CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 16dd
authors Leclercq, Pierre P.
year 2001
title Programming and Assisted Sketching. Graphic and Parametric Integration in Architectural Design
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 15-31
summary In this paper, we present our latest research related to the concept of a sketchinterface. After describing our vision of computer assisted design and the conditions necessary for its effective implementation, an original data model is presented, which covers different levels of representation and is grounded in a database of implicit information. We then describe our software prototype, which exploits the potentials of the digital sketch, in order to demonstrate how our ideas are pertinent and the feasibility of three kinds of applications. In particular, we argue in favor of using an architectural software program in relation to the sketch within the same computer assisted environment at an early stage in the design process.
keywords Design , Architectural Models, Implicit Knowledge Management, Sketch Interface
series CAAD Futures
email alpha@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia11_372
id acadia11_372
authors James, Anne; Nagasaka, Dai
year 2011
title Integrative Design Strategies for Multimedia in Architecture
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 372-379
summary Multidisciplinary efforts that have shaped the current integration of multimedia into architectural spaces have primarily been conducted by collaborative efforts among art, engineering, interaction design, informatics and software programming. These collaborations have focused on the complexities of designing for applications of multimedia in specific real world contexts. Outside a small but growing number of researchers and practitioners, architects have been largely absent from these efforts. This has resulted in projects that deal primarily with developing technologies augmenting existing architectural environments. (Greenfield and Shepard 2007)This paper examines the potential of multimedia and architecture integration to create new possibilities for architectural space. Established practices of constructing architecture suggest creating space by conventional architectural means. On the other hand, multimedia influences and their effect on the tectonics, topos and typos (Frampton 2001) of an architectural space (‘multimedia effects matrix’) suggest new modes of shaping space. It is proposed that correlations exist between those two that could inform unified design strategies. Case study analyses were conducted examining five works of interactive spaces and multimedia installation artworks, selected from an initial larger study of 25 works. Each case study investigated the means of shaping space employed, according to both conventional architectural practices and the principles of multimedia influence (in reference to the ‘multimedia effects matrix’) (James and Nagasaka 2010, 278-285). Findings from the case studies suggest strong correlations between the two approaches to spatial construction. To indicate these correlations, this paper presents five speculative integrative design strategies derived from the case studies, intended to inform future architectural design practice.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email annejames.07@gmail.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 63a6
authors Medjdoub, B. Richens, P. and Barnard, N.
year 2001
title Building Services Standard Solutions. Variational Generation of Plant Room Layouts
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 479-493
summary Object-based CAD programming is used to take advantage of standardisation to handle the schematic design, sizing, layout and (potentially) pipe-routing for LPHW (Low Pressure Hot Water) plant rooms in buildings. From a simple specification of the plant room geometry, and the heating load in kw, our software proceeds through a number of steps. First the standard number and size of modular boilers, pumps etc. is determined from the heat load. Then a compatible optimising 3D variational solution is generated, using Constraint Logic Programming. Our approach is highly interactive. Modifying the topology of the solution is done directly through the graphic interface, e.g. modifying a boiler position is done by dragging; the system automatically updates the 3D model including the pipe-routing while maintaining all the constraints, and hence the validity of the design.
keywords Constraints, Layout Configuration, Topological Solutions, Optimisation, Interactivity, Plant Room, Pipe Routing, 3D Solution
series CAAD Futures
email benachir.medjdoub@nottingham.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 2ab7
authors Ozcan, Oguzhan
year 2001
title Integration of Architectural Education in Teaching Interactive Media Design - A Course for Space Composition
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 245-248
summary In accordance with our design knowledge, the users’ expectations and the level of the technology reached, show us that interactive media design is not only an interactive environment which depends on two dimensional typographic composition any more. Spatial data has an important role in the formation of interactive media design (TUFTE 1995 p.38). From this point of view, the main factors of this issue are: (1) design of the storyboards, especially for gamedesign, that are made up of spatial perception, (2) the spatial organisations in which info-kiosks take place in public environment, (3) the relation between the screen and the organisation of space in interactive exhibition design. // When we consider the matter above, we understand that throughout the process of the curriculum of interactive media design for undergraduate education, only the traditional communication design and programming education is not sufficient enough, but architectural education must also take a part of this education in some degree. In this paper, as the theme of the considerations above, it is examined what kind of basic problems is to be faced in the integration of architectural education to that of the interactive media design and also the solution propositions formed for these problems.
keywords Interactive Media, Architecture, Education, Design
series eCAADe
email oozcan@yildiz.edu.tr
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id fc1f
authors Zhang, Z., Tsou, J.-Y. and Hall, T.W.
year 2001
title Web-Based Virtual-Reality for Collaboration on Urban Visual Environment Assessment
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 781-794
summary This research aims to facilitate public participation in urban landscape visual assessment (ULVA). To support virtual collaboration in ULVA, it is desirable to provide both quantitative analysis and 3D simulation over the Internet. Although the rendering of urban models in common web browser plug-ins often lacks vividness compared with native workstation applications, the integration of VRML modeling and Java programming proves effective in sharing and rendering urban scenes through a familiar web interface. The ULVA simulation supports not only static scene rendering, but also interactive functional simulations. They include the viewpoint setting up, view corridor and panorama generation. Although popular VRML viewers such as CosmoPlayer provide similar functions, users are often disoriented by the interface. The obfuscation inhibits people’s immersion in the virtual urban environment and makes the assessment inconvenient. To eliminate such disorientation and improve users’ feelings of immersion, we integrate both a two-dimensional map and a three-dimensional model of the urban area in the user interface. The interaction between 2D map and 3D world includes the matching of avatar positions, visualization of avatar posture, and the setting up of viewpoints and view corridors. To support a web-based urban planning process, the system adopts client/server architecture. The city map is managed by a specific database management system (DBMS) on the server side. Users may retrieve information for various “what if” simulations. The system automatically remodels the virtual environment to respond to users’ requests.
keywords Geographic Information Systems, Internet, Urban Landscape, Visual Assessment, Virtual Reality
series CAAD Futures
email s992332@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id avocaad_2001_18
id avocaad_2001_18
authors Aleksander Asanowicz
year 2001
title The End of Methodology - Towards New Integration
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The present paper is devoted to the deliberation on the genesis and development of designing from the point of view of the potential use of computers in the process. Moreover, it also presents the great hopes which were connected with the use of the systematic designing methods in the 1960’s, as well as the great disappointment resulting from the lack of concrete results. At this time a great deal of attention was paid to the process of design as a branch of a wider process of problem-solving. Many people believed that the intuitive methods of design traditionally used by architects were incapable of dealing with the complexity of the problems to be solved. Therefore, the basic problem was the definition of a vertical structure of the designing process, which would make it possible to optimise each process of architectural design. The studies of design methodology directed at the codification of the norms of actions have not brought about any solutions which could be commonly accepted, as the efforts to present the designing process as a formally logical one and one that is not internally “uncontrary” from the mathematical point of view, were doomed to fail. Moreover, the difficulties connected with the use of the computer in designing were caused by the lack of a graphic interface, which is so very characteristic of an architect’s workshop. In result, the methodology ceased to be the main area of the architect’s interest and efforts were focused on facilitating the method of the designer’s communication with the computer. New tools were created, which enabled both the automatic generation of diversity and the creation of forms on the basis of genetic algorithms, as well as the presentation of the obtained results in the form of rendering, animation and VRML. This was the end of the general methodology of designing and the beginning of a number of methods solving the partial problems of computer-supported design. The present situation can be described with the words of Ian Stewart as a “chaotic run in all directions”. An immediate need for new integration is felt. Cyber-real space could be a solution to the problem. C-R-S is not a virtual reality understood as an unreal world. Whilst VR could be indeed treated as a sort of an illusion, C-R-S is a much more realistic being, defining the area in which the creative activities are taking place. The architect gains the possibility of having a direct contact with the form he or she is creating. Direct design enables one to creatively use the computer technology in the designing process. The intelligent system of recognising speech, integrated with the system of virtual reality, will allow to create an environment for the designer – computer communication which will be most natural to the person. The elimination of this obstacle will facilitate the integration of the new methods into one designing environment. The theoretical assumptions of such an environment are described in the present paper.
series AVOCAAD
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_13
id avocaad_2001_13
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2001
title Modeling irregular and complex forms
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Computational technologies provide arguably the first real opportunity architectural design has had for a comprehensive description of built form. With the advent of affordable computer-aided design systems (including drafting, modeling, visualization and simulation tools), architects believe they can be in full control of geometric aspects and, through these, of a wide spectrum of other aspects that are implicit or explicit in the geometric representation. This belief is based primarily on the efficiency and effectiveness of computer systems, ranging from the richness and adaptability of geometric primitives to the utility of geometric representations in simulations of climatic aspects. Such capabilities support attempts to design and construct more irregular or otherwise complex forms. These fall under two main categories: (1) parsing of irregularity into elementary components, and (2) correlation of the form of a building with complex geometric structures.The first category takes advantage of the compactness and flexibility of computational representations in order to analyse the form of a design into basic elements, usually elementary geometric primitives. These are either arranged into simple, unconstrained configurations or related to each other by relationships that define e.g. parametric relative positioning or Boolean combinations. In both cases the result is a reduction of local complexity and an increase of implicit or explicit relationships, including the possibility of hierarchical structures.The second category attempts to correlate built form with constraints that derive usually from construction but can also be morphological. The correlation determines the applicability of complex geometric structures (minimally ruled surfaces) to the description of a design. The product of this application is generally variable in quality, depending upon the designer's grounding in geometry and his ability to integrate constraints from different aspects in the definition of the design's geometry.Both categories represent a potential leap forward but are also equally hampered by the rigidity of the implementation mechanisms upon which they rely heavily. The paper proposes an approach to making these mechanisms subordinate to the cognitive and technical aspects of architectural thinking through fuzzy modeling. This way of modeling involves a combination of (a) canonical forms, (b) tolerances around canonical forms and positions, (c) minimal and maximal values, (d) fuzzy boundaries, and (e) plastic interaction between elements based on the dual principles of local intelligence and autonomy. Fuzzy models come therefore closer to the intuitive manners of sketching, while facilitating transition to precise and complex forms. The paper presents two applications of fuzzy modeling. The first concerns the generation of schematic building layouts, including adaptive control of programmatic requirements. The second is a system for designing stairs that can adapt themselves to changes in their immediate environment through a fuzzy definition of geometric and topological parametrization.
series AVOCAAD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id b044
authors Martin, Rodrigo Q.
year 2001
title LA INTEGRACIÓN DE LA COMPUTACIÓN EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA ARQUITECTURA (The Integration of the Computation in the Teaching of Architecture)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 229-232
summary Which are the questions to ask about integration of computer science and teaching Architecture? The use of a new tool may enhance the production of the different representations of the architectural object. But the insertion of a tool demands questioning about his real possibilities of use. The traditional language of space is composed with the constructive language : plans, sections, perspective ,etc. ; but the computer software that is used to design gives the possibility to represent space in several forms : inmersion, dynamic process, parametric deformations. Here appears the question, what is the new language? Which is the way to get to the center of architectural thought, the space. The computer representations and the modification processes of models are new dynamics of design, this has to be considered in the teaching of Architecture.
series SIGRADI
email rmartin@lauca.usach.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 679c
authors Norman, Frederick
year 2001
title Towards a Paperless Studio
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 336-343
summary The infusion of digital media into the practice of architecture is changing how we design as well as what we design. Digital media has altered the process of design and the culture of design education. The question before us is how does one transition from a completely analog system of representation to one of complete computer immersion or the “paperless studio”. Schools of Architecture have already begun to struggle with the physical issues of integration of new media (infrastructure and economics). But the pedagogical integration of new media should be of a greater concern. New media and its forms of representation are challenging traditional skills of communication and representation, (i.e., sketching, hand drawing and physical model making). The paradox facing architectural practice today is the integration of new media into a realm where traditional or manual forms of representation are ingrained into how we think, produce and communicate. We must ask ourselves, must new media be held to the traditional forms of representation?
keywords Digital Media, Design Studio, 3D Modeling, Animation
series ACADIA
email fnorman@bsu.edu
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 9209
authors Saleh Uddin, Mohammed
year 2001
title Extents and Limitations of 3D Computer Models for Graphic Analysis of Form and Space in Architecture
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 552-557
summary This paper investigates the strength and limitations of basic 3D diagrammatic models and their related motion capabilities in the context of graphic analysis. The focus of such analysis is to create a computer based environment to represent visual analysis of architectural form and space. The paper highlights the restrictions that were found in a specific 3D-computer model environment to satisfy a basic diagrammatic need for analysis. Motion related features that take into account of parametric changes are also investigated to help enhance representation of analytic models. Acknowledging the restrictions, it can be stated that computational media are the only ones at present that can create an interactive multimedia format using components constructed through various computational techniques
keywords 3D Model, Analytic Diagram, Motion Model, Form Analysis, Design Principles
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 3e6a
authors Wittkopf, Stephen
year 2001
title I-Light, a webbased learning system for architectural lighting design
source TU Darmstadt
summary With the rising meaning of architectural lighting also the requirement at appropriate light planning rises. The possibilities of digital instruments were realized by several lamp manufacturers, which use 3D-CAD to present visualizations and use the Internet for their distribution. However in the field of universities it is important to offer instruments and methods with which the interaction of light and architecture can be learned descriptive, comprehensibly and interactively. Introductory in a theoretical section the bases of light planning and learn-educational concepts are pointed out. Parallel the state of the art in the areas of computer-aided learning and the light simulation is presented and evaluated regarding the learn-educational suitability. Thereupon an action requirement is formulated, which designates a new integration of the individual areas. It flows into the development of an interactive Web-based training system for the design with light - I-Light - whose concept and implementation in the following sections is described. In an application of examples the author points out finally, how this innovative connection of the Internet, 3D-CAD and simulation supports a better understanding of the medium light in the architecture perception. A new virtual light laboratory forms the core of this training system, in which architectural planning examples can be represented three-dimensional and changed interactively. A developed semantic scene model ensures for the fact that lighting, materials and delimitation surfaces are varied didactically appropriately and compared, so that visual effects and important interrelation can be assumed and checked. The author orients itself at the methodology by simulation and merges 3D-CAD and light simulation programs into the training system. The calculated photo-realistic picture is regarded not - as otherwise usual - as presentation material, but as interactive tools. Since 3D-CAD and light simulation programs presuppose much application knowledge, the author does not pursue to confront the user with these complex programs. He developed a new system with a Web-based graphic surface, that enables 3D-scenes to be loaded, be changed and stored easily (front-end). Furthermore it enables the remote control to an automatic, photo-realistic simulation on push of a button on an external high end render machine, that is connected via Internet, where at least all files are externally stored. For the operation of the front-end is only an average PC with a standard Webbrowser necessary. For the receiving station the author develops a new interface, which extends a standard Web server by the new possibility of storing and executing lighting simulations (back-end). The system presented by the author differs in the didactical concept and in the technical implementation from the solutions existing so far in similar areas. The interactive virtual light laboratories of the architectural planning examples represent a new beginning of Web-based learning environments. To the selected tools (HTML, Java, VRML, Web server, Lightscape) there yet exist no matured alternatives.
series thesis:PhD
email akiskw@nus.edu.sg
more http://elib.tu-darmstadt.de/diss/000131/
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 444b
authors Barrionuevo, Luis F.
year 2001
title Positioning of Buildings in a Land
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 493-499
summary Configurational studies are useful tools to architectural designing, since they help to understand the grouping of objects in the space (two-dimensional and/or threedimensional). The designer, after a classification of objects that satisfies the needs set to a group of objects, impose some restrictions to the objects that will govern the composition. These restrictions are those that will define the result through operations carried out by the designer. Among these operations the location of buildings in a determined area and the particular environmental qualities condition the final result. This work presents the results obtained by means of the implementation of a computing program of the type Evolution Program (EP) implemented in language C. The implementation of the program is explained in the first part of the paper. In the second part the successive steps are described. The numerical results obtained with the mentioned program are shown graphically. Examples of different complexity level illustrate the discussion of the theoretical matters.
keywords Positioning Buildings, Configurational Studies, Evolutionary Design, Evolutionary Algorithms, Evolutionary Programming
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id d1a6
authors Corona Martínez, A., Vigo, L. and Folchi, A.
year 2001
title SEMINARIO/TALLER DE INVESTIGACION PROYECTUAL ESTRUCTURA DE TALLER ACTIVO PARA LA ENSEÑANZA E INVESTIGACIÓN PROYECTUAL ARQUITECTÓNICA ASISTIDO POR TÉCNOLOGÍAS DIGITALES (Research Seminar/Workshop on the Structure of Active Design Studios for Training and Research on Computer Aided Design)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 227-228
summary In a previous paper (SiGradi 2000) we presented a design approach based upon the architectural research that regarded digital technologies as a subordinated tool to architectural design. From that starting point and from various research experiences, we have re-oriented certain guidelines and latter developed specific techniques that can be used both for teaching and for the professional practice of architecture. Through the use of paradigmatic and hermeneutic techniques developed ad hoc, architectural projects are developed in a three-stage sequence: a) development of a narrative framework; b) analysis based on object oriented programming thechniques; and c) digital development of the preliminary design. We believe that the positive aspects of the inclusion of these idea-centered techniques to the digital realm unifies and extends the architectural knowledge and strengthens its conception.
series SIGRADI
email corona@cvtci.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id 158e
authors De Vries, B., Van Leeuwen, J. and Achten, H. (Eds.)
year 2001
title Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2001
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, 814 p.
summary CAAD Futures is a bi-annual conference that aims to promote the advancement of computer-aided architectural design in the service of those concerned with the quality of the built environment. The conferences are organized under the auspices of the CAAD Futures Foundation, which has its secretariat at the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands.

This volume provides state-of-the-art articles in the following areas: capturing design, information modelling, CBR techniques, Virtual Reality, CAAD education, (hyper) media, design evaluation, design systems development, collaboration, generation, design representation, knowledge management, form programming, simulation, architectural analysis, and urban design.

series CAAD Futures
email B.d.Vries@tue.nl
more http://www.caadfutures.arch.tue.nl/2001
last changed 2003/04/02 08:52

_id 2f44
authors Diaz, Monica
year 2001
title Aplicación del vba en el diseño arquitectónico: diseño de paredes tomando en cuenta el aislamiento acústico aéreo [Application of the Vba in an Architectural Design Case: Walls Design with the Aerial Sound Insulation]
source 2da Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Maracaibo (Venezuela) december 2001, pp. 216-227
summary Development an application using an object and events language as VBA can reduce the time to programming because it is more intuitive and you can have libraries with procedures. This type of application makes easier to work on the architecture design: it provides information to the architect and guide him in taking the best decision. The time of designing walls considering the acoustical isolation were reduced using a VBA application. The purpose of the present work is to develop an automatic, visual and interactive tool that using a 3D drawing CAD and a object language guide the architect in the design of walls considering the noise from outside and helping the acoustical comfort.
series other
email mcdb@telcel.net.ve
last changed 2003/02/14 07:29

_id d960
authors Ekholm, Anders
year 2001
title Activity objects in CAD-programs for building design. A prototype program implementation
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 61-74
summary In the early stages of the building design process, during the programming and the proposal stages, both user activities and the building are in focus for the designer. In spite of this, today’s CAD programs give no support for management of information about user activities in the building. This paper discusses the requirements on modelling user activities in the context of building design and presents a prototype software. The prototype is developed as an add-on to the architectural design software ArchiCAD.
keywords CAD, User Activity Modelling, Building Design, Building Product Modelling, Building Brief Development, Space Function Program
series CAAD Futures
email Anders.Ekholm@caad.lth.se
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id avocaad_2001_08
id avocaad_2001_08
authors Ivanka Iordanova, Temy Tidafi
year 2001
title Design assistance by complexity-supporting precedents' modelling
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design processes imply complexity at every stage of the development of a project. On one hand, this complexity is rarely taken into consideration by the currently used CAD programs. On the other hand, recent theoretical researches indicate that a large proportion of architectural design processes are based on precedents as a source of inspiration or as a basis for reflection. A precedent is usually seen as a sketch, as a picture, as a drawing or as a visual memory of an architectural object or space. Recent research enlarges this concept into at least two directions: (1) precedents are looked for not only in the architectural space, and (2) it’s not only the visual aspect of a precedent that is important, but also its internal logic and structure, the know-how associated to it, and the actions needed for its creation. Usually, architectural design knowledge is implicitly presented by precedents. This design knowledge is applied to design-objects having various levels of generality, at different states of detailing and expected to be dynamically transformed during the following stages of design. Having in mind these characteristics of precedents called for during the architectural design process, we propose to join their visual representation with a description of their most important characteristics: structural organisation, way of production, functional organisation, spatial composition, etc. These can be either described or modelled by the original author, or interpreted by the precedent’s ‘user’. These design-knowledge models can be of use in several ways: (1) providing a library for search of precedents by semantic analogy, (2) offering ready-to-use capsules of design knowledge for new design situations, (3) enriching the ‘design world’ of the user-architect. We have implemented the proposed method of complexity-supporting precedents’ modelling by the means of the functional programming SGDL-Scheme language. The models (a programming function or a structure of programming functions) describe the actions necessary for the creation of an object (or its digital representation) and the structural organisation between the models in order to generate new, more complex ones. The concept of describing actions instead of shapes, provides a multi-level applicability of the models. Visual presentations (digital maquettes, images or animations) of newly generated objects can be stored in a visual-library of the assistant, thus creating a new ‘precedent’ that can be referred to in future by visual analogy. The design-knowledge that has generated the new object, is stored and linked to the image. Thus, the visual stimulus of a precedent can be joined with functional characteristics, production procedures and/or semantic meaning of the object. The paper will present the ‘engine’ of the proposed assistant, its organisation, as well as digital models of precedents that have served as a basis for the design of new architectural objects or structures. The assistant is conceived as an open, complexity supporting structure that can be further developed by the ‘user-architect’. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed assistant.
series AVOCAAD
email Ivanka.Iordanova@videotron.ca, Temy.Tidafi@Umontreal.ca
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id caadria2006_613
id caadria2006_613
authors JAEHO RYU, NAOKI HASHIMOTO, MAKOTO SATO, MASASHI SOEDA, RYUZO OHNO
year 2006
title A GAME ENGINE BASED ARCHITECTURAL SIMULATOR ON MULTI-PROJECTOR DISPLAYS
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 613-615
summary To make whole one image on screens that is generated by many computers and synchronization among computers, there is a need for a network software environment for multi-projector display system. Although the development costs increase for parallel programming for multi-projector display system, there is a possibility that the program cannot be executed at an enough speed since the network bandwidth might become a bottleneck. There are some software environments for that kind of multi-projector display system like Chromium that is latest version of WireGL (Humphreys, 2001&2002). WireGL is a kind of Client-Server Model, which one rendering server sends the data of rendering to many computers. While it can use the application without modification of source, it requires heavy network traffics. The other type of operating software is VR Juggler (Cruz-Neira, 2002), and CAVE Library that is a kind of Master-Slave Model. In the Master-Slave Model, every computer has same application programs to render the image that only keep the synchronization of rendering and events. But, these programs require a specialized skill and knowledge to modify the source of program for the certain rendering PC-Cluster system.
series CAADRIA
email jaehoryu@hi.pi.titech.ac.jp, naoki@hi.pi.titech.ac.jp, msato@pi.titech.ac.jp, rohno@n.cc.titech.ac.jp, msoeda@n.cc.titech.ac.jp
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

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