CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 714

_id 0407
authors Peng, C., Chang, D.C., Blundell Jones, P. and Lawson, B.
year 2001
title Dynamic Retrieval in an Urban Contextual Databank System using Java-CGI Communications. Development of the SUCoD Prototype
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 89-102
summary This paper presents our current development of the Sheffield Urban Contextual Databank (SUCoD) prototype that provides users with a Webbased interface for dynamic retrieval of architectural and urban contextual information of the city of Sheffield. In comparison with past attempts of building Virtual Cities accessible over the Internet, we have experimented with a different system architecture capable of generating VRML models and other related documents on the fly according to users' requests. Through working examples, we describe our methods of implementing the data communications between Java applets and Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts. The SUCoD prototype has been developed to explore and demonstrate how user centred dynamic retrieval of urban contextual information can be supported, which we consider a user requirement of primary importance in its future use for collaborative design and research relating to the city of Sheffield.
keywords Urban Contextual Databank, Dynamic Retrieval, Java, Common Gateway Interface, VRML, HTML, Virtual Cities
series CAAD Futures
email c.peng@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id cf2011_p115
id cf2011_p115
authors Pohl, Ingrid; Hirschberg Urs
year 2011
title Sensitive Voxel - A reactive tangible surface
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 525-538.
summary Haptic and tactile sensations, the active or passive exploration of our built surroundings through our sense of touch, give us a direct feeling and detailed information of space, a sense of architecture (Pallasmaa 2005). This paper presents the prototype of a reactive surface system, which focuses its output on the sense of touch. It explains how touch sensations influence the perception of architecture and discusses potential applications that might arise from such systems in the future. A growing number of projects demonstrate the strong impact of interaction design on the human senses and perception. They offer new ways of sensing and experiencing architectural space. But the majority of these interaction concepts focus on visual and auditory output-effects. The sense of touch is typically used as an input generator, but neglected as as a potential receiver of stimuli. With all the possibilities of sensors and micro-devices available nowadays, there is no longer a technical reason for this. It is possible to explore a much wider range of sense responding projects, to broaden the horizon of sensitive interaction concepts (Bullivant 2006). What if the surfaces of our surroundings can actively change the way it feels to touch them? What if things like walls and furniture get the ability to interactively respond to our touch? What new dimensions of communication and esthetic experience will open up when we conceive of tangibility in this bi-directional way? This paper presents a prototype system aimed at exploring these very questions. The prototype consists of a grid of tangible embedded cells, each one combining three kinds of actuators to produce divergent touch stimuli. All cells can be individually controlled from an interactive computer program. By providing a layering of different combinations and impulse intensities, the grid structure enables altering patterns of actuation. Thus it can be employed to explore a sort of individual touch aesthetic, for which - in order to differentiate it from established types of aesthetic experiences - we have created the term 'Euhaptics' (from the Greek ευ = good and άπτω = touch, finger). The possibility to mix a wide range of actuators leads to blending options of touch stimuli. The sense of touch has an expanded perception- spectrum, which can be exploited by this technically embedded superposition. The juxtaposed arrangement of identical multilayered cell-units offers blending and pattern effects of different touch-stimuli. It reveals an augmented form of interaction with surfaces and interactive material structures. The combination of impulses does not need to be fixed a priori; it can be adjusted during the process of use. Thus the sensation of touch can be made personally unique in its qualities. The application on architectural shapes and surfaces allows the user to feel the sensations in a holistic manner – potentially on the entire body. Hence the various dimensions of touch phenomena on the skin can be explored through empirical investigations by the prototype construction. The prototype system presented in the paper is limited in size and resolution, but its functionality suggests various directions of further development. In architectural applications, this new form of overlay may lead to create augmented environments that let inhabitants experience multimodal touch sensations. By interactively controlling the sensual patterns, such environments could get a unique “touch” for every person that inhabit them. But there may be further applications that go beyond the interactive configuration of comfort, possibly opening up new forms of communication for handicapped people or applications in medical and therapeutic fields (Grunwald 2001). The well-known influence of touch- sensations on human psychological processes and moreover their bodily implications suggest that there is a wide scope of beneficial utilisations yet to be investigated.
keywords Sensitive Voxel- A reactive tangible surface
series CAAD Futures
email inge@sbox.tugraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 7e52
authors Achten, Henri
year 2001
title Normative Positions in Architectural Design - Deriving and Applying Design Methods
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 263-268
summary This paper presents a recently finished course of eight weeks where CAAD skills, design methodology, and architectural theory are combined to discuss possible perspectives on the use of the computer in design, and its influence on architecture. In the course, three contemporary architects were studied; Peter Eisenman, Ben van Berkel, and Greg Lynn. Each was discussed on aspects of ontology (which are the elements of discourse), design method (design process and organization of the process), and the use of the computer (techniques and approaches). These were linked with design theory, architectural theory, and CAD-theory. The reflection on the work of the architects resulted in a number of design methods for each architect. The design methods were adapted to the available technologies in the university as well as to the scope of the exercise, since the period of eight weeks for an exercise cannot compete with design processes in practice that take many participants and much time. The students then applied the design methods to a design task: student housing and an exhibition pavilion on the campus area of the university. The task was so devised, that students could focus on either architectural or urban design level with one of the design methods. Also, the choice of architects and accompanying design methods was made in such a way that students with low, medium, and advanced computer skills could take part in the course and exercise. In a workshop held at the Czech Technical University (CVUT) in Prague, the same procedure was used in a one-week period for a different design task, but in an otherwise almost identical setting with respect to the CAAD software used. The methods and material were easily transferred to the other setting. The students were able to cope with the task and produced surprising results in the short time span available. The paper will provide an overview of the course, discuss the pedagogical implications of the work, and discuss how this particular work can be generalized to incorporate other architects and approaches.
keywords CAAD: Design Methods, Pedagogy
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 7ff9
authors Choi, J.-W., Lee, H.-S., Hwang, J.-E. and Kim, M.-J.
year 2001
title The Wooden Construction data modeling of korean traditional architecture - Focused on the structure of Gongpo in Buseoksa MuRyangsujun
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 265-274
summary Finding national identities from its traditional heritages might be an important research issue especially for Asian architects and researchers. Nevertheless, it is noticed that the structure of Korean traditional architecture has not been fully explored in a systematical or computational manner and its information is not shared efficiently. This study thus explores a computational way of structuring construction knowledge and building information of Korean traditional architecture.Ý To do this, we select a well-known old temple building, Buseoksa Muryangsujun, one of the oldest Buddhist temple in Korea, as a prototype. We first build an accurateÝ three-dimensional model of the building with an aid of a traditional building expert, categorize its building components, and then analyze their connectivity and the connectivity patterns and rules by especially focusing on the capital order system, called Gongpo. The result of the study shows several schema diagrams representing the wooden construction data model carefully designed for an intelligent building simulation and generative system that will be developed in the near future.Ý The paper also demonstrates a way of computationally describing some shape grammars that explain the components' connectivity.
series CAADRIA
email jchoi@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2001/05/27 16:30

_id d146
authors He, Jie
year 2001
title CAD Study in Visual Analysis of the Visual Sustainability for China Urban Natural Landscape Planning
source Chinese University of Hong Kong
summary In this thesis a GIS-based CAD system prototype of evaluating visual quality of urban natural landscape environment is presented. This prototype is an indispensable component of the integrative Visual Sustainability research, and offers a calculable and visualizable technique to urban visual natural landscape assessment. This scientific method provides precise data to estimate the visibility of natural landscape in urban construction actuality. Furthermore, it can also work out supporting information for maintaining and protecting valuable visual landscape resources in further planning. Introduction of this methodology intends to improve the natural landscape cooperation in China urban planning through visual protection. Combining with popular CAD software such as AutoCAD and Microstation, the research team uses ArcView GIS software and its 3D Analyst extension to accomplish a set of research procedure, which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis. In addition, this system can create simultaneous 3D scenes or hire other information media as reference tools for professional analysis, design consultation and intercommunication. The core technologies of this proposed system are viewshed calculation and overlay analysis. In viewshed analysis, human visual characteristics are simulated by a series of ergonomics parameters of viewpoints. Viewshed of each viewpoint can be calculated into vector data and mapped by polygons identifying which region is visible and which is not. Overlay function of the proposed system is used in visual sensibility analysis to achieve the division of higher visual sensible area which indicates the common visible area from different viewpoints. Additionally, viewshed maps and visual sensibility results can add more information to mark out the areas that can satisfy certain visual parameters such as appropriate visual angle or visual distance. These overlaying results can visualized the visible areas into hierarchical visual perception quality categories in order to define the visual landscape significance of particular planning regions. A case study was operated to evaluate this system. The case is in Zhongshan city, Guangdong Province of China. Jinzishan hill region is the study site that picked by collaborating discussion of research team and the local government. It is located on the edge of urban built-up area. Jinzishan massif is the prominent landscape element of the surrounding environment. There are three topics in Jinzishan visual perception in this paper. The first topic is the visual quality evaluation of the intersections of its surrounding road system. The second is the integrated visual perception of two main roads called Qiwandao and Bo’ailu. Finally is the analysis of the hill skyline visual quality in surrounding area. The analysis results in GIS vector data can be converted into popular data format and combined with other spatial information for practical application. And comments for future urban planning are collected and analyzed by professional responses to the computer-generated information investigation.
keywords Natural Landscaping; Computer-Aided Design; Landscape Architecture; City Planning; Geographic Information Systems
series thesis:MSc
email hejie@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 3c71
authors Maver, Tom and Petric, Jelena
year 2001
title MEDIA in MEDIATION Prospects for Computer Assisted Design Participation
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 121-134 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary One of the most consistent, powerful and philosophical ideas which has run like a silk thread through the short and erratic history of the development of computer aided architectural design is that of user participation in the design decision-making process. It is not an idea with which the architectural profession is particularly comfortable but it is, the authors claim, one which is central to the professional ethic and, therefore, to be its ultimate survival. Design decision-making is, if addressed properly, a hugely, complex multi-variate, multi-person process on which precious little serious research has been focused. In the late 1960's the Design Methods Group in the USA and the Design Research Society in the UK formulated paper-based models of the design process and anticipated, in some regards with un-nerving accuracy, the way in which the application of information technologies would impinge beneficially on the process of design decision-making and, therefore, on the quality of the built environment. One concept expressed at that time was as follows: the application of computers to the modelling and prediction of the cost and performance behaviour of alternative design solutions allows subjective value judgements to be better informed and more explicitly audited, and that such subjective value judgements should be made by those most affected by them, i.e. the future owners and users of buildings. This paper is devoted to the critical re-examination of this concept, on the seminal research and development which has kept the notion alive over 30 years, and, how the current advances in multimedia, virtual reality and internet access make its ubiquitous adoption inevitable: in short, Media in Mediation.
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/16 09:52

_id 0865
authors Mishima, Yoshitaka and Szalapaj, Peter John
year 2001
title Architectural Design Development through Multimedia Interaction
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 299-314
summary This paper describes the development of a multimedia system aimed at architects and architectural students for the purpose of helping them to understand the basic concepts of architectural analysis. Analytical features in the system that we have developed include many design-theoretic concepts such as massing, balance and circulation. Other concepts are more directly related to the built environment and include elements such as lighting, structure and construction. The system illustrates architectural analysis carried out on a range of building types dynamically, and allows users to navigate architectural analyses interactively. Users can learn about the differences between buildings and their corresponding analyses in a supportive non-linear learning process, and can explore building types depending upon their own interests or needs. The prototype system contains analyses of three British building projects. They show different types of architecture in order to demonstrate important design theoretic and environmental differences. Conceptual models in the system show important aspects of a particular analysis simply, and each analysis is additionally described with text, animations, video clips and interviews with architects (talking heads). Most of the models were generated by the use of architectural CAD software. Animation techniques were used to describe the analyses of buildings clearly and dynamically. Users can visualise how whole buildings were designed from an analytical point of view, and the system illustrates design thinking by showing dynamic presentations of analyses. Users can structure their own design learning processes through a series of interactions. These interactions are supported with flexible cross-referencing mechanisms implemented in Macromedia Director 8.0 exploiting Frame Markers, Event Handling, Navigation, and Buttons in the context of the object-oriented Lingo programming language. The navigation component of this system has a logical matrix structure reflecting the fact that analytical information is interrelated across building types, giving rise to vertical and horizontal patterns of access. The features of Director 8.0 can control this navigation in a flexible yet structured way. Users not only learn about analysis, but also how to present their own designs to the public through the use of different kinds of presentation techniques, particularly through the use of conceptual models. We intend that users can show their projects from their own analytical viewpoints instead of simply showing realistic images of final designs. Presentations can also be recorded in the system, and these can in turn be used as reference material for other users. This system is currently being developed further by storing presentations and translating them into different languages (e.g. Japanese) so that foreign users in other institutions can interact with these presentations. This system has been evaluated in the context of an undergraduate CAD course at the School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, UK. We are currently examining the usefulness of the system based upon an evaluation process, in addition to including more building types for future study.
keywords Analysis Of Form, Dynamic Interaction, Conceptual Models
series CAAD Futures
email arp95ym@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ecaade2007_114
id ecaade2007_114
authors Olmos, Francisco
year 2007
title Training Programs for Art and Design Learning in the Virtual Studio
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 639-646
summary Computers are very common drawing tools at university design studios but their potential as training tools in arts and design has not been explored in depth. In arts and design the learning process is based on ‘knowing in action’ (Schön 1983). Therefore, training is the keystone of the learning process in arts and design. This action takes the form of a reflective practice based on the manipulation of a media where each media has its own possibilities, its own limits in communicating design ideas or artistic concepts. With the introduction of digital media in the design studio, it is expected that reflective practices in design learning will experience a qualitative change. However, currently there is little understanding of how to use the digital and virtual media in a design studio as a learning tool (Szalapaj 2001), nor of the use of design training programs. In this paper the use of training programs in an experimental design course at a university level, is discussed. This experience was carried out as a PhD research experiment at the Faculty of Architecture and Arts of the Universidad de Los Andes in Merida, Venezuela. The training programs discussed here were designed for an eight week introductory design course in a virtual design studio. The programs were written in VRML and conceived as a virtual design training environment. Each program was designed for a specific design exercise, based on a learning strategy and an interactivity model proposed for object manipulation in design training. A comparative analysis of the data gathered from the course was made of training exercises done with a Cad program and with the training programs and crossing information with other sources. The experiment shows that the training programs, their learning strategy and the interactivity model proposed were successful in guiding the scope of the design exercises during the training process.
keywords E-learning, virtual studio, design training, virtual environment
series eCAADe
email f_olmos_2000@yahoo.com
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id ecaade03_601_68_penttila
id ecaade03_601_68_penttila
authors Penttilä, Hannu
year 2003
title Survey of Architectural-ICT in the Educational Curriculumns of Europe
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 601-606
summary The paper documents the findings of the post-graduate study carried out among the 180 European schools of architecture in more than 30 countries during 2002-2003. The objective has been to describe the role of ""modern digital information technology"" and to give an understandable and measurable overview the current architectural education and its relation with ICT and CAAD. The study material has been collected with a web-survey, with questionnaires to eCAADe-conference participants in Helsinki 2001 and Warsaw 2002, and with direct email-contacts to schools’ key-persons. Computer-aided design has developed into architectural information and communication technology (ICT), to become the main tool of the majority. The general image of new media use in the architectural schools seems to be slightly too positive. The invisible or ”normal” ICT-use - writing, surfing, emailing - has a lot more volume than documented. The major hardware platform in european architecture schools is PC/Windows (90-95 %), Linux and Unix are used also commonly (25-35 %). Macintoshes are also used much more widely within architecture (50-55 %) than within the common computing platforms. MS/Office (90-95 %) and PhotoShop (85-90 %) are obviously also used widely in the architecture schools. Graphic tools PageMaker, QuarkXpress, Illustrator, Freehand are common tools for architecture students (30-50 %). AutoCAD is ”the marketing leader"" in architectural platforms (80-90 %) followed by ArchiCAD (60-65 %). MicroStation/Bentley has also a remarkable volume in the schools (35-40 %). 3DStudio is the most common 3D-modelling tool (80-85 %), followed by formZ (35-40 %). Slightly less volume but still remarkable (15-25 %) have Rhino, Maya, Alias, Lightscape and Radiance.
keywords Architectural education; architectural curriculumns; information and communication technology; IT; ICT; questionnaires; statistics
series eCAADe
email penttila@mittaviiva.fi
more http://www.arkit.net
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id 2abf
id 2abf
authors Rafi, A
year 2001
title Design creativity in emerging technologies
source In Von, H., Stocker, G. and Schopf, C. (Eds.), Takeover: Who’s doing art of tomorrow (pp. 41-54), New York: SpringerWein.
summary Human creativity works best when there are constraints – pressures to react to, to shape, to suggest. People are generally not very good at making it all up from scratch (Laurel, 1991). Emerging technology particularly virtual reality (VR) Multimedia and Internet is yet to be fully discovered as it allows unprecedented creative talent, ability, skill set, creative thinking, representation, exploration, observation and reference. In an effort to deliver interactive content, designers tend to freely borrow from different fields such as advertising, medicine, game, fine art, commerce, entertainment, edutainment, film-making and architecture (Rafi, Kamarulzaman, Fauzan and Karboulonis, 2000). As a result, content becomes a base that developers transfer the technique of conventional medium design media to the computer. What developers (e.g. artist and technologist) often miss is that to develop the emerging technology content based on the nature of the medium. In this context, the user is the one that will be the best judge to value the effectiveness of the content.

The paper will introduce Global Information Infrastructure (GII) that is currently being developed in the Asian region and discuss its impact on the Information Age society. It will further highlight the ‘natural’ value and characteristics of the emerging technologies in particular Virtual Reality (VR), Multimedia and Internet as a guidance to design an effective, rich and innovative content development. This paper also argues that content designers of the future must not only be both artist and technologist, but artist and technologist that are aware of the re-convergence of art and science and context in which content is being developed. Some of our exploration at the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University will also be demonstrated. It is hoped that this will be the evidence to guide future ‘techno-creative designers’.

keywords design, creativity, content, emerging technologies
series book
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2007/09/13 01:46

_id 993b
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 2001
title The Ideal Digital Design Curriculumn: Its Bases and its Content
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 180-185
summary There is a potential for the computer to fundamentally change the design process towards a more holistically conceived architecture. One of these directions is the use of software to develop form and the other concerns the use of software that embodies specialist knowledge including design knowledge. Software embodying knowledge will be the capital of the future. As this software becomes more user-friendly it will give architects new power to bring together a multitude of issues in a holistic way without themselves being specialists. A prerequisite for this fundamental change in the design process is an architectural design curriculum that is broader than before and integrates computing across disciplines. In effect, the intention is to educate a new type of Renaissance architect
keywords Architectural Curriculum, Simulation Software, Expert Systems, Digital Design
series eCAADe
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id db60
authors Af Klercker, J., Achten, H. and Verbeke, J.
year 2001
title AVOCAAD - A First Step Towards Distance Learning?
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 269-274
summary In the industrial world knowledge is developed very fast. As most countries are depending on employees with a high level of knowledge and skills the term ”Life Long Learning” has been formulated and the concept is more and more accepted. Institutions of higher education are more and more involved in creating supplementary education more independent of time and place. Distance learning was originally carried out by ordinary mail, which was slow but might then have been the only solution for people in remote places. With the Internet and e-mail the distance-learning concept has got a far better tool, for instance better interaction facilities. Architects and engineers in practise are deeply involved in solving the problems of the present projects. Education which is independent of time and place must be of great interest to both parties. The AVOCAAD project has created an education model for students to meet the possibilities of CAAD. The education model can be used in a curriculum at a school as well as for distance learning. Among the possible experiences from it, the one concerning distance learning might be the most important future application of the system in architectural education. This paper sketches the pedagogical background and gives examples from other areas of knowledge, where distance learning is already in use. We will put the question how the AVOCAAD concept meets the experiences from distance learning.
keywords Distance Learning, Pedagogic, CAAD, E-Learning, AVOCAAD
series eCAADe
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
last changed 2005/09/09 08:46

_id ga0127
id ga0127
authors Antonini, Riccardo
year 2001
title The darwinian structure of the design process
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This text is meant only to be a stimulus for the discussion to be held, in a specific panel, at Generative Art 2001. In the text, “provocative enough” to spur animated discussion, some very basics of darwinism and genetics are given with the only purpose of declaring a common “stage for the play” where everybody feels at ease. Common stage and common vocabulary ifnot even common language. The main thesis is very strong, therefore comments and critics are warmly encouraged. They are the selective pressure that steers the evolution of ideas. We all need them. The thesis is basically the following: “Every creative process is a darwinian one”.Besides, it will be shown that it is also a very peculiar one where the information and its implementation sometimes switch their role one another.
series other
email Riccardo.Antonini@Uniroma2.it
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id db26
authors Cao, J., Chan, J.Y.K., Li, Heng, Mahdjoubi, Lamine and Love, Peter E.D.
year 2001
title REALMEDIA: providing multimedia-based real-estate services through the Internet
source Automation in Construction 10 (2) (2001) pp. 275-289
summary This paper presents the design and implementation of a software system, known as REALMEDIA, which provides Web-based, multimedia real-estate services on the Internet. REALMEDIA is innovative in that it is designed to provide both on-line services to clients and a tool for maintaining the system to real-estate agent. The software consists of a web-based interface, a client side editor and an application server. The web interface is used by both the customer and the real-estate agent to request particular services. When used by a customer, it allows the potential buyer to select and view desired properties, and to make an appointment with agents. Multimedia information, which integrates text, graphics and video clips, are presented to the customer. When used by the agent, the web interface allows the agent to dynamically update the contents of the web page and to manipulate property details through the Client Side Editor. The application server acts as a bridge between the Web Interface and the Client Side Editor. The computational architecture and major components of REALMEDIA as well as its implementation using JAVA, TCP/IP and FTP will be described.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 80f7
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2001
title Knowledge-based System to Support Architectural Design - Intelligent objects, project net-constraints, collaborative work
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 80-85
summary The architectural design business is marked by a progressive increase in operators all cooperating towards the realization of building structures and complex infrastructures (Jenckes, 1997). This type of design implies the simultaneous activity of specialists in different fields, often working a considerable distance apart, on increasingly distributed design studies. Collaborative Architectural Design comprises a vast field of studies that embraces also these sectors and problems. To mention but a few: communication among operators in the building and design sector; design process system logic architecture; conceptual structure of the building organism; building component representation; conflict identification and management; sharing of knowledge; and also, user interface; global evaluation of solutions adopted; IT definition of objects; inter-object communication (in the IT sense). The point of view of the research is that of the designers of the architectural artefact (Simon, 1996); its focus consists of the relations among the various design operators and among the latter and the information exchanged: the Building Objects. Its primary research goal is thus the conceptual structure of the building organism for the purpose of managing conflicts and developing possible methods of resolving them.
keywords Keywords. Collaborative Design, Architectural And Building Knowledge, Distributed Knowledge Bases, Information Management, Multidisciplinarity
series eCAADe
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0dbf
authors Chien, Sheng-Fen and Shih, Shen-Guan
year 2001
title Design through Information Filtering. A search driven approach for developing a layperson's CAAD environment
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 103-110
summary We propose a CAAD environment for non-designers. It is a new way to enable effective user participation during the design process. This CAAD environment contains an encapsulation of design knowledge and utilises information filtering as an interface to the design knowledge. Two prototypes are implemented as testbeds. So far, our experience has suggested that the approach has a promising future.
keywords Information Filtering, Design Knowledge Encapsulation, CAAD For Nondesigners
series CAAD Futures
email schien@mail.ntust.edu.tw
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 8a8c
authors Choi, J.W., Kwon, D.-Y. and Lee, H.-S.
year 2001
title DesignBUF: Exploring and Extending 2D Boolean Set Operations with Multiple Modes in the Early Design Phase
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 589-602
summary Boolean set operations have been a powerful design function set for any CAD systems including 2D and 3D domains. Their capacity to provide even more powerful design tools have not, however, been fully explored in the 2D system. The purpose of this study is to further explore 2D Boolean set operations with multiple modes, which include a pick mode, a wait mode, a drag-and-drop mode, and a draw-and-action mode. We develop a prototype design tool, called DesignBUF. It introduces a new concept of “design object buffer,” an intermediate design zone in which a designer freely sketches his/her design with design objects in a brainstorming fashion since valuable design ideas are ephemeral? and the designer needs to generate design schemes rapidly before the ideas disappear or are forgotten. After finishing such fast brainstorming processes, especially in the early design phase, the designer gets a stable and refined form of a floor plan, which in turn becomes a well structured form to maintain building and design information systematically. Therefore, the designer keeps switching back and forth between the “design object buffer” and structured floor plans. We believe that this dual working memory will not only increase system flexibility, but also reduce computation with unnecessarily complex design objects. This study also develops a robust algorithm to transform the intermediate design objects into a well-structured floor plan. In fact, the algorithm is also used for the extended Boolean set operations described above. A structured floor plan can also be transformed into non-structured forms. Research issues for future development are also identified at the end of the paper.
keywords Design Buffer, Extended Boolean Set Operations, Structured Floor Plan.
series CAAD Futures
email jchoi@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 04f2
authors Cimerman, Benjamin
year 2001
title Clients, architects, houses and computers: Experiment and reflection on new roles and relationships in design
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 100-109
summary This paper reports on recent work that focused on the potential impact of standard computer technology on the relationship between client and architect in the context of residential design. A study of software applications a client could use to develop and evaluate ideas exposed the dearth of software available for the design of spatial complexity by individuals without advanced computer skills, and led to the design of a specific piece of software we call “Space Modeler.” It was prototyped using off-the-shelf virtual reality technology, and tested by a group of freshmen students. The paper discusses the specificities of the software and provides analysis and reflection based on the results of the test, both in terms of design artifacts and users’ comments. The paper concludes that the evolution of the interface to electronic environments is a matter of interest for those concerned with rethinking the training, role and activity of the architect. In the near future prospective homeowners may be able to experience and experiment with the space of their home before it is built. How can the profession embrace new information technology developments and appropriate them for the benefits of society at large?
keywords Design Software, Design Participation, Visualization, Simulation
series ACADIA
email cimerb@rpi.edu
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

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