality of the working environment which deals with the problem of limitation of resources needed to digitally reconstruct the city. A case study of building a 3D computer model of an urban area in the United Arab Emirates demonstrates that new time-saving techniques for data acquisition can enhance realism by meetingbudget limitations and time limitations.
keywords Virtual Reality; Photo Realism; Texture Maps; 3D Modeling; Urban Design
series other
email a.okeil@uaeu.ac.ae
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id 0767
authors Ries, Robert and Mahdavi, Ardeshir
year 2001
title Evaluation of Design Performance through Regional Environmental Simulation
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 629-642
summary Computational building simulation tools have historically viewed buildings as artefacts isolated and disconnected from their contexts. At most, the external environmental conditions have been viewed as outside influences or stressors encapsulated in, for example, weather files for energy simulation or sky models for lighting simulation. In the field of environmental assessment, life cycle analysis (LCA) has followed a similar path of isolating the artefact under analysis from its context. Modeling the building artefact as a participant in multiple contexts over time so that the interactions and dependencies between the regions and the building can be adequately explored in the design process requires support for the modeling of regional areas, as well as the artefact and the related life cycle processes. Using computational design and evaluation tools can provide the computing capability required for effective design decision support. This paper presents the implementation of the affordance impact assessment method and the regional environmental simulation in Ecologue. Ecologue is the computational tool for life cycle environmental impact assessment in the SEMPER integrated building design and simulation system. Ecologue contains a building model and an environmental model. The building model is automatically derived from the shared building model of the SEMPER system. The environmental model is a combination of a representation of the processes and emissions occurring in the life cycle of buildings and an impact assessment model. The impact assessment model is a combination of a context model of the physical characteristics of a region and a sub-regional fate and transport model based on the fugacity concept.
keywords Environmental Simulation, Design Decision Support, Life Cycle Analysis
series CAAD Futures
email robries@pitt.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 4664
authors Russell, Peter
year 2001
title Visualising Non-Visual Building Information
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 546-551
summary Architecture can be understood as a process and as an object. In both forms, it consists of a complex of mass, monetary, energy and information flows that occur over time scales ranging from hours and days to centuries. The parts or elements making up buildings and the processes involved in producing, maintaining, using and disposing of them are highly intertwined and multi-dimensional. The field of Architecture can range from complete building stocks down to individual buildings, their elements, and the materials and processes making up these elements. What is more, it is also necessary to introduce time as a dimension in order to model the complete life cycle of buildings. Current CAD systems concentrate primarily on the replication of the traditional drawing process (sometimes in three dimensions) and the visualisation of the finished building. While these models describe the geometry and visual appearance of buildings, the bulk of the information about the building remains unseen. Recently developed systems such as the German LEGOE system have combined a materials database with specification and CAD systems, which allows for a more comprehensive description of the building. However, this additional information is displayed either rudimentarily or as lists of numbers. The information describing the position or visual quality of building elements is, in fact, minuscule in comparison to that describing the properties of the materials involved, their production methods, the energy needed to produce, transport and install the elements, and information concerning toxicology and environmental issues. What is more, these materials are not simply in situ, but can be considered to flow through the building. These flows also occur at widely varying rates according to the type of material and the type of building. The view is taken that buildings are actually temporary repositories of various “flows” which occupy the building during its lifetime. Thus seen, the various aspects of a building at a certain stage of its life are taken to be the total sum of its inputs and outputs at any given time. Currently, its complexity and the lack of cognitive assistance in its presentation limit the understanding of this information. The author postulates that to better understand this information, visual displays of this “non-visual” building information are needed, at least for those who, like architects, are more visually inclined. The paper describes attempts made to go beyond conventional two-dimensional charts, which have tended to only complicate understanding. This is partly due to the need to display a high number of dimensions in one space. Examples are shown of experimental visual displays using three-dimensional graphs created in VRML as well as a “remodelling” of the building based on statistical rather than spatial information to form a building “artefact”. The remodelled artefacts are based on a null-value three-dimensional form and are then modified according to the specific database information without changing their topology. These artefacts are initially somewhat idiosyncratic, but become more useful when a large enough population has been created. With sufficient numbers, it is possible to compare and classify the artefacts according to their visually discernible attributes. The classification of the artefacts is useful in understanding building types independent of their formal “architectural” or spatial qualities, particularly with age-use-classes. The paper also describes initial attempts to create building information landscapes that unfold from the artefacts allowing detailed views of the summarised information displayed by the individual artefacts.
keywords Building Information, Visualisation, VRML, Life Cycle Analysis
series eCAADe
email peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 2dba
id 2dba
authors Tasli, S
year 2001
title WHAT DOES COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OFFER FOR PRODUCING LIVABLE BUILDINGS IN THE 21ST CENTURY?
source Proceedings of the Livable Environments and Architecture International Congress (LIVENARCH 2001). July 4-7, 2001, Trabzon, Turkey, pp. 278-282.
summary Designing livable buildings has always been a major concern for architects but they are often criticized on account of failing in this aim. However, this is not only due to the ignorance of the designers, but also of the complexity of the factors that are essential to design but difficult to incorporate the design process. Buildings are shaped and occupied under several dynamically changing conditions and paper-based media and conventional Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools are inefficient in representing them. This paper aims to discuss the changing role of digital media for architectural design in response to the increasing complexity of design processes. Some proposals, supported by recent technological innovations, are suggested for the future and they are compared with the conventional uses of CAD. It is claimed that in the 21st century, the main advantage of using computers will be to dynamically simulate buildings in time in highly visualized virtual environments to evaluate the future performance of proposed designs. The design model will not only look as if it were real, but it will also “behave” as if it were real so as to provide dynamic and intelligent response. The two key technologies for the development of such modeling, virtual reality and object-oriented programming are addressed and four promising application areas for near future (evaluation of user-building interaction, visualization of environmental factors, construction scheduling, and combined CAD-GIS) are discussed. Some important considerations for the development of dynamically simulated virtual models are analyzed and suggestions are made for further research.

keywords Architectural Design, Dynamic Simulation, and Virtual Environments
series other
type normal paper
email suletasli@gmail.com
last changed 2005/12/01 15:02

_id a46a
authors Tsou, J.-Y., Lam, S. and Hall, T.W.
year 2001
title Integrating Scientific Visualization with Studio Education – Developing Design Options by Applying CFD
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 302-310
summary To meet the urgent need of education in environmentally responsive architecture, the Architecture Department of The Chinese University of Hong Kong has organized lectures and studios to provide students with knowledge and hands-on experience in environmental design strategies. Considering the context of Hong Kong with a hot-humid sub-tropical climate and hyper-dense urban environment, the current approach in the design studio education has been mainly based on intuition with very limited supports in terms of technical know-how and scientific evidence. Many students of architecture tend to follow established paradigms that have evolved through experience with similar projects. In this paper, we report the research findings of a pilot study that applied advanced scientific simulation skills in studio education designed to help students explore environmental design strategies during early stages of project design development.
keywords Scientific Visualization, Studio Education, Computer-Aided Architectural Design
series ACADIA
email jinyeutsou@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 3501
authors Wang, Shengwei and Zheng, Ling
year 2001
title Dynamic and real-time simulation of BMS and air-conditioning system as a `living' environment for learning/training
source Automation in Construction 10 (4) (2001) pp. 487-505
summary Dynamic and real-time simulation models are developed to simulate the thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, environmental and energy performance of building a variable air volume (VAV) air-conditioning system and its building management system (BMS). On-line direct digital control (DDC) and supervisory strategies of the BMS controlling the dynamic air-conditioning system are simulated. A window-based users interface is developed to simulate the man–machine interface of a BMS, through which users can monitor the on-line operation, tune the local control loops, and reset the supervisory control strategies. This paper presents models, simulation software, and examples that users practice on the simulated on-line BMS and air-conditioning system using the software.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 2f44
authors Diaz, Monica
year 2001
title Aplicación del vba en el diseño arquitectónico: diseño de paredes tomando en cuenta el aislamiento acústico aéreo [Application of the Vba in an Architectural Design Case: Walls Design with the Aerial Sound Insulation]
source 2da Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Maracaibo (Venezuela) december 2001, pp. 216-227
summary Development an application using an object and events language as VBA can reduce the time to programming because it is more intuitive and you can have libraries with procedures. This type of application makes easier to work on the architecture design: it provides information to the architect and guide him in taking the best decision. The time of designing walls considering the acoustical isolation were reduced using a VBA application. The purpose of the present work is to develop an automatic, visual and interactive tool that using a 3D drawing CAD and a object language guide the architect in the design of walls considering the noise from outside and helping the acoustical comfort.
series other
email mcdb@telcel.net.ve
last changed 2003/02/14 07:29

_id 270d
authors Elezkurtaj, Tomor and Franck, Georg
year 2001
title Evolutionary Algorithms in Urban Planning
source CORP 2001, Vienna, pp. 269-272
summary The functions supported by commercial CAD software are drawing, construction and presentation. Until now, no programssupporting the creative part of architectural and urban problem solving are on the market. The grand hopes of symbolic AI ofprogramming creative architectural and urban design have been disappointed. In the meantime, methods called New AI are available.Among these methods, evolutionary algorithms are particularly promising for solving design problems. The paper presents anapproach to town panning and architectural problem solving that combines an evolutionary strategy (ES), a genetic algorithm (GA)and a Particle System. The problem that remains incapable of being solved algorithmically has to do with the fact that in architectureand urbanizm form as well as function count. Because function relates to comfort, easiness of use, and aesthetics as well, it ishopeless to fully specify the fitness function of architecture. The approach presented circumvents a full specification through dividinglabor between the software and its user. The fitness function of town plans is defined in terms only of proportions of the shapes, areasand buildings to be accommodated and topological relations between them. The rest is left to the human designer who interactivelyintervenes in the evolution game as displayed on the screen.
series other
email tomor@osiris.iemar.tuwien.ac.at
more www.corp.at
last changed 2002/12/19 11:17

_id cf2011_p115
id cf2011_p115
authors Pohl, Ingrid; Hirschberg Urs
year 2011
title Sensitive Voxel - A reactive tangible surface
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 525-538.
summary Haptic and tactile sensations, the active or passive exploration of our built surroundings through our sense of touch, give us a direct feeling and detailed information of space, a sense of architecture (Pallasmaa 2005). This paper presents the prototype of a reactive surface system, which focuses its output on the sense of touch. It explains how touch sensations influence the perception of architecture and discusses potential applications that might arise from such systems in the future. A growing number of projects demonstrate the strong impact of interaction design on the human senses and perception. They offer new ways of sensing and experiencing architectural space. But the majority of these interaction concepts focus on visual and auditory output-effects. The sense of touch is typically used as an input generator, but neglected as as a potential receiver of stimuli. With all the possibilities of sensors and micro-devices available nowadays, there is no longer a technical reason for this. It is possible to explore a much wider range of sense responding projects, to broaden the horizon of sensitive interaction concepts (Bullivant 2006). What if the surfaces of our surroundings can actively change the way it feels to touch them? What if things like walls and furniture get the ability to interactively respond to our touch? What new dimensions of communication and esthetic experience will open up when we conceive of tangibility in this bi-directional way? This paper presents a prototype system aimed at exploring these very questions. The prototype consists of a grid of tangible embedded cells, each one combining three kinds of actuators to produce divergent touch stimuli. All cells can be individually controlled from an interactive computer program. By providing a layering of different combinations and impulse intensities, the grid structure enables altering patterns of actuation. Thus it can be employed to explore a sort of individual touch aesthetic, for which - in order to differentiate it from established types of aesthetic experiences - we have created the term 'Euhaptics' (from the Greek ευ = good and άπτω = touch, finger). The possibility to mix a wide range of actuators leads to blending options of touch stimuli. The sense of touch has an expanded perception- spectrum, which can be exploited by this technically embedded superposition. The juxtaposed arrangement of identical multilayered cell-units offers blending and pattern effects of different touch-stimuli. It reveals an augmented form of interaction with surfaces and interactive material structures. The combination of impulses does not need to be fixed a priori; it can be adjusted during the process of use. Thus the sensation of touch can be made personally unique in its qualities. The application on architectural shapes and surfaces allows the user to feel the sensations in a holistic manner – potentially on the entire body. Hence the various dimensions of touch phenomena on the skin can be explored through empirical investigations by the prototype construction. The prototype system presented in the paper is limited in size and resolution, but its functionality suggests various directions of further development. In architectural applications, this new form of overlay may lead to create augmented environments that let inhabitants experience multimodal touch sensations. By interactively controlling the sensual patterns, such environments could get a unique “touch” for every person that inhabit them. But there may be further applications that go beyond the interactive configuration of comfort, possibly opening up new forms of communication for handicapped people or applications in medical and therapeutic fields (Grunwald 2001). The well-known influence of touch- sensations on human psychological processes and moreover their bodily implications suggest that there is a wide scope of beneficial utilisations yet to be investigated.
keywords Sensitive Voxel- A reactive tangible surface
series CAAD Futures
email inge@sbox.tugraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 11a6
authors Trebilcock, M., Burdiles, R. and Fissore, A.
year 2001
title LA MODELACIÓN Y SIMULACIÓN ENERGÉTICO-AMBIENTAL COMO HERRAMIENTA DE REDISEÑO ARQUITECTÓNICO (The Modeling and Simulation of a Power-Based Environment Tool of Architectural Redesign)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 83-85
summary The aim of this paper is to explore the potential of building simulation programs as an evaluation and redesign tool. The research work consisted on the evaluation of thermal comfort in three low cost houses situated on different climatic zones of Chile, in order to create a matrix of appropriate redesign strategies with an adequate analysis of cost and benefits. Conclusions stressed out that building simulations programs are a useful tool for evaluating building performance, but detailed programs are still unfriendly to use widely by architects.
series SIGRADI
email mtrebilc@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id sigradi2003_092
id sigradi2003_092
authors Castañé, D., Tessier, C. and Deho, C.
year 2003
title Prácticas educativas: su impacto y riesgo en las tecnologías digitales (Educational Practices: Their impact and risk in digital technologies)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary Based on the latest didactic teaching theories, this project presents a critical analysis of dynamic educational practices, which have been actively utilized through the last decade by the department of research and instruction in the School of Architecture at the University of Buenos Aires. This work proposes a journey through the landmarks that recognize the impact of technology on teaching best practices, mainly contained in a technical course. It presents the didactic theories of Bruner (90), Perkins, Gardner (93), Burbules (2001), E. Litwin (2002) and others. Crucial representative work developed by students has been taken to introduce criteria and construct practical reflections to arrive at an enriching proposition.
series SIGRADI
email dcastane@elsitio.net
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 448f
authors De Vecchi, A., Colajanni, S., Corrao, R. and Marano, L.
year 2001
title M.I.C.R.A. - A WBI System to Manage Information for the Recovery of Ancient Buildings
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 61-66
summary In the field of Architecture and Building Construction is increasing the tendency to search information in the old construction handbooks to find more easily the best solutions to the recovery of ancient buildings: to make them easily accessible we are developing an “electronic handbook” by using the technologies related to Internet. The paper reports on M.I.C.R.A. (Manuale Informatizzato per la Codifica della Regola d’Arte), a WBI System able to allow different kind of users (from experts in the fields of Architecture and Building Construction to university students) to easily find the information stored in the old construction handbooks -edited since the 18th century and normally stored in different libraries around Europe- and to immediately compare them each other. The system information management and the data structuring are explained by describing the design strategies and the specific “research criteria” we have adopted to the development of the system.
keywords Web Knowledge Repository, Didactic Strategies, Information Accessibility, Information Management, Data Structuring
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 40a6
authors Ennis, Gareth and Lindsay, Malcolm
year 2001
title VRGLASGOW.CO.UK implementation of internet multi-user functionality to Glasgow's virtual city
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 135-142 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary The development of the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) for the Internet has resulted in the emergence of a multiplicity of 3D web sites. The metaphor used by these sites varies enormously from virtual galleries to virtual cities and style varies from abstract to reality. Additionally these worlds are populated by virtual objects, some having reactive or interactive properties, including movement, audio, video, databases, artificial intelligence etc. Perhaps the most stimulating embodiment of these new environments are those that offer the participant the opportunity to meet and communicate with other visitors exploring the same virtual space/world. The Glasgow Directory is an established 3D web space, with around 10,000 visitors per year. The model represents approximayely 10,000 properties in the city and is populated by contextual information on its culture and socio-economic topography. This paper will describe the background to this VR space, and suggest a set of design criteria for successfully deploying multi-user software within this and similar environments. These criteria will take into account lessons learned by 'observing' and analysing how participants interact with the existing system under different conditions and also what benefits they perceive on entering the environment via the multi-user interface. These recommendations will hopefully be applicable to a wide spectrum of internet virtual environment builders and users.
series other
email gary.ennis@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 3dcd
authors Ennis, Gary and Maver, Tom
year 2001
title Visit VR Glasgow - Welcoming multiple visitors to the Virtual City
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 423-429
summary The development of the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) for the Internet has resulted in the emergence of a multiplicity of 3D web sites. The metaphor used by these sites varies enormously from virtual galleries to virtual cities and style varies from abstract to reality. Additionally these worlds are populated by virtual objects, some having reactive or interactive properties, including movement, audio, video, databases, artificial intelligence etc. Perhaps the most stimulating embodiment of these new environments are those that offer the participant the opportunity to meet and communicate with other visitors exploring the same virtual space/world. The Glasgow Directory is an established 3D web space, with around 10,000 visitors per year. The model represents approximately 10,000 properties in the city and is populated by contextual information on its culture and socio-economic topography. This paper describes the background to this VR space, and suggests a set of design criteria for successfully deploying multi-user software within this and similar environments. These criteria take into account lessons learned by ‘observing’ and analysing how participants interact with the existing system under different conditions and also what benefits they perceive on entering the environment via the multi-user interface. These recommendations will hopefully be applicable to a wide spectrum of internet virtual environment builders and users.
keywords Virtual, City, 3-D, Databases, Interaction
series eCAADe
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk, gary.ennis@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 78e7
authors Hu, Wen-Chang
year 2001
title A comparative observation on applying knowledge between intuitive design and theoretical design
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 65-70
summary Akin provides the main idea of this paper, "It is necessary to understand intuitive-design to predict the performance criteria useful in developing appropriate tools for machine-design or design-method." This paper discussing the knowledge applied in design bases on previous studies and focuses on theoretical-design. Firstly, the relationship between theoretical design and other kind of design is addressed. Secondly, a cognitive model is proposed and to be the basis of discussion. Thirdly, two cognitive experiments are conducted, and then analysis including coding scheme is discussed.
series CAADRIA
email wenchanghu@kimo.com.tw
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id a28d
authors Koutamanis, A., Van Leusen, M. and Mitossi, V.
year 2001
title Route analysis in complex buildings
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 711-724
summary Analysis of pedestrian circulation in buildings is usually performed in the early stages of the design process or later on with respect to a specific design problem such as fire safety. In both cases, the analysis relates more to wayfinding, i.e. search for a route on the basis of fundamental normative criteria. Wayfinding analysis in existing buildings is useful for the comparison between “rational” behaviour and actual usage but this comparison does little to explicate the observed structure of pedestrian circulation. In contrast to wayfinding, route analysis deals with the registration and assessment of actual patterns of pedestrian circulation in existing buildings. These patterns are represented topologically and geometrically. The geometric representation makes use of norms underlying building codes in order to reach an appropriate level of abstraction. Route representations are implemented on top of a building representation of relevant spatial and building elements. The building representation serves both as input and output for the route analysis. Input and output are largely automated, including production of the geometric route locally (i.e. within each space) and measurement of route distance and complexity. Use data are collected in an alphanumeric database and linked dynamically to the geometric and topological representation. Route analysis supports and refines other forms of post-occupancy evaluation by adding important dynamic aspects to activity allocation and compartmentalization.
keywords Pedestrian Circulation, Analysis, Representation, Interaction
series CAAD Futures
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 4f37
authors Mahalingam, Ganapathy
year 2001
title POCHE' - Polyhedral Objects Controlled by Heteromorphic Effectors
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 603-614
summary This paper takes the architectural concept of poche' and uses it to explore new possibilities in transforming polyhedra with effectors. In many computer-aided design systems, architectural entities are represented as well-formed polyhedra. Parameters and functions can be used to modify the forms of these polyhedra. For example, a cuboid can be transformed by changing its length, breadth and height, which are its parameters. In a more complex example, a polyhedron can be transformed by a set of user-defined functions, which control its vertices, edges and faces. These parameters and functions can further be embodied as effectors that control and transform the polyhedra in extremely complex ways. An effector is an entity, which has a transforming effect on another entity or system. An effector is more complex than a parameter or function. An effector can be a modelled as a virtual computer. Effectors can take on many roles that range from geometric transformation agents and constraints to performance criteria. The concept of the poche', made famous by Venturi is familiar to architects. The poche' is a device to mediate the differences between an interior and an exterior condition or between two interior conditions. In a poche', the role of the effector changes from being an agent that acts on a polyhedron from the outside, to an agent that acts as a mediator between an interior polyhedron and an exterior polyhedron, which represent interior and exterior environments respectively. This bi-directionality in the role of the effector allows a wide range of architectural responses to be modelled. The effector then becomes an interface in the true sense of the word. This concept will work best in a threedimensional or four-dimensional representational world but can be used effectively in a two-dimensional representational world as well. The application of this concept in design systems is explored with examples drawn from the work of the author, and practitioners who are using the concept of effectors in their work. A brief discussion of how this technique can evolve in the future is presented.
keywords Effectors, Abstract Machines, Design As Interface
series CAAD Futures
email Ganapathy_Mahalingam@ndsu.nodak.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ecaade03_561_150_martens
id ecaade03_561_150_martens
authors Martens, Yuri and Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2003
title Realestate online information systems
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 561-567
summary Several commercial real-estate sites provide listings of available commercial property on the Internet. These listings are generated on the basis of selection criteria as floor area, price and location. Despite the obvious utility of the listings and their promise for the transaction process and market transparency, one third of commercial realestate listing sites went bankrupt in 2001 and 2002. To provide an explanation for the failure, 63 commercial real-estate sites were analysed and classified into three basic business models: the Research / Information model, the Marketing model and the Transaction model. A common success factor for all models is the functionality of the site, especially interaction between the user and the available information. The paper proposes that the transfer of existing architectural representations, information-processing instruments and decision-taking tools is an essential component of future development towards integrated services that accompany a building throughout its lifecycle. This transfer amounts to (1) the addition of building and contextual information from standard documentation and online information services, (2) the derivation and coherent description of programmatic requirements database, and (3) advanced user interaction with building information.
keywords e-commerce, human-computer interaction, building information systems,web-based communication
series eCAADe
email A.Koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.re-h.nl
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id 1e1a
authors Moeck, Martin
year 2001
title On top-down architectural lighting design. Constraint-based generation of light sources
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 331-348
summary One key problem of architectural lighting design is to specify goals that relate to aesthetics. Since visibility is an important criterion for many visual tasks and objects, heuristics from industrial lighting and visual inspection can be used to describe the appearance of objects relevant to architectural lighting design, and to derive corresponding light sources. This has the potential to bring computation time in the range of near-interactive rates. A combination of two constraining inputs, which are the specification of desired material appearance and the selection of highlights and shadows can be successfully used in determining light sources.
keywords Top-Down Design, Constraint Satisfaction Optimisation, Lighting Design, Visual Performance Criteria
series CAAD Futures
email mmoeck@ukans.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 47a5
authors Mourshed, M.M., Kelliher, D. and Keane, M.
year 2001
title Spatial Representation in Product Modelling
source Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Information Visualisation, IV 2001, London, UK
summary An unambiguous definition of space is necessary before any attempt made to develop product or process models for concurrent engineering in the AEC Industry. The ambiguity is the result of different and even conflicting approach to its definition in the various phases of the building life cycle for different stakeholders, e.g. Architects, Engineers, and Building Services Engineer etc. Some researchers consider space as an abstract property of things, while others consider as a thing itself. Regardless of the definition, the space can be referred to as a collector of material objects and also as an object itself. This paper investigates the existing concepts & criteria of definition in various phases, compares with the factual and ontological meaning, and specifies conceptual schemas for representation of space, geometry, and buildings.
keywords Building Product Models; Space; IFC; STEP
series other
email monjur@ecaad.com
last changed 2003/03/31 17:49

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