CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 706

_id 4533
authors Datta, S., Morison, D. and Roberts, K.
year 2001
title Pedagogical Templates: A Comparative Study of Higher Order Reflective Making, Playful Design Learning Forum
source Adelaide University School of Architecture, Landscape Architecture and Urban Design, Adelaide
summary Schon's notion of reflection-in-action implies a constructivist process of learning, especially valid in the teaching of professional disciplines such as architecture. Action becomes the instrument of conjecture and learning arises in the context of reflection upon the act. Such a process of interleaving action and reflection constitutes a "higher-order" process of reflective making. Research in design studies has shown that strategies for making differ markedly between professional and novitiate designers. Further, such studies have shown that skilled designers employ past experience and precedents to create context for new problem situations. To address the lack of context in novitiate learning situations, we propose the use of "pedagogical templates" for the promotion of "higher-order" strategies in design learning contexts for supporting beginning design students. We focus on the use of digital media, specifically for the design, implementation and delivery of constructive learning situations. This paper presents the use of a pedagogical template in the creation of constructivist contexts for two complementary courses, a traditional design studio and a computermodelling course at Deakin University. The resulting implications for design learning and the integration of physical and digital forms of making through the use of a pedagogical template are discussed.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id d146
authors He, Jie
year 2001
title CAD Study in Visual Analysis of the Visual Sustainability for China Urban Natural Landscape Planning
source Chinese University of Hong Kong
summary In this thesis a GIS-based CAD system prototype of evaluating visual quality of urban natural landscape environment is presented. This prototype is an indispensable component of the integrative Visual Sustainability research, and offers a calculable and visualizable technique to urban visual natural landscape assessment. This scientific method provides precise data to estimate the visibility of natural landscape in urban construction actuality. Furthermore, it can also work out supporting information for maintaining and protecting valuable visual landscape resources in further planning. Introduction of this methodology intends to improve the natural landscape cooperation in China urban planning through visual protection. Combining with popular CAD software such as AutoCAD and Microstation, the research team uses ArcView GIS software and its 3D Analyst extension to accomplish a set of research procedure, which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis. In addition, this system can create simultaneous 3D scenes or hire other information media as reference tools for professional analysis, design consultation and intercommunication. The core technologies of this proposed system are viewshed calculation and overlay analysis. In viewshed analysis, human visual characteristics are simulated by a series of ergonomics parameters of viewpoints. Viewshed of each viewpoint can be calculated into vector data and mapped by polygons identifying which region is visible and which is not. Overlay function of the proposed system is used in visual sensibility analysis to achieve the division of higher visual sensible area which indicates the common visible area from different viewpoints. Additionally, viewshed maps and visual sensibility results can add more information to mark out the areas that can satisfy certain visual parameters such as appropriate visual angle or visual distance. These overlaying results can visualized the visible areas into hierarchical visual perception quality categories in order to define the visual landscape significance of particular planning regions. A case study was operated to evaluate this system. The case is in Zhongshan city, Guangdong Province of China. Jinzishan hill region is the study site that picked by collaborating discussion of research team and the local government. It is located on the edge of urban built-up area. Jinzishan massif is the prominent landscape element of the surrounding environment. There are three topics in Jinzishan visual perception in this paper. The first topic is the visual quality evaluation of the intersections of its surrounding road system. The second is the integrated visual perception of two main roads called Qiwandao and Bo’ailu. Finally is the analysis of the hill skyline visual quality in surrounding area. The analysis results in GIS vector data can be converted into popular data format and combined with other spatial information for practical application. And comments for future urban planning are collected and analyzed by professional responses to the computer-generated information investigation.
keywords Natural Landscaping; Computer-Aided Design; Landscape Architecture; City Planning; Geographic Information Systems
series thesis:MSc
email hejie@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 3815
authors Qaqish, Ra’ed
year 2001
title VDS/DDS Practice Hinges on Interventions and Simplicity - A Case Study of Hard Realism vs. Distorted Idealism
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 249-255
summary This paper reports on a contemporary and laborious ongoing experimental work initiated during the establishment of a new Virtual/Digital design studio “VDS” in Sept. 1999 by CAAD tutors at University of Petra “UOP”. The new VDS/DDS now works as an experimental laboratory to explore several solutions to problems of efficiency in design teaching as a new digital design studio paradigm, in tandem with CAD/Design staff, DS environment, materials and facilities. Two groups of graduating level students participated as volunteers in this experiment. The first group was comprised of three fifth-year architectural design students while the second group was comprised of two fourth-year interior design students. The media currently in use are ArchiCAD 6.5 as a design tool along with CorelDraw 9 as a presentational tool, running on Pentium III computers. The series of experiments evaluated the impression on architectural design studio tuition requirements arising from the changes brought about by the implementation of the new CAD pedagogical approach (VDS/DDS) at UOP. The findings echo several important key issues in tandem with CAAD, such as: the changes brought about by the new design strategies, adaptation in problem solving decision-making techniques, studio employment in terms of environment, means and methods. Other issues are VDS/DDS integration schemes carried out by both students and staff as one team in design studio practice on one hand and the curriculum on the other. Finally, the paper discusses the negative impact of conventional design studio hardliner teaching advocates and students alike whose outlook and impressions undermine and deplete effective CAAD integration and obstruct, in many instances, the improvement of such experiments in a VDS environment.
keywords Design Studio Strategies, Problem Solving Decisions, Transformation And Integration Policies
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@index.com.jo
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 81ba
authors Bilda, Zafer
year 2001
title Designers‚ Cognition in Traditional versus Digital Media during Conceptual Design
source Bilkent University Ankara Turkey
summary Designers depend on representations to externalize their design thoughts. External representations are usually in the form of sketches (referred to as traditional media) in architectural design during the conceptual design. There are also attempts to integrate the use of digital representations into the conceptual design in order to construct a digital design medium. This thesis aims at gaining an insight on designers’ cognitive processes while sketching in digital versus traditional media. The analysis of cognitive processes of designers based on their protocols is necessary to reveal their design behavior in both media. An experiment was designed employing six interior architects (at Bilkent University) solving an interior space planning problem by changing the design media they work with. In order to encode the design behavior, a coding scheme was utilized so that inspecting both the design activity and the responses to media transition was possible in terms of primitive cognitive actions of designers. The analyses of the coding scheme constituents, which are namely segmentation and cognitive action categories enabled a comparative study demonstrating the effect of the use of different media in conceptual design phase. The results depicted that traditional media had advantages over the digital media such as supporting perception of visual-spatial features, and organizational relations of the design, production of alternative solutions and better conception of the design problem. These results also emerged implications for the computer aid in architectural design to support the conceptual phase of the design process. 
keywords Design Cognition; Protocol Analysis; Sketching; Digital Media
series thesis:MSc
email demirkan@bilkent.edu.tr
last changed 2003/05/01 18:14

_id cf2007_585
id cf2007_585
authors Fischer, Thomas
year 2007
title Enablement or Restriction? On supporting others in making (sense of things)
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / 978-1-4020-6527-9 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / 978-1-4020-6527-9] Sydney (Australia) 11–13 July 2007, pp. 585-598
summary In this paper I present and reflect upon a five-year investigation of designing digital tools for designing in the area of architectural space grid structures. I understand design as a novelty and knowledge generating conversational process as described by Pask (see Scott 2001) and Glanville (2000). Furthermore, I regard making design tools as a design task in itself, rendering this paper a reflection on designing for designing. This paper gives a report on observations I made during the toolmaking study, and subsequently contextualizes these observations using second-order cybernetic theory. This reflection focuses on different relationships between observers and systems, on conditions under which observers construct knowledge and on limits of supporting others in this activity.
series CAAD Futures
email sdtom@polyu.edu.hk
last changed 2007/07/06 10:47

_id 5a98
authors Huang, Ching-Hui
year 2001
title A preliminary study of spatializing cyberspace
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 27-37
summary The spatial nature of cyberspace has not yet fully defined. This paper presents both analogous and comparative approach to reveal the spatial nature of cyberspace based on a conventional architecture theory, Space Syntax. Two types of city, the physical and the virtual, are compared in order to realize the configurational properties of cyberspace. The findings of this study indicate that the theoretical assumptions of existing architecture theories need to be altered so that cyberspace can be well interpret and understand.
series CAADRIA
email chuang@iaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id e98e
authors Siu, Norman W.C. and Dilnot, Clive
year 2001
title The challenge of the codification of tacit knowledge in designing and making: a case study of CAD systems in the Hong Kong jewellery industry
source Automation in Construction 10 (6) (2001) pp. 701-714
summary Using the separation of designing and making activities in quantity-production systems of the Hong Kong jewellery industry as a case, this paper will show that codifying the tacit knowledge into the CAD systems is becoming deliberately feasible when the tacit knowledge are converted into accessible and applicable formats without losing its distinctive properties. The contextual analysis of the conventional jewellery production systems indicates that the separation of knowledge leads the consequence and the problems of partial representation. In order to study how the tacit-format attributes, which were separately contributed by the jewellery designers and goldsmith, can be extracted, recaptured, recorded, integrated and finally coded into CAD database, a project of scanning a hand-crafted 3D object was initiated and implemented. The successful result of the tested project not only demonstrates the feasibility of codification of tacit knowledge in design representation, but also gives a strong theoretical foundation of the extendibility of both tacit and coded knowledge in a design perspective.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id db60
authors Af Klercker, J., Achten, H. and Verbeke, J.
year 2001
title AVOCAAD - A First Step Towards Distance Learning?
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 269-274
summary In the industrial world knowledge is developed very fast. As most countries are depending on employees with a high level of knowledge and skills the term ”Life Long Learning” has been formulated and the concept is more and more accepted. Institutions of higher education are more and more involved in creating supplementary education more independent of time and place. Distance learning was originally carried out by ordinary mail, which was slow but might then have been the only solution for people in remote places. With the Internet and e-mail the distance-learning concept has got a far better tool, for instance better interaction facilities. Architects and engineers in practise are deeply involved in solving the problems of the present projects. Education which is independent of time and place must be of great interest to both parties. The AVOCAAD project has created an education model for students to meet the possibilities of CAAD. The education model can be used in a curriculum at a school as well as for distance learning. Among the possible experiences from it, the one concerning distance learning might be the most important future application of the system in architectural education. This paper sketches the pedagogical background and gives examples from other areas of knowledge, where distance learning is already in use. We will put the question how the AVOCAAD concept meets the experiences from distance learning.
keywords Distance Learning, Pedagogic, CAAD, E-Learning, AVOCAAD
series eCAADe
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
last changed 2005/09/09 08:46

_id 6ddf
authors Bessone, B., Mantovani, G. and Galuzzi, S.
year 2001
title SEIS AÑOS DE EXPERIENCIA ENTRE LO ANÁLOGO Y LO DIGITAL (Six Years of Experience Between the Analogue and the Digital)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 179-182
summary This paper intends to contribute Architecture I Experimental Workshops for a basis of knowledge, coming up from experimenting and investigating on pedagogical strategies, during the last decades of technological media changes. A temporal cutting sustained by two specific situations is proposed. Students´ processes: Beginners in ´96 are thesists now and learning result are evaluated. Educators´ processes: An interdisciplinary group including different subjects and skills was formed. A “Preliminary Test” checking methodological instruments was considered. After having done appropiate changes, traditional design processes were compared with new ones in order to continue with the Investigating Program.
series SIGRADI
email mbessone@fadu.unl.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 7e02
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2002
title The Virtual Campus: A new place for (lifelong) learning?
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 472-477
summary 472 eCAADe 20 [design e-ducation] Modeling Real and Virtual Worlds Session 13 In the early spring of 2001 a collection of German universities founded a virtual faculty of architecture, which was named „Liquid Campus“. Current thinking about future forms of education in the field of architecture combined with over 4 years of experience with net-based design studios, led to questions about the future of existing universities, their buildings and their use. This problem was put to 43 students in the form of a design exercise to create a place for a virtual university. In the current situation, in which the administration of knowledge is more and more located on the internet, and even the so-called meeting places themselves can be virtualised through the help of video-conference-software, the exercise was to design a virtual campus in the framework and to carry out this design work in a simulation of distributed practice. Initial criticism of the project came from the students in that exemplary working methods were not described, but left for the students to discover on their own. The creation of a concept for the Liquid Campus meant that the participants had to imagine working in a world without the face to face contacts that form the basis (at present) of personal interaction. Additionally, the assignment to create or design possible links between the real and the virtual was not an easy task for students who normally design and plan real physical buildings. Even the tutors had difficulties in producing focused constructive criticism about a virtual campus; in effect the virtualisation of the university leads to a distinctive blurring of its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosophical approach to the design problem. The paper explores the implications of the student’s conclusions on the nature of the university in general and draws conclusions specific to architectural education and the role of architecture in this process.
series eCAADe
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 0bc7
authors Norman, F.
year 2001
title Towards a paperless studio
source Proceedings of The ARCC Spring Research Meeting Architectural Research Centers Consortium, The College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, pp. 85-91
summary The infusion of digital media into the practice of architecture is changing how we design as well as what we design. Digital media has altered the process of design and the culture of design education. The question before us is how does one transition from a completely analog system of representation to one of complete computer immersion or the "paperless studio". Schools of Architecture have already begun to struggle with the physical issues of integration of new media (infrastructure and economics). But the pedagogical integration of new media should be of a greater concern. New media and its forms of representation are challenging traditional skills of communication and representation, (i.e., sketching, hand drawing and physical model making). The paradox facing architectural practice today is the integration of new media into a realm where traditional or manual forms of representation are ingrained into how we think, produce and communicate. We must ask ourselves, must new media be held to the traditional forms of representation?
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 679c
authors Norman, Frederick
year 2001
title Towards a Paperless Studio
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 336-343
summary The infusion of digital media into the practice of architecture is changing how we design as well as what we design. Digital media has altered the process of design and the culture of design education. The question before us is how does one transition from a completely analog system of representation to one of complete computer immersion or the “paperless studio”. Schools of Architecture have already begun to struggle with the physical issues of integration of new media (infrastructure and economics). But the pedagogical integration of new media should be of a greater concern. New media and its forms of representation are challenging traditional skills of communication and representation, (i.e., sketching, hand drawing and physical model making). The paradox facing architectural practice today is the integration of new media into a realm where traditional or manual forms of representation are ingrained into how we think, produce and communicate. We must ask ourselves, must new media be held to the traditional forms of representation?
keywords Digital Media, Design Studio, 3D Modeling, Animation
series ACADIA
email fnorman@bsu.edu
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 7491
authors Oxman, Rivka and Streich, Bernd
year 2001
title Digital Media and Design Didactics in Visual Cognition
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 186-191
summary The cognitive properties of design learning have rarely been the subject of design education. Irrespective of the specific design domain, traditional educational models in design education are based upon the evaluation of the product of designing rather than on what might be considered a learning increment. Lately we have developed the concept of cognitive learning tasks as learning increments in design education and propose that digital media constitute the basis of uniquely powerful learning technologies. The research described in this paper addresses the confluence of cognitive learning tasks as a pedagogical approach in design education, its potential relationship to digital media in order to develop a digital design didactics, and the relationship of these developments in design education to current practices of digital design generation. In this paper, we focus on the cognitive aspects of visual cognition in design learning. An example in the domain of architectural design is illustrated.
keywords Design Learning, Cognitive Design, Visual Cognition, Design Thinking, Design Generation
series eCAADe
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id sigradi2006_c012b
id sigradi2006_c012b
authors Rodriguez Barros, Diana and Carmena, Sonia
year 2006
title Estudio Descriptivo de Prácticas Padagógicas Mediadas por Tecnologías Digitales en Facultades de Arquitectura y Diseño asociadas a la buena Enseñanza [Descriptive study of pedagogical practices mediated by digital technologies in school of architecture and design, associated to the good education]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 191-194
summary It is presented a descriptive type study link to the documentary investigation. It is considers to understand, interpretate and critically reconstruct the present practices of proyectual education in studio of school of architecture and design of the region in virtual surroundings, tie to good education. It was used the Burbules & Callister (2001) new emergent postecnocratic approach. It is boarded from the perspective of the authors, in its natural scenes, in its all complexity and its implicances. One worked with a quanti-qualitative methodology, where revision techniques, analysis, evaluation and interpretation of documental textual and visual materials from primary sources were integrated. One has been based on the selection of exposed works in Sigradi congresses, since its creation in 1997 to the present, with extended and updated versions of the authors. As conclusions are recognized professors that show expertise and disciplinar control, that develop investigation tasks tie to the education practices, that incorporate technologies valuating limitations and advantages, and that has recognized the multiple implicit effects in the technologically mediated practices.
series SIGRADI
email scarmena@unr.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 24db
authors Tang, Tsien-Hui
year 2001
title Exploring the Roles of Exploring the roles of Sketches and Knowledge in the Design Process
source The University of Sydney, Faculty of Architecture
summary The needs of computational tools provide the motivation to have a better understanding of the roles of knowledge and sketches in the design process. The inadequacies of current computer-aided conceptual design tools result from our vague comprehension of the nature of the design process. The hypothesis of this study is that the design process involves interlocked and multi-mode processes in which design knowledge and sketches interact with each other to advance the design process. These interactions make current computer-aided design systems unsatisfactory in the conceptual design process. The understanding of these interactions would provide the foundation of more useful computational tools and potentially play a role in developing better pedagogical methods.

This research utilized both process-oriented and content-oriented coding schemes to examine different aspects of the design process. Concurrent and retrospective protocols were analyzed to determine their utility in revealing the design processes. Retrospective protocols and the content-oriented coding scheme were selected for design cognition studies in this research, and the procedures of experiments and analyses were described in detail.

The results of encoded protocols were presented in terms of segments, levels, and instances. They represented the design process in a way that enabled us to observe the interactions among sketches, knowledge, and different cognitive levels.

The examination of the conceptual design process demonstrated its features of interlinked levels and multiple modes; even one snippet of the process contained various modes and sub-processes. The shifting speed of intentions and the vagueness of sketches and functional references were also shown.

The study of the meditated roles of the sketches and knowledge in the design process shows the following. First, sketches are the affordances of perceptual and functional instances while designing. Most of the sketches made by designers are multi-functionally bounded. Second, design knowledge plays various roles in the conceptual design process. The ubiquitous designerly way of knowing demonstrates the differences between active developing and passive utilizing design knowledge. Finally, one of the roles of design sketches and knowledge is shown to be the connector among different cognitive levels in the design process.

The unpredictability of the design process is demonstrated in the results. Design knowledge provides previously generated solutions for the problem at hand, and design situatedness describes the phenomenon that a designer uses his/her experience to produce novelty and innovation. A method to measure the design innovation through an encoded protocol is proposed based on the concept of situated creativity.

The implications for future computer-aided design systems are presented based on the roles of sketches, knowledge, and situatedness in the interlinked and multimode design process. The concept of cognition-oriented CAD is proposed to provide empirical clues to improve current CAD systems.

series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/05/06 09:35

_id avocaad_2001_13
id avocaad_2001_13
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2001
title Modeling irregular and complex forms
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Computational technologies provide arguably the first real opportunity architectural design has had for a comprehensive description of built form. With the advent of affordable computer-aided design systems (including drafting, modeling, visualization and simulation tools), architects believe they can be in full control of geometric aspects and, through these, of a wide spectrum of other aspects that are implicit or explicit in the geometric representation. This belief is based primarily on the efficiency and effectiveness of computer systems, ranging from the richness and adaptability of geometric primitives to the utility of geometric representations in simulations of climatic aspects. Such capabilities support attempts to design and construct more irregular or otherwise complex forms. These fall under two main categories: (1) parsing of irregularity into elementary components, and (2) correlation of the form of a building with complex geometric structures.The first category takes advantage of the compactness and flexibility of computational representations in order to analyse the form of a design into basic elements, usually elementary geometric primitives. These are either arranged into simple, unconstrained configurations or related to each other by relationships that define e.g. parametric relative positioning or Boolean combinations. In both cases the result is a reduction of local complexity and an increase of implicit or explicit relationships, including the possibility of hierarchical structures.The second category attempts to correlate built form with constraints that derive usually from construction but can also be morphological. The correlation determines the applicability of complex geometric structures (minimally ruled surfaces) to the description of a design. The product of this application is generally variable in quality, depending upon the designer's grounding in geometry and his ability to integrate constraints from different aspects in the definition of the design's geometry.Both categories represent a potential leap forward but are also equally hampered by the rigidity of the implementation mechanisms upon which they rely heavily. The paper proposes an approach to making these mechanisms subordinate to the cognitive and technical aspects of architectural thinking through fuzzy modeling. This way of modeling involves a combination of (a) canonical forms, (b) tolerances around canonical forms and positions, (c) minimal and maximal values, (d) fuzzy boundaries, and (e) plastic interaction between elements based on the dual principles of local intelligence and autonomy. Fuzzy models come therefore closer to the intuitive manners of sketching, while facilitating transition to precise and complex forms. The paper presents two applications of fuzzy modeling. The first concerns the generation of schematic building layouts, including adaptive control of programmatic requirements. The second is a system for designing stairs that can adapt themselves to changes in their immediate environment through a fuzzy definition of geometric and topological parametrization.
series AVOCAAD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_05
id avocaad_2001_05
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2001
title Analysis and the descriptive approach
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The rise of consciousness concerning the quality of working and living conditions has been a permanent though frequently underplayed theme in architecture and building since the reconstruction period. It has led to an explosive growth of programmatic requirements on building behaviour and performance, thus also stimulating the development of design analysis. The first stage of development was characterized by the evolution of prescriptive systems. These reversed the structure of pre-existing proscriptive systems into sequences of known steps that should be taken in order to achieve adequate results. Prescriptive systems complemented rather than replaced proscriptive ones, thereby creating an uncertain mixture of orthodoxy and orthopraxy that failed to provide design guidance for improving design performance and quality.The second stage in the development of design analysis focuses on descriptive methods and techniques for analyzing and supporting evaluation. Technologies such as simulation and scientific visualization are employed so as to produce detailed, accurate and reliable projections of building behaviour and performance. These projections can be correlated into a comprehensive and coherent description of a building using representations of form as information carriers. In these representations feedback and interaction assume a visual character that fits both design attitudes and lay perception of the built environment, but on the basis of a quantitative background that justifies, verifies and refines design actions. Descriptive analysis is currently the most promising direction for confronting and resolving design complexity. It provides the designer with useful insights into the causes and effects of various design problems but frequently comes short of providing clear design guidance for two main reasons: (1) it adds substantial amounts of information to the already unmanageable loads the designer must handle, and (2) it may provide incoherent cues for the further development of a design. Consequently the descriptive approach to analysis is always in danger of been supplanted by abstract decision making.One way of providing the desired design guidance is to complement the connection of descriptive analyses to representations of form (and from there to synthesis) with two interface components. The first is a memory component, implemented as case-bases of precedent designs. These designs encapsulate integrated design information that can be matched to the design in hand in terms of form, function and performance. Comparison between precedents with a known performance and a new design facilitate identification of design aspects that need be improved, as well as of wider formal and functional consequences. The second component is an adaptive generative system capable of guiding exploration of these aspects, both in the precedents and the new design. The aim of this system is to provide feedback from analysis to synthesis. By exploring the scope of the analysis and the applicability of the conclusions to more designs, the designer generates a coherent and consistent collection of partial solutions that explore a relevant solution space. Development of the first component, the design case-bases, is no trivial task. Transformability in the representation of cases and flexible classification in a database are critical to the identification and treatment of a design aspect. Nevertheless, the state of the art in case-based reasoning and the extensive corpus of analysed designs provide the essential building blocks. The second component, the adaptive generative system, poses more questions. Existing generative techniques do not possess the necessary richness or multidimensionality. Moreover, it is imperative that the designer plays a more active role in the control of the process than merely tweaking local variables. At the same time, the system should prevent that redesigning degenerates into a blind trial-and-error enumeration of possibilities. Guided empirical design research arguably provides the means for the evolutionary development of the second component.
series AVOCAAD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 1b10
id 1b10
authors Bay, Joo-Hwa
year 2001
title Cognitive Biases - The case of tropical architecture
source Delft University of Technology
summary This dissertation investigates, i) How cognitive biases (or illusions) may lead to errors in design thinking, ii) Why architects use architectural precedents as heuristics despite such possible errors, and iii) Develops a design tool that can overcome this type of errors through the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism. The mechanism controls biases and improves accuracy in architectural thinking. // The research method applied is interdisciplinary. It employs knowledge from cognitive science, environmental engineering, and architectural theory. The case study approach is also used. The investigation is made in the case of tropical architecture. The investigation of architectural biases draws from work by A. Tversky and D. Kahneman in 1982 on “Heuristics and biases”. According to Tversky and Kahneman, the use of heuristics of representativeness (based on similarity) and availability (based on ease of recall and imaginability) for judgement of probability can result in cognitive biases of illusions of validity and biases due to imaginability respectively. This theory can be used analogically to understand how errors arise in the judgement of environmental behaviour anticipated from various spatial configurations, leading to designs with dysfunctional performances when built. Incomplete information, limited time, and human mental resources make design thinking in practice difficult and impossible to solve. It is not possible to analyse all possible alternative solutions, multiple contingencies, and multiple conflicting demands, as doing so will lead to combinatorial explosion. One of the ways to cope with the difficult design problem is to use precedents as heuristic devices, as shortcuts in design thinking, and at the risk of errors. This is done with analogical, pre-parametric, and qualitative means of thinking, without quantitative calculations. Heuristics can be efficient and reasonably effective, but may not always be good enough or even correct, because they can have associated cognitive biases that lead to errors. Several debiasing strategies are discussed, and one possibility is to introduce a rebuttal mechanism to refocus the designer’s thinking on the negative and opposite outcomes in his judgements, in order to debias these illusions. The research is carried out within the framework of design theory developed by the Design Knowledge System Research Centre, TUDelft. This strategy is tested with an experiment. The results show that the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism can debias and improve design judgements substantially in environmental control. The tool developed has possible applications in design practice and education, and in particular, in the designing of sustainable environments.
keywords Design bias; Design knowledge; Design rebuttal; Design Precedent; Pre-parametric design; Tropical architecture; Sustainability
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email philipjhbay@gmail.com
last changed 2006/05/28 05:42

_id 22ec
authors Bechthold, Martin
year 2001
title Complex shapes in wood: Computer-aided design and manufacture of wood-sandwich roof shells
source Harvard University
summary Computer-Aided-Design, Engineering and Manufacturing (CAD/CAE/CAM) technology has changed the way consumer products, automobiles or airplanes are designed and made. The emerging applications for CAD/CAE/CAM technology in architecture, and the way this technology impacts how we design and construct the built environment, are yet unclear. This thesis investigates the relation between advanced digital design tools and the making of physical objects by focusing on an exemplary architectural element—wooden roof shells. The research objective is to expand the scope of architectural design through the application of CAD/CAE/CAM technology rather than to use this technology to streamline existing processes. The thesis develops a specific technical solution that allows the design and manufacture of new types of wooden roof shells. These are complexly shaped multifunctional construction elements that are manufactured off-site. Based on the close connection between digital design tools and the new Computer-Numerically-Controlled manufacturing process the author proposes a theoretical model of shared digital environments for collaborative design in architecture. The proposed manufacturing process treats wood as a modern composite material. Thin wood strips and foams combine into structural sandwich panels that can then be joined into a roof shell. The geometrically complex panels are generated by a combination of subtractive Computer-Numerically-Controlled machining processes and manual work. Infrastructure elements can be embedded into the sandwich build-up in order to enhance the functionality of the roof as a building envelope. Numerical tools are proposed that allow the determination of manufacturing-related parameters in the digital design environment. These inform the architectural and structural design in the early design phases. The digital collaborative design environment is based on a shared parametric solid model and an associated database. This collectively owned, feature-based design model is employed throughout the design and manufacturing process and constitutes the means of concurrent design coordination of all participants. The new manufacturing process for wood/foam sandwich shells is verified by designing and manufacturing prototypes. Design guidelines and a cost estimation are presented as the practical basis for architects and engineers to incorporate new types of roof shells into architectural projects.
keywords Architecture; Agriculture; Wood Technology; Design and Decorative Arts
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

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