CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0865
authors Mishima, Yoshitaka and Szalapaj, Peter John
year 2001
title Architectural Design Development through Multimedia Interaction
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 299-314
summary This paper describes the development of a multimedia system aimed at architects and architectural students for the purpose of helping them to understand the basic concepts of architectural analysis. Analytical features in the system that we have developed include many design-theoretic concepts such as massing, balance and circulation. Other concepts are more directly related to the built environment and include elements such as lighting, structure and construction. The system illustrates architectural analysis carried out on a range of building types dynamically, and allows users to navigate architectural analyses interactively. Users can learn about the differences between buildings and their corresponding analyses in a supportive non-linear learning process, and can explore building types depending upon their own interests or needs. The prototype system contains analyses of three British building projects. They show different types of architecture in order to demonstrate important design theoretic and environmental differences. Conceptual models in the system show important aspects of a particular analysis simply, and each analysis is additionally described with text, animations, video clips and interviews with architects (talking heads). Most of the models were generated by the use of architectural CAD software. Animation techniques were used to describe the analyses of buildings clearly and dynamically. Users can visualise how whole buildings were designed from an analytical point of view, and the system illustrates design thinking by showing dynamic presentations of analyses. Users can structure their own design learning processes through a series of interactions. These interactions are supported with flexible cross-referencing mechanisms implemented in Macromedia Director 8.0 exploiting Frame Markers, Event Handling, Navigation, and Buttons in the context of the object-oriented Lingo programming language. The navigation component of this system has a logical matrix structure reflecting the fact that analytical information is interrelated across building types, giving rise to vertical and horizontal patterns of access. The features of Director 8.0 can control this navigation in a flexible yet structured way. Users not only learn about analysis, but also how to present their own designs to the public through the use of different kinds of presentation techniques, particularly through the use of conceptual models. We intend that users can show their projects from their own analytical viewpoints instead of simply showing realistic images of final designs. Presentations can also be recorded in the system, and these can in turn be used as reference material for other users. This system is currently being developed further by storing presentations and translating them into different languages (e.g. Japanese) so that foreign users in other institutions can interact with these presentations. This system has been evaluated in the context of an undergraduate CAD course at the School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, UK. We are currently examining the usefulness of the system based upon an evaluation process, in addition to including more building types for future study.
keywords Analysis Of Form, Dynamic Interaction, Conceptual Models
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id acadia16_140
id acadia16_140
authors Nejur, Andrei; Steinfeld, Kyle
year 2016
title Ivy: Bringing a Weighted-Mesh Representations to Bear on Generative Architectural Design Applications
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 140-151
summary Mesh segmentation has become an important and well-researched topic in computational geometry in recent years (Agathos et al. 2008). As a result, a number of new approaches have been developed that have led to innovations in a diverse set of problems in computer graphics (CG) (Sharmir 2008). Specifically, a range of effective methods for the division of a mesh have recently been proposed, including by K-means (Shlafman et al. 2002), graph cuts (Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008; Katz and Tal 2003), hierarchical clustering (Garland et al. 2001; Gelfand and Guibas 2004; Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008), primitive fitting (Athene et al. 2004), random walks (Lai et al.), core extraction (Katz et al.) tubular multi-scale analysis (Mortara et al. 2004), spectral clustering (Liu and Zhang 2004), and critical point analysis (Lin et al. 20070, all of which depend upon a weighted graph representation, typically the dual of a given mesh (Sharmir 2008). While these approaches have been proven effective within the narrowly defined domains of application for which they have been developed (Chen 2009), they have not been brought to bear on wider classes of problems in fields outside of CG, specifically on problems relevant to generative architectural design. Given the widespread use of meshes and the utility of segmentation in GAD, by surveying the relevant and recently matured approaches to mesh segmentation in CG that share a common representation of the mesh dual, this paper identifies and takes steps to address a heretofore unrealized transfer of technology that would resolve a missed opportunity for both subject areas. Meshes are often employed by architectural designers for purposes that are distinct from and present a unique set of requirements in relation to similar applications that have enjoyed more focused study in computer science. This paper presents a survey of similar applications, including thin-sheet fabrication (Mitani and Suzuki 2004), rendering optimization (Garland et al. 2001), 3D mesh compression (Taubin et al. 1998), morphin (Shapira et al. 2008) and mesh simplification (Kalvin and Taylor 1996), and distinguish the requirements of these applications from those presented by GAD, including non-refinement in advance of the constraining of mesh geometry to planar-quad faces, and the ability to address a diversity of mesh features that may or may not be preserved. Following this survey of existing approaches and unmet needs, the authors assert that if a generalized framework for working with graph representations of meshes is developed, allowing for the interactive adjustment of edge weights, then the recent developments in mesh segmentation may be better brought to bear on GAD problems. This paper presents work toward the development of just such a framework, implemented as a plug-in for the visual programming environment Grasshopper.
keywords tool-building, design simulation, fabrication, computation, megalith
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id ba73
authors Oliván, Alfredo Serreta and Sebastián, Ricardo Aliod
year 2001
title GESTARCAD, UNA APLICACIÓN PARA EL DISEÑO Y SIMULACIÓN DE REDES DE FLUIDOS, PROGRAMADA BAJO EL ENTORNO AUTOCAD UTILIZANDO OBJETOS ACTIVE X EN VB 6.0 (GESTARCAD, An Application for the Design and Simulation of Networks of Fluids, Programmed in the Autocad Environment Using Active Objects X in 6,0 Vb)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 54-56
summary In this paper, the programming methodology and the results obtained in the development of the GestarCAD simulation application as web as flow net design are presented. As a graphic interface AutoCAD is used, programming the application in Visual Basic 6.0 and using the objects Active X implemented by the latest versions of AutoCAD. In this way, both data input and plotting of results can be carried out from an AutoCAD environment.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id 159e
authors Snyder, Alison B. and Paley, Samuel M.
year 2001
title Experiencing an Ancient Assyrian Palace: Methods for a Reconstruction
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 062-075
summary The various forms of two and three-dimensional applications of Computer- Aided Design provide methods for analyzing, seeing, and presenting newly realized design work. It can be used to re-create building spaces unseen since their collapse centuries ago. In our project we blur the lines between the design of new architectural spaces and the re-conception of ancient spaces, thus merging the fields of architecture and archaeology using digital technology. Archaeologists and Architects are interested in similar goals concerning the depiction of space and form but archaeologists must deduce from historical, cultural and social comparisons as well as actual excavated remains. Our project is reconstructing the 9th-century BCE Palace of Ashurnasirpal II situated in Iraq. Though much of the palace has been excavated its architecture and full artistic program will never again be fully realized. Attempting to visualize partially preserved archaeological sites depends upon deductive reasoning, empirical wisdom and sound research. By modeling digitally and using “real-time” Java-based programming, the researchers have learned more quickly about the building than through traditional flat plans, cross-sections, drawn perspectives and constructed models. We are able to “inhabit” specific interior and exterior spaces in ways not possible before. Using the tools of digital archaeology allows a myriad of educational possibilities for the scholar, student or layperson.
keywords Architecture, Archaeology; Reconstruction; Web, VR
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 2dba
id 2dba
authors Tasli, S
year 2001
source Proceedings of the Livable Environments and Architecture International Congress (LIVENARCH 2001). July 4-7, 2001, Trabzon, Turkey, pp. 278-282.
summary Designing livable buildings has always been a major concern for architects but they are often criticized on account of failing in this aim. However, this is not only due to the ignorance of the designers, but also of the complexity of the factors that are essential to design but difficult to incorporate the design process. Buildings are shaped and occupied under several dynamically changing conditions and paper-based media and conventional Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools are inefficient in representing them. This paper aims to discuss the changing role of digital media for architectural design in response to the increasing complexity of design processes. Some proposals, supported by recent technological innovations, are suggested for the future and they are compared with the conventional uses of CAD. It is claimed that in the 21st century, the main advantage of using computers will be to dynamically simulate buildings in time in highly visualized virtual environments to evaluate the future performance of proposed designs. The design model will not only look as if it were real, but it will also “behave” as if it were real so as to provide dynamic and intelligent response. The two key technologies for the development of such modeling, virtual reality and object-oriented programming are addressed and four promising application areas for near future (evaluation of user-building interaction, visualization of environmental factors, construction scheduling, and combined CAD-GIS) are discussed. Some important considerations for the development of dynamically simulated virtual models are analyzed and suggestions are made for further research.

keywords Architectural Design, Dynamic Simulation, and Virtual Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/12/01 15:02

_id 66f8
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 2001
title Information at Early Design Stages
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 105-110
summary This paper concentrates on information at the early stages of the design process. However those do not concern all the information regarding the task available to the designer or the already existing solutions, but the information generated by the designer during the process of problem solving. The creative nature of architectural design and the lack of complete information during the process determine the role and the place of the information system in the design. It is necessary that the information system correspond to the raw form of expression of the designer as it appears at the early design stages. In the traditional creative activity, an image of the architectural form is developed through graphic expression such as sketches, words and sentences. Changing the design environment from analog to digital does not solve the design problems at all. IT creates new possibilities for generating design information thanks to new tools as well as new software. The multiplicity of methods only makes the problem of the amount and accessibility of information more complicated.
keywords Early Design Stages, Hybrid Design Environment
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0f18
authors Bailey, Rohan
year 2001
title A Digital Design Coach for Young Designers
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 330-335
summary The present use of digital media in architectural practice and education is primarily focused on representation, communication of ideas and production. Designers, however, still use pencil and paper to assist the early conception of ideas. Recently, research into providing digital tools for designers to use in conceptual designing has focused on enhancing or assisting the designer. Rarely has the computer been regarded as a potential teaching tool for design skills. Based on previous work by the author about visual thinking and the justification for a digital design assistant, the intention of this paper is to illustrate to the reader the feasibility of a digital design coach. Reference is made to recent advances in research about design computability. In particular, research by Mark Gross and Ellen Do with respect to their Electronic Cocktail Napkin project is used as a basis on which to determine what such a digital coach may look and feel like.
keywords Design Education, Protocol Analysis, CADD, Sketching
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 5cf4
id 5cf4
authors Barrionuevo, Luis F.
year 2004
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 179-187.
summary This paper deals with “Spirospaces”. These are a conversion to the third dimension of the two dimensional geometric entities called “Spirolaterals”.

Abelson, Harold, diSessa and Andera (1968) gave the first rules concerning Spirolaterals. To obtain a Spirolateral from a set of straight lines, the first of them must be one unit long and the following must be incremented one unit at each step, at the same time that they turn in a constant direction. Odds (1973) establish the variation of the rotation direction, either to the left or the right. However, he did not give a mathematical relation able to calculate open Spirolaterals. Krawczyk (2001) developed a computer program that generates Spirolaterals following the method suggested by Abelson. These are Spirolaterals obtained by enumeration without a predictive mathematical formula. Krawczyc went farther proposing Spirolaterals based in curved lines. He pointed out that there are a variety of spirolateral forms that have architectural potentiality. Following this, the architectural potentiality of Spirolaterals is the basis of this paper.

To take advantage of that potentiality a computer program was implemented to generate spatial configurations based in Spirolaterals. When a third dimension is given to the Spirolaterals they become Spirospaces. These new entities need spatial and design parameters to be useful for architectural purposes. Barrionuevo and Borsetti (2001) gave results about that work establishing the concept of Spirospaces.

The aim of this paper is to describe a work directed to improve rules and procedures concerning Spirospaces. It is expected that these procedures governed by the proposed rules can be employed as tools during the early steps in the architectural design process.

In this work some aspects concerning Spirospaces are considered. First, Spirolaterals are presented as the predecessors of Spirospaces. Second, Spirospaces are defined, together with their structural parameters. Architectural modeling is studied at the light of two special elements of the Spirospaces: Interstitial spaces and Object spaces. Next, a computer program is presented as the appropriate tool to model configurations having architectural potentiality. Finally, the results obtained running the computer program are analyzed to determine their possible use as architectural forms. Several graphic illustrations are presented showing steps going from the exploration of spatial alternatives to the selection of a specific configuration to be developed.

It is expected that the described computer program could be employed as a design aid tool. As the operation of the program generates a variety of spaces able to dwell architectural objects, it eases the search of configurations suitable to specific functions. The results obtained have the possibility of being exported to computer graphic applications able to add materials, lights and cameras.

keywords Spirolaterals, Spirospaces, architectural spaces, interstitial spaces, objectual spaces
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/04/07 13:34

_id 898a
authors Bay, J.H.
year 2002
title Cognitive Biases and Precedent Knowledge in Human and Computer-Aided Design Thinking
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 213-220
summary Cognitive biases (illusions) and potential errors can occur when using precedent knowledge for analogical, pre-parametric and qualitative design thinking. This paper refers largely to part of a completed research (Bay 2001) on how heuristic biases, discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) in cognitive psychology, can affect judgement and learning of facts from precedents in architectural design, made explicit using a kernel of conceptual system (Tzonis et. al., 1978) and a framework of architectural representation (Tzonis 1992). These are used here to consider how such illusions and errors may be transferred to computer aided design thinking.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 1b10
id 1b10
authors Bay, Joo-Hwa
year 2001
title Cognitive Biases - The case of tropical architecture
source Delft University of Technology
summary This dissertation investigates, i) How cognitive biases (or illusions) may lead to errors in design thinking, ii) Why architects use architectural precedents as heuristics despite such possible errors, and iii) Develops a design tool that can overcome this type of errors through the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism. The mechanism controls biases and improves accuracy in architectural thinking. // The research method applied is interdisciplinary. It employs knowledge from cognitive science, environmental engineering, and architectural theory. The case study approach is also used. The investigation is made in the case of tropical architecture. The investigation of architectural biases draws from work by A. Tversky and D. Kahneman in 1982 on “Heuristics and biases”. According to Tversky and Kahneman, the use of heuristics of representativeness (based on similarity) and availability (based on ease of recall and imaginability) for judgement of probability can result in cognitive biases of illusions of validity and biases due to imaginability respectively. This theory can be used analogically to understand how errors arise in the judgement of environmental behaviour anticipated from various spatial configurations, leading to designs with dysfunctional performances when built. Incomplete information, limited time, and human mental resources make design thinking in practice difficult and impossible to solve. It is not possible to analyse all possible alternative solutions, multiple contingencies, and multiple conflicting demands, as doing so will lead to combinatorial explosion. One of the ways to cope with the difficult design problem is to use precedents as heuristic devices, as shortcuts in design thinking, and at the risk of errors. This is done with analogical, pre-parametric, and qualitative means of thinking, without quantitative calculations. Heuristics can be efficient and reasonably effective, but may not always be good enough or even correct, because they can have associated cognitive biases that lead to errors. Several debiasing strategies are discussed, and one possibility is to introduce a rebuttal mechanism to refocus the designer’s thinking on the negative and opposite outcomes in his judgements, in order to debias these illusions. The research is carried out within the framework of design theory developed by the Design Knowledge System Research Centre, TUDelft. This strategy is tested with an experiment. The results show that the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism can debias and improve design judgements substantially in environmental control. The tool developed has possible applications in design practice and education, and in particular, in the designing of sustainable environments.
keywords Design bias; Design knowledge; Design rebuttal; Design Precedent; Pre-parametric design; Tropical architecture; Sustainability
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2006/05/28 05:42

_id 22ec
authors Bechthold, Martin
year 2001
title Complex shapes in wood: Computer-aided design and manufacture of wood-sandwich roof shells
source Harvard University
summary Computer-Aided-Design, Engineering and Manufacturing (CAD/CAE/CAM) technology has changed the way consumer products, automobiles or airplanes are designed and made. The emerging applications for CAD/CAE/CAM technology in architecture, and the way this technology impacts how we design and construct the built environment, are yet unclear. This thesis investigates the relation between advanced digital design tools and the making of physical objects by focusing on an exemplary architectural element—wooden roof shells. The research objective is to expand the scope of architectural design through the application of CAD/CAE/CAM technology rather than to use this technology to streamline existing processes. The thesis develops a specific technical solution that allows the design and manufacture of new types of wooden roof shells. These are complexly shaped multifunctional construction elements that are manufactured off-site. Based on the close connection between digital design tools and the new Computer-Numerically-Controlled manufacturing process the author proposes a theoretical model of shared digital environments for collaborative design in architecture. The proposed manufacturing process treats wood as a modern composite material. Thin wood strips and foams combine into structural sandwich panels that can then be joined into a roof shell. The geometrically complex panels are generated by a combination of subtractive Computer-Numerically-Controlled machining processes and manual work. Infrastructure elements can be embedded into the sandwich build-up in order to enhance the functionality of the roof as a building envelope. Numerical tools are proposed that allow the determination of manufacturing-related parameters in the digital design environment. These inform the architectural and structural design in the early design phases. The digital collaborative design environment is based on a shared parametric solid model and an associated database. This collectively owned, feature-based design model is employed throughout the design and manufacturing process and constitutes the means of concurrent design coordination of all participants. The new manufacturing process for wood/foam sandwich shells is verified by designing and manufacturing prototypes. Design guidelines and a cost estimation are presented as the practical basis for architects and engineers to incorporate new types of roof shells into architectural projects.
keywords Architecture; Agriculture; Wood Technology; Design and Decorative Arts
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 81ba
authors Bilda, Zafer
year 2001
title Designers‚ Cognition in Traditional versus Digital Media during Conceptual Design
source Bilkent University Ankara Turkey
summary Designers depend on representations to externalize their design thoughts. External representations are usually in the form of sketches (referred to as traditional media) in architectural design during the conceptual design. There are also attempts to integrate the use of digital representations into the conceptual design in order to construct a digital design medium. This thesis aims at gaining an insight on designers’ cognitive processes while sketching in digital versus traditional media. The analysis of cognitive processes of designers based on their protocols is necessary to reveal their design behavior in both media. An experiment was designed employing six interior architects (at Bilkent University) solving an interior space planning problem by changing the design media they work with. In order to encode the design behavior, a coding scheme was utilized so that inspecting both the design activity and the responses to media transition was possible in terms of primitive cognitive actions of designers. The analyses of the coding scheme constituents, which are namely segmentation and cognitive action categories enabled a comparative study demonstrating the effect of the use of different media in conceptual design phase. The results depicted that traditional media had advantages over the digital media such as supporting perception of visual-spatial features, and organizational relations of the design, production of alternative solutions and better conception of the design problem. These results also emerged implications for the computer aid in architectural design to support the conceptual phase of the design process. 
keywords Design Cognition; Protocol Analysis; Sketching; Digital Media
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/05/01 18:14

_id caadria2010_042
id caadria2010_042
authors Celento, David
year 2010
title Open-source, parametric architecture to propagate hyper-dense, sustainable urban communities: parametric urban dwellings for the experience economy
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 443-452
summary Rapid developments in societal, technological, and natural systems suggest profound changes ahead if research in panarchical systems (Holling, 2001) is to be believed. Panarchy suggests that systems, both natural and man-made, rise to the point of vulnerability then fail due to disruptive forces in a process of ‘creative destruction.’ This sequence allows for radical, and often unpredictable, renewal. Pressing sustainability concerns, burgeoning urban growth, and emergent ‘green manufacturing’ laws, suggest that future urban dwellings are headed toward Gladwell’s ‘tipping point’ (2002). Hyper-dense, sustainable, urban communities that employ open-source standards, parametric software, and web-based configurators are the new frontier for venerable visions. Open-source standards will permit the design, manufacture, and sale of highly diverse, inter-operable components to create compact urban living environments that are technologically sophisticated, sustainable, and mobile. These mass-customised dwellings, akin to branded consumer goods, will address previous shortcomings for prefabricated, mobile dwellings by stimulating consumer desire in ways that extend the arguments of both Joseph Pine (1992) and Anna Klingman (2007). Arguments presented by authors Makimoto and Manners (1997) – which assert that the adoption of digital and mobile technologies will create large-scale societal shifts – will be extended with several solutions proposed.
keywords Mass customisation; urban dwellings; open source standards; parametric design; sustainability
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 7ffb
authors Ciftcioglu, Özer and Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2001
title Knowledge management by information mining
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 533-545
summary Novel information mining method dealing with soft computing is described. By this method, in the first step, receptive fields of design information are identified so that connections among various design aspects are structured. By means of this, complex relationships among various design aspects are modeled with a paradigm, which is non-parametric and generic. In the second step, the structured connections between various pairs of aspects are graded according to the relevancy to each other. This is accomplished by means of sensitivity analysis, which is a computational tool operating on the model established and based on a concept measuring the degree of dependencies between pairs of quantities. The degree of relationships among various design aspects so determined enables one to select the most important independent aspects in the context of design or decision-making process. The paper deals with the description of the method and presents an architectural case study where numerical and as well as non-numerical (linguistic) design information are treated together, demonstrating a ranked or elective information employment which can be of great value for possible design intervention during reconstruction.
keywords Knowledge Management, Information Mining, Sensitivity Analysis
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ec4d
authors Croser, J.
year 2001
title GDL Object
source The Architect’s Journal, 14 June 2001, pp. 49-50
summary It is all too common for technology companies to seek a new route to solving the same problem but for the most part the solutions address the effect and not the cause. The good old-fashioned pencil is the perfect example where inventors have sought to design-out the effect of the inherent brittleness of lead. Traditionally different methods of sharpening were suggested and more recently the propelling pencil has reigned king, the lead being supported by the dispensing sleeve thus reducing the likelihood of breakage. Developers convinced by the Single Building Model approach to design development have each embarked on a difficult journey to create an easy to use feature packed application. Unfortunately it seems that the two are not mutually compatible if we are to believe what we see emanating from Technology giants Autodesk in the guise of Architectural Desktop 3. The effect of their development is a feature rich environment but the cost and in this case the cause is a tool which is far from easy to use. However, this is only a small part of a much bigger problem, Interoperability. You see when one designer develops a model with one tool the information is typically locked in that environment. Of course the geometry can be distributed and shared amongst the team for use with their tools but the properties, or as often misquoted, the intelligence is lost along the way. The effect is the technological version of rubble; the cause is the low quality of data-translation available to us. Fortunately there is one company, which is making rapid advancements on the whole issue of collaboration, and data sharing. An old timer (Graphisoft - famous for ArchiCAD) has just donned a smart new suit, set up a new company called GDL Technology and stepped into the ring to do battle, with a difference. The difference is that GDL Technology does not rely on conquering the competition, quite the opposite in fact their success relies upon the continued success of all the major CAD platforms including AutoCAD, MicroStation and ArchiCAD (of course). GDL Technology have created a standard data format for manufacturers called GDL Objects. Product manufacturers such as Velux are now able to develop product libraries using GDL Objects, which can then be placed in a CAD model, or drawing using almost any CAD tool. The product libraries can be stored on the web or on CD giving easy download access to any building industry professional. These objects are created using scripts which makes them tiny for downloading from the web. Each object contains 3 important types of information: · Parametric scale dependant 2d plan symbols · Full 3d geometric data · Manufacturers information such as material, colour and price Whilst manufacturers are racing to GDL Technologies door to sign up, developers and clients are quick to see the benefit too. Porsche are using GDL Objects to manage their brand identity as they build over 300 new showrooms worldwide. Having defined the building style and interior Porsche, in conjunction with the product suppliers, have produced a CD-ROM with all of the selected building components such as cladding, doors, furniture, and finishes. Designing and detailing the various schemes will therefore be as straightforward as using Lego. To ease the process of accessing, sizing and placing the product libraries GDL Technology have developed a product called GDL Object Explorer, a free-standing application which can be placed on the CD with the product libraries. Furthermore, whilst the Object Explorer gives access to the GDL Objects it also enables the user to save the object in one of many file formats including DWG, DGN, DXF, 3DS and even the IAI's IFC. However, if you are an AutoCAD user there is another tool, which has been designed especially for you, it is called the Object Adapter and it works inside of AutoCAD 14 and 2000. The Object Adapter will dynamically convert all GDL Objects to AutoCAD Blocks during placement, which means that they can be controlled with standard AutoCAD commands. Furthermore, each object can be linked to an online document from the manufacturer web site, which is ideal for more extensive product information. Other tools, which have been developed to make the most of the objects, are the Web Plug-in and SalesCAD. The Plug-in enables objects to be dynamically modified and displayed on web pages and Sales CAD is an easy to learn and use design tool for sales teams to explore, develop and cost designs on a Notebook PC whilst sitting in the architects office. All sales quotations are directly extracted from the model and presented in HTML format as a mixture of product images, product descriptions and tables identifying quantities and costs. With full lifecycle information stored in each GDL Object it is no surprise that GDL Technology see their objects as the future for building design. Indeed they are not alone, the IAI have already said that they are going to explore the possibility of associating GDL Objects with their own data sharing format the IFC. So down to the dirty stuff, money and how much it costs? Well, at the risk of sounding like a market trader in Petticoat Lane, "To you guv? Nuffin". That's right as a user of this technology it will cost you nothing! Not a penny, it is gratis, free. The product manufacturer pays for the license to host their libraries on the web or on CD and even then their costs are small costing from as little as 50p for each CD filled with objects. GDL Technology has come up trumps with their GDL Objects. They have developed a new way to solve old problems. If CAD were a pencil then GDL Objects would be ballistic lead, which would never break or loose its point. A much better alternative to the strategy used by many of their competitors who seek to avoid breaking the pencil by persuading the artist not to press down so hard. If you are still reading and you have not already dropped the magazine and run off to find out if your favorite product supplier has already signed up then I suggest you check out the following web sites and If you do not see them there, pick up the phone and ask them why.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id fe1b
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2001
title VR Sketchpad. Create Instant 3D Worlds by Sketching on a Transparent Window
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 161-172
summary This paper describes VR Sketchpad, a pen-based computing environment for inputting and locating 3D objects in a virtual world. Designer can use the transparency layers to quickly trace and extract any image underlay from other application software. The 3D scene generation has three levels of complexity: simple extrusion of any drawn lines of shapes (i.e., straight or curved wall and column extrusion), solid modelling from a given geometric object representation (spheres, cones and boxes), and complex configuration with objects from graphics library (furniture layout).
keywords Pen-Based Interface, Freehand Sketches, Diagramming, Transparent Window, Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML)
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 9f24
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2001
title Graphics Interpreter of Design Actions. The GIDA system of diagram sorting and analysis
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 271-284
summary This paper describes the background and research for a diagram sorting and analysis system called GIDA – Graphics Interpreter of Design Actions. The GIDA system explores how spatial relations between graphic symbols in a design drawing may be extracted and the transformations of the graphic elements between different drawings in a design process may be tracked.
keywords Diagrams, Design Action, Graphics Interpreter, Design Thinking, Diagram Sorting
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id bedb
authors Flanagan, Robert
year 2001
title Sensory Deprivation: Issues of Control - Encoding Design Diagrams, Memory Engrams
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 214-219
summary A persistent visual obsession in contemporary, digitally processed architecture instigated this design investigation. Neil Leach in The Anaesthetics of Architecture, identifies ‘aesthetic intoxication’, accompanied by a narcotic numbing effect, as a consequence of the fetishization of visual imagery. The inverse principle - sensory deprivation - completes the effect. Sensory deprivation results from miscues in the digital design process and from the intentional denial of sensory stimuli. A theater of the five sense was the design medium used to investigate sensory accountability. The issues addressed were: 1. Contextual factors of aestheticization and deprivation, particularly digital factors. 2. The effectiveness of Design Diagrams, graphic symbolic schematics, to address sensory deprivation and the anaesthetic effect. 3. The effectiveness of multi-sensory Memory Diagrams (engrams) as inhabitable Design Diagrams to address these effects. While the original intention was to study sensory accountability in digital design, the potential of multi-sensory Memory Diagrams re-centered the emphasis of this investigation.
keywords Sensory Deprivation, Memory Diagrams, Design Diagrams
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id avocaad_2001_06
id avocaad_2001_06
authors Giovanni De Paoli
year 2001
title Architectural design and procedural models - A radical change of language to design in architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The history of architecture and its teaching clearly reveal how representations of the image and drawing have changed over centuries. Today, computers are increasingly found at the desks of architecture professionals and students, but their usage remains restricted to technical functions and what is commonly known as CAD (computer-assisted design), in architecture is often simply the other CAD (computer-assisted drawing).This presentation deals with architectural design, particularly at its earliest stage. Our objective is to propose a model for describing the architectural concept that meets the needs of architects through software. Only then will they really be able to use computers as an aid to design by overcoming the obstacles that presently keep us from making full use of them.This has led me to propose an avenue of exploration that examines projection through an object’s properties, and a method of computer-assisted design that makes use of procedural models. These procedural models consist of geometric operators and operators that define the properties, characteristics and performance of a building — operators which I have termed “semantic”.This research fits into a paradigm that leads to representation of the building through functions that can be called with parameters and encapsuled in an algorithm, making it possible to create procedural models that assist with the design. This approach opens up a means of integrating the logos with the figurative representation where drawing is used instead of words to convey the architectural concept.The example of a procedural model shows how we can use a generic model to produce a volume model with all the characteristics belonging to the same family of objects. This type of model can serve not only to illustrate the result of a process, or to draw connections among buildings on the basis of their construction process, or to test the validity of a rule typical of a set of objects, but also to integrate, through a functional language, semantic operators which to date have been excluded from the initial design phase. This descriptive mechanism is extremely powerful in making it possible to establish relationships among the functions and properties of a building and the purpose of the architectural project.The scientific contribution of this research is to test the hypothesis that we can use computer tools to manipulate operators which enable the architect to reappropriate a complex design of the building, and open up new lines of investigation into integrating geometric and knowledge-based systems into a unified representation. The declarative approach for creating three-dimensional scenes fits into this perspective.It is now a matter of exploring the possibility of working on a “common morphology” shared by everyone involved in the design process by rewriting the functions or by converting the functions used for representation, or else through a functional dialect (language) that allows for dialectic relationships among all types of operators and the actions of the protagonists in the architectural design process.
series AVOCAAD
email Giovanni.De.Paoli@Umontreal.CA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 811d
authors Goulthorpe, M., Burry, M. and Dunlop, G.
year 2001
title Aegis Hyposurface©: The Bordering of University and Practice
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 344-349
summary Throughout history, profound technological shifts have been accompanied by significant cultural changes. The current shift from a technical paradigm based on physical, mechanical production to one based on electronic media impacts on forms of architectural practice in unexpected ways. The use of design software not only enhances graphic and modeling capacity but also reveals new possibilities for both form generation and fabrication. At a more subtle level it may influence the patterns of thought and creativity that have underpinned traditional forms of architectural practice. This paper examines the implications of the redefined praxis by considering the new role of ‘town and gown’ in the production of the interactive hypersurface: the AegisHypersurface©, the first working prototype of which was unveiled in March 2001.
keywords Real-Time Animation, Interactive Architecture, Hypersurface
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

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