CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 5ac1
authors Bourdakis, Vassilis
year 2001
title On Developing Standards for the Creation of VR City Models
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 404-409
summary The paper is an inclusive summary of research work on creating VR city models carried out over the last six years in the UK and Greece aiming to put into discussion the guidelines/ rules developed by the author. The paper is structured in three sections referring to the main stages in terms of either technical expertise and problem solving or conceptual structuring of information: creation of 3D city models, CAAD versus VR in digital city modelling and finally utilizing digital city models. The expected outcome of the work presented is the establishment of a body of knowledge that will facilitate the development of standards and guidelines for the creation of city models. There are obvious advantages in having a compatible set of city 3D models. On the other hand, there are different rules to be followed and issues to be solved, according to the scale of the model, level of detail that is needed—all these rules relate to the projected use of the model.
keywords Digital City Models, 3D Modelling, Virtual Reality, Urban Planning
series eCAADe
email v.bourdakis@prd.uth.gr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7eb9
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang and Martens, Bob
year 2001
title A Working Session on 3-D City Modeling
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 417-422
summary On the occasion of a presentation on a city model for Graz at the eCAADe-conference in Weimar (2000), some attendees informed us about their previous work in this field and the idea of preparing a working session with collegues involved in 3-D city modeling was born. During the initial phase of research for this eCAADe conference activity it turned out that a large number of city models has been created in the course of time for different reasons resp. purposes. Therefore a rich variety in the production of city models can be noticed. This working session on 3-D city modeling brings together experts focusing on different aspects concerning the creation and use of city models, such as data input, data structure, data storage and data quality. Also the definition of a perspective on the future of 3-D city modeling can be regarded as an important topic. In this paper a rough overview on the different submissions will be presented. Furthermore three blitz statements are incorporated as time was too short to produce a full paper. Both with the individual contributions as with this overview paper it is intended to present a knowledge-base to this working field. Finally, the start for a growing bibliography was made in order to support future work in this area.
keywords Urban Modeling, 3-D Modeling, Collaboration, City Information, Model Adaptation
series eCAADe
email dokonal@stdb.tu-graz.ac.at, b.martens@tugraz.at
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_18
id avocaad_2001_18
authors Aleksander Asanowicz
year 2001
title The End of Methodology - Towards New Integration
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The present paper is devoted to the deliberation on the genesis and development of designing from the point of view of the potential use of computers in the process. Moreover, it also presents the great hopes which were connected with the use of the systematic designing methods in the 1960’s, as well as the great disappointment resulting from the lack of concrete results. At this time a great deal of attention was paid to the process of design as a branch of a wider process of problem-solving. Many people believed that the intuitive methods of design traditionally used by architects were incapable of dealing with the complexity of the problems to be solved. Therefore, the basic problem was the definition of a vertical structure of the designing process, which would make it possible to optimise each process of architectural design. The studies of design methodology directed at the codification of the norms of actions have not brought about any solutions which could be commonly accepted, as the efforts to present the designing process as a formally logical one and one that is not internally “uncontrary” from the mathematical point of view, were doomed to fail. Moreover, the difficulties connected with the use of the computer in designing were caused by the lack of a graphic interface, which is so very characteristic of an architect’s workshop. In result, the methodology ceased to be the main area of the architect’s interest and efforts were focused on facilitating the method of the designer’s communication with the computer. New tools were created, which enabled both the automatic generation of diversity and the creation of forms on the basis of genetic algorithms, as well as the presentation of the obtained results in the form of rendering, animation and VRML. This was the end of the general methodology of designing and the beginning of a number of methods solving the partial problems of computer-supported design. The present situation can be described with the words of Ian Stewart as a “chaotic run in all directions”. An immediate need for new integration is felt. Cyber-real space could be a solution to the problem. C-R-S is not a virtual reality understood as an unreal world. Whilst VR could be indeed treated as a sort of an illusion, C-R-S is a much more realistic being, defining the area in which the creative activities are taking place. The architect gains the possibility of having a direct contact with the form he or she is creating. Direct design enables one to creatively use the computer technology in the designing process. The intelligent system of recognising speech, integrated with the system of virtual reality, will allow to create an environment for the designer – computer communication which will be most natural to the person. The elimination of this obstacle will facilitate the integration of the new methods into one designing environment. The theoretical assumptions of such an environment are described in the present paper.
series AVOCAAD
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ga0118
id ga0118
authors Annunziato, Mauro and Pierucci, Piero
year 2001
title Learning and Contamination in Virtual Worlds
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The most recent advances of artificial life scientific research are opening up a new frontier: the creation of simulated life environments populated by autonomous agents. In these environments artificial beings can interact, reproduce and evolve [4, 6, 15], and can be seen as laboratories whereto explore the emergence of social behaviors like competition, cooperation, relationships and communication [5, 7] . It is still not possible to approach a reasonable simulation of the incredible complexity of human or animal societies, but these environments can be used as a scientific orartistic tool to explore some basic aspects of the evolution [1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. The combination of these concepts with robotics technology or with immersive-interactive 3D environments (virtual reality) are changing quickly well known paradigms like digital life, manmachineinterface, virtual world. The virtual world metaphor becomes interesting when the artificial beings can develop some form of learning, increasing their performances, adaptation, and developing the ability to exchange information with human visitors. In this sense the evolution enhances the creative power and meaningful of these environments, and human visitors experience an emotion of a shift from a simplified simulation of the reality to a real immersion into an imaginary life. We may think that these realization are the first sparks of a new form of life: simulated for the soft-alife thinkers, real for the hard-alife thinkers, or a simple imaginary vision for the artists.
series other
email plancton@plancton.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id be0b
authors Dokonal, W., Martens, B. and Ploesch, R.
year 2001
title Continuing work on a 3-d city model for architectural education
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 319-322
summary This paper describes continuing experiences with the creation of a 3D-City Model at Graz University of Technology. It presents an innovative approach in establishing a city model with the substantial support of students in the study fields of architecture and surveying. Doubtlessly other projects already revealed similar issues, but so far without direct collaborative input by students.
keywords 3D City Modeling
series CAADRIA
email dokonal@stdb.tu-graz.ac.at
last changed 2002/07/04 12:00

_id 40a6
authors Ennis, Gareth and Lindsay, Malcolm
year 2001
title VRGLASGOW.CO.UK implementation of internet multi-user functionality to Glasgow's virtual city
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 135-142 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary The development of the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) for the Internet has resulted in the emergence of a multiplicity of 3D web sites. The metaphor used by these sites varies enormously from virtual galleries to virtual cities and style varies from abstract to reality. Additionally these worlds are populated by virtual objects, some having reactive or interactive properties, including movement, audio, video, databases, artificial intelligence etc. Perhaps the most stimulating embodiment of these new environments are those that offer the participant the opportunity to meet and communicate with other visitors exploring the same virtual space/world. The Glasgow Directory is an established 3D web space, with around 10,000 visitors per year. The model represents approximayely 10,000 properties in the city and is populated by contextual information on its culture and socio-economic topography. This paper will describe the background to this VR space, and suggest a set of design criteria for successfully deploying multi-user software within this and similar environments. These criteria will take into account lessons learned by 'observing' and analysing how participants interact with the existing system under different conditions and also what benefits they perceive on entering the environment via the multi-user interface. These recommendations will hopefully be applicable to a wide spectrum of internet virtual environment builders and users.
series other
email gary.ennis@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 3dcd
authors Ennis, Gary and Maver, Tom
year 2001
title Visit VR Glasgow - Welcoming multiple visitors to the Virtual City
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 423-429
summary The development of the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) for the Internet has resulted in the emergence of a multiplicity of 3D web sites. The metaphor used by these sites varies enormously from virtual galleries to virtual cities and style varies from abstract to reality. Additionally these worlds are populated by virtual objects, some having reactive or interactive properties, including movement, audio, video, databases, artificial intelligence etc. Perhaps the most stimulating embodiment of these new environments are those that offer the participant the opportunity to meet and communicate with other visitors exploring the same virtual space/world. The Glasgow Directory is an established 3D web space, with around 10,000 visitors per year. The model represents approximately 10,000 properties in the city and is populated by contextual information on its culture and socio-economic topography. This paper describes the background to this VR space, and suggests a set of design criteria for successfully deploying multi-user software within this and similar environments. These criteria take into account lessons learned by ‘observing’ and analysing how participants interact with the existing system under different conditions and also what benefits they perceive on entering the environment via the multi-user interface. These recommendations will hopefully be applicable to a wide spectrum of internet virtual environment builders and users.
keywords Virtual, City, 3-D, Databases, Interaction
series eCAADe
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk, gary.ennis@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id f1c4
authors Holmgren, S., Rüdiger, B. and Tournay, B.
year 2001
title The 3D-City Model – A New Space
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 430-435
summary We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain this shift in paradigms we begin by describing some of the concrete models we have made, showing the relationship between model structure (methodology and content) and model use. We also describe the projects we are working on at present in order to illustrate new ideas concerning the potential development of 3D city models.
keywords Digital 3D City Model, Urban Regeneration, Participatory Design, On Line Community
series eCAADe
email steen.holmgren@karch.dk, bjarne.rudiger@karch.dk, bruno.tournay@karch.dk
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id caadria2007_233
id caadria2007_233
authors Hoseini, Ali Ghaffarian; Rahinah Ibrahim
year 2007
title Using Social Network Analysis for Visualising Spatial Planning During Conceptual Design Phase
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Spatial diagramming exercises with clients are difficult when most clients are not able to visualize the end results of their requirements. This paper would like to introduce a computational tool—Social Network Analysis (SNA)—commonly used in the communications field to study relationships between people we believe can resolve this visualization problem. Our research intent is to affirm whether or not we can use SNA as a spatial planning tool during conceptual building design. We posit that since the nodes and structural relationships between the nodes may have similar architectural characteristics, the tool would enable architects to make changes by moving any spaces on a floor plan while safely maintaining their spatial relationships to other spaces. In this paper, we would like to develop a proof-of-concept model using an available SNA tool to facilitate spatial diagramming visualization during conceptual design phase. We tested the use of a SNA tool at four levels. The first level determined whether we could develop spatial relationship between functional spaces (such as the living room must be adjacent to the front entry). The second level is on setting priorities values for the different nodes and the linkages. The third level determined whether we could develop grouping relationship between several functional spaces that have a common characteristic (such as public versus private spaces) on one horizontal plane. The final fourth level determined whether we could develop multiple layers that are connected by one common connector (such as a staircase in a double-story house). Our models are validated intellectually by visual comparison between our model and another diagramming by Nooshin (2001) that was developed manually. We are most interested in the fourth level because complexity in the spatial diagramming exercises is caused by multi-layered spatial arrangements at the horizontal and vertical planes. We expect our study to provide us guidelines in developing a prototype for a spatial diagramming tool using SNA, which architects can use to resolve visualization problems when conducting the exercise with their clients.
series CAADRIA
email Ali_ghaffarian_hoseini@yahoo.com
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_08
id avocaad_2001_08
authors Ivanka Iordanova, Temy Tidafi
year 2001
title Design assistance by complexity-supporting precedents' modelling
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design processes imply complexity at every stage of the development of a project. On one hand, this complexity is rarely taken into consideration by the currently used CAD programs. On the other hand, recent theoretical researches indicate that a large proportion of architectural design processes are based on precedents as a source of inspiration or as a basis for reflection. A precedent is usually seen as a sketch, as a picture, as a drawing or as a visual memory of an architectural object or space. Recent research enlarges this concept into at least two directions: (1) precedents are looked for not only in the architectural space, and (2) it’s not only the visual aspect of a precedent that is important, but also its internal logic and structure, the know-how associated to it, and the actions needed for its creation. Usually, architectural design knowledge is implicitly presented by precedents. This design knowledge is applied to design-objects having various levels of generality, at different states of detailing and expected to be dynamically transformed during the following stages of design. Having in mind these characteristics of precedents called for during the architectural design process, we propose to join their visual representation with a description of their most important characteristics: structural organisation, way of production, functional organisation, spatial composition, etc. These can be either described or modelled by the original author, or interpreted by the precedent’s ‘user’. These design-knowledge models can be of use in several ways: (1) providing a library for search of precedents by semantic analogy, (2) offering ready-to-use capsules of design knowledge for new design situations, (3) enriching the ‘design world’ of the user-architect. We have implemented the proposed method of complexity-supporting precedents’ modelling by the means of the functional programming SGDL-Scheme language. The models (a programming function or a structure of programming functions) describe the actions necessary for the creation of an object (or its digital representation) and the structural organisation between the models in order to generate new, more complex ones. The concept of describing actions instead of shapes, provides a multi-level applicability of the models. Visual presentations (digital maquettes, images or animations) of newly generated objects can be stored in a visual-library of the assistant, thus creating a new ‘precedent’ that can be referred to in future by visual analogy. The design-knowledge that has generated the new object, is stored and linked to the image. Thus, the visual stimulus of a precedent can be joined with functional characteristics, production procedures and/or semantic meaning of the object. The paper will present the ‘engine’ of the proposed assistant, its organisation, as well as digital models of precedents that have served as a basis for the design of new architectural objects or structures. The assistant is conceived as an open, complexity supporting structure that can be further developed by the ‘user-architect’. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed assistant.
series AVOCAAD
email Ivanka.Iordanova@videotron.ca, Temy.Tidafi@Umontreal.ca
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 9de9
authors Laakso, Mikko
year 2001
title Practical Navigation in Virtual Architectural Environments
source Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
summary The interest towards virtual reality (VR) and virtual environments (VE) is growing all the time. The applications being developed for VE run a wide spectrum, from games to business planning. This thesis concentrates on navigation in virtual architectural environments, movement in worlds that are very similar to our own. Navigation in a virtual world should be practical, intuitive and simple. Unfortunately, it is very often far from that - for some reason the usability issues in VEs have been usually left with little attention. Currently it is easy for a user to get lost and disoriented when traveling in a VE. This situation must change, navigating through virtual environments can no longer be considered a task reserved for the experts only. 3D-worlds and architectural applications for the common user require new, intuitive interface techniques. This thesis addresses issues related to both physical and cognitive aspects of navigation as well as theoretical models that bind them together. In the technology survey of this thesis, the virtual environment technology is presented. Different visual display systems, new input devices and some 3D user interface design aspects are described. The literature survey section discusses the main issues concerning navigation theory. The two parts of navigation, travel and wayfinding, are described in detail. The major challenges are discussed and some solutions and various research results are presented. A major part of the thesis consists of the description of HCNav, a new navigation system developed by the author. The system was constructed for use in the virtual room at Helsinki University of Technology. The purpose of HCNav is to provide a very intuitive and practical navigation interface. Three new experimental input devices, namely custom wand, data glove and speech recognition system, were tested. Another important part of the work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCNav system. A usability test was conducted to determine if the use of HCNav was actually improving navigation performance. Twelve subjects participated in a test where HCNav was compared with a traditional navigation software used previously in the virtual room. The experiment setup has been described and the results analyzed. The results are promising and show that the navigation methods adopted in HCNav are clearly better.
keywords Virtual Environments, Navigation, Usability
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 7853
authors Low, Boon Kee and Sloan, Brian
year 2001
title A perspective on the digital interactive service industry for building professionals
source Automation in Construction 10 (2) (2001) pp. 229-237
summary The digital interactive service industry has the potential to generate innovation and strategic advantage for existing business if the underlying dynamics of the emerging industry are fostered through appropriate understanding and strategic actions. This paper puts in perspective the fundamentals affecting the creation of new interactive services for building professions. The fundamentals reviewed include issues related to acquiring new skills as well as establishing market and user needs. In addition, recent advent of the industry has resulted in various new business models being utilised not only for business process improvement but also more strategically for market penetration and business expansion. Through the use of three examples viz. interactive content studio, content rights intermediary and virtual community, this paper investigates the current and potential impacts of these new models upon the businesses within the building sectors.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id avocaad_2001_21
id avocaad_2001_21
authors Martijn Stellingwerff
year 2001
title Visual Cues in the CYBER-REAL Complex
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Current Computer Aided Architectural Design deals with issues of complexity in creation and interpretation of the built environment, complexity of the computer systems and complexity of the representations of the design object. The term ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’ in this paper is defined as the whole (un)conscious state of the architectural design project in the heads of the design-group and as how it is maintained in CAAD systems. The ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’ contains the design, its context and all related information such as planning, product specifications and design ideas. An Intranet is an interesting means for storage and approach of such complex project-data. However the knowledge and data of the project participants remains in their heads and new methods have to be developed in order to get each participant to share his or her personal information about the project. Meetings and intense data retrieval by an Intranet can establish a useful ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’. Then, as a designer wants to approach and change the information in the ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’, a very good set of tools, methods and media has to be at hand. The complexity of all the information can be overwhelming and it can take much effort to re-understand and re-interpret the information before new decisions and design-steps can be made. Currently, the understanding of CAAD representations by the designer and the deliberate execution of operations on increasingly complex datasets through increasingly complex user interfaces takes too much time and effort. An enhanced way of representation in the ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’ could help the approach and understanding of the information. Therefore the visual language of information systems needs further research and development. This paper explores several limits of human perception and ways to adhere to the human way of visual thinking in order to find and add new visual cues in CAAD, VR interfaces and in the ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’ as a whole. Successively the perceptive aspects of complex information, the role of visual cues in complex information and several examples of visual cues in research tests are presented. The paper draws from knowledge of the Gestalt Theory, Perception Research and findings of a PhD research project about Visual Language for Context Related Architectural Design. Findings of this research show that designers use distinct views to get overview and insight in the project data and that different kinds of data representation are needed for different phases in the design process. Finally it showed that abstract represented and filtered information can be very useful for remaining focus in the otherwise overwhelming dataset.
series AVOCAAD
email m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 7655
authors Okeil, Ahmad and El Araby, Mostafa
year 2003
title Realism vs. Reality in Digital Reconstruction of Cities
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary The digital reconstruction of existing cities using virtual reality techniques is being increasingly used. For consultants, municipalities and planning departments these models provide decision support through visual simulations (El Araby, 2001). For academia they provide a new tool for teaching students urban design and planning (Okeil, 2001). For authorities they provide a tool for promoting the city on the world wide web trying to attract more businesses and tourists to it. The built environment is very rich in detail. It does not only consist of open spaces surrounded by abstract buildings but it also includes many smaller objects such as street furniture, traffic signs, street lights, different types of vegetation and shop signs for example. All surfaces in the built environment have unique properties describing color, texture and opacity. The built environmentis dynamic and our perception is affected by factors such as pedestrian movement, traffic, environmental factors such as wind, noise and shadows. The built environment is also shaped by the accumulation of changes caused by many influences through time. All these factors make the reconstruction of the built environment a very complex task. This paper tries to answer the question: how realistic the reconstructed models of urban areas can be. It sees “Realism“ as a variable floating between three types of realties. The reality of the physical environment which we are trying to represent. The reality of the digital environment which will host the digitally reconstructed city. And the reality of the working environment which deals with the problem of limitation of resources needed to digitally reconstruct the city. A case study of building a 3D computer model of an urban area in the United Arab Emirates demonstrates that new time-saving techniques for data acquisition can enhance realism by meetingbudget limitations and time limitations.
keywords Virtual Reality; Photo Realism; Texture Maps; 3D Modeling; Urban Design
series other
email a.okeil@uaeu.ac.ae
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id cf2011_p163
id cf2011_p163
authors Park, Hyoung-June
year 2011
title Mass-Customization in the Design of 4,000 Bus Stops
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 265-278.
summary In Hawaii, ‚"TheBus‚" has been a main transportation system since 1971. Considering the high cost of living in Hawaii and the absence of a rail system, the use of ‚"TheBus‚" has been an instrumental vein of the city life in Honolulu with rhythmical pauses at about 4,000 bus stops in Honolulu. However, existing undifferentiated bus stops are developed from a cost effective mass production system so that they have been problematic for satisfying specific needs from various site conditions. In this research, an integrated computational method of mass-customization for designing 4,000 bus stops is introduced. According to various site conditions, the design of each bus stop is customized. Unlike the mass‚Äêproduced bus stops commonly seen in cities today, the proposed computational method in this paper produces bus stop design outcomes that fit into the physical characteristics of the location in which they are installed. Mass-customization allows for the creation and production of unique or similar buildings and building components, differentiated through digitally‚Äêcontrolled variation (Kolarevic, 2003). The employment of a computational mass‚Äêcustomization in architectural design extends the boundary of design solutions to the satisfaction of multi-objective requirements and unlimited freedom to search alternative solutions (Duarte, 2001; Caldas, 2006). The computational method developed in this paper consists of 1) definition of a prototype, 2) parametric variation, 3) manual deformation, and 4) simulation based deformation. The definition of a prototype is the development of a basic design to be transformed for satisfying various conditions given from a site. In this paper, the bus stop prototype is developed from the analysis of more than 300 bus stops and the categorization of the existing bus stops according to their physical conditions, contextual conditions, climatic conditions, and existing amenities. Based upon the outcome of the analysis, the design variables of a bus stop prototype are defined. Those design variables then guide the basic physical parameters for changing the physical configuration of the prototype according to a given site. From this, many possible design outcomes are generated as instances for further developments. The process of manual deformation is where the designer employs its intuition to develop the selected parametric variation. The designer is compelled to think about the possible implication derived from formal variation. This optional process allows every design decision to have a creative solution from an individual designer with an incidental quality in aesthetics, but substantiated functional quality. Finally the deformation of the selection is guided and controlled by the influence of sun direction/ exposure to the selection. The simulation based deformation starts with the movement of the sun as the trigger for generating the variations of the bus stop prototype. The implementation of the computational method was made within the combination of MEL (Maya Enbedded Language), autodesk MAYA and Ecotect environment.
keywords mass-customization, parametric variation, simulation based deformation
series CAAD Futures
email hjpark@hawaii.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 0407
authors Peng, C., Chang, D.C., Blundell Jones, P. and Lawson, B.
year 2001
title Dynamic Retrieval in an Urban Contextual Databank System using Java-CGI Communications. Development of the SUCoD Prototype
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 89-102
summary This paper presents our current development of the Sheffield Urban Contextual Databank (SUCoD) prototype that provides users with a Webbased interface for dynamic retrieval of architectural and urban contextual information of the city of Sheffield. In comparison with past attempts of building Virtual Cities accessible over the Internet, we have experimented with a different system architecture capable of generating VRML models and other related documents on the fly according to users' requests. Through working examples, we describe our methods of implementing the data communications between Java applets and Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts. The SUCoD prototype has been developed to explore and demonstrate how user centred dynamic retrieval of urban contextual information can be supported, which we consider a user requirement of primary importance in its future use for collaborative design and research relating to the city of Sheffield.
keywords Urban Contextual Databank, Dynamic Retrieval, Java, Common Gateway Interface, VRML, HTML, Virtual Cities
series CAAD Futures
email c.peng@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id e7e7
authors Popova, M., Johansson, P. and Lindgren, H.
year 2001
title Case-based Reasoning in Collaborative Design: The role of product models and information structures
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 92-97
summary This paper discusses methods for information management through the rational application of IT within collaborative design. We explore the possible integration of the platforms of case-based reasoning and information structures. We examine the potential combination of existing techniques (CAD-tools, word processors, general applications, WWW) and standards (IFC, national classification systems) into a system for information management. We focus on the designers’ use of heterogeneous information and the further development of a prototype based on product-model and process-model technology. Today, XML helps us structure various kinds of information before the system performs case-based reasoning sessions. The aim is to promote efficient and flexible information management in a casebased design process. Through the use of standardized product models, this information will be sharable and suitable for reuse and feedback. The more often the information is reused, the more general and adaptable it becomes i.e. it evolves. This scenario requires, though, efficient information management in the design office: a quality system for evaluating the information for reuse, consequent use of standardized product models and IT.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Product Models, Information Structures, Collaborative Design And Construction Process
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 48db
authors Proctor, George
year 2001
title CADD Curriculum - The Issue of Visual Acuity
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 192-200
summary Design educators attempt to train the eyes and minds of students to see and comprehend the world around them with the intention of preparing those students to become good designers, critical thinkers and ultimately responsible architects. Over the last eight years we have been developing the digital media curriculum of our architecture program with these fundamental values. We have built digital media use and instruction on the foundation of our program which has historically been based in physical model making. Digital modeling has gradually replaced the capacity of physical models as an analytical and thinking tool, and as a communication and presentation device. The first year of our program provides a foundation and introduction to 2d and 3d design and composition, the second year explores larger buildings and history, the third year explores building systems and structure through design studies of public buildings, fourth year explores urbanism, theory and technology through topic studios and, during the fifth year students complete a capstone project. Digital media and CADD have and are being synchronized with the existing NAAB accredited regimen while also allowing for alternative career options for students. Given our location in the Los Angeles region, many students with a strong background in digital media have gone on to jobs in video game design and the movie industry. Clearly there is much a student of architecture must learn to attain a level of professional competency. A capacity to think visually is one of those skills and is arguably a skill that distinguishes members of the visual arts (including Architecture) from other disciplines. From a web search of information posted by the American Academy of Opthamology, Visual Acuity is defined as an ability to discriminate fine details when looking at something and is often measured with the Snellen Eye Chart (the 20/20 eye test). In the context of this paper visual acuity refers to a subject’s capacity to discriminate useful abstractions in a visual field for the purposes of Visual Thinking- problem solving through seeing (Arnheim, 1969, Laseau 1980, Hoffman 1998). The growing use of digital media and the expanding ability to assemble design ideas and images through point-and-click methods makes the cultivation and development of visual skills all the more important to today’s crop of young architects. The advent of digital media also brings into question the traditional, static 2d methods used to build visual skills in a design education instead of promoting active 3d methods for teaching, learning and developing visual skills. Interactive digital movies provide an excellent platform for promoting visual acuity, and correlating the innate mechanisms of visual perception with the abstractions and notational systems used in professional discourse. In the context of this paper, pedagogy for building visual acuity is being considered with regard to perception of the real world, for example the visual survey of an environment, a site or a street scene and how that visual survey works in conjunction with practice.
keywords Curriculum, Seeing, Abstracting, Notation
series eCAADe
email grproctor@csupomona.edu
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

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