CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 696

_id 1b3f
authors Papanikolaou, Maria
year 2001
title Respace: A virtual environment for rethinking about space
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 391-400
summary ReSpace is a teaching module, which entices students in a playful way to work with computers and motivates them to think more deeply about the abstract idea of space. The goal of ReSpace is to enhance the concept of space by augmenting its content with additional levels of information like statements about emotions, by referring to senses, delineating impressions or telling stories and inducing memories. ReSpace takes advantage of the possibilities offered by virtual environments in the transfer of information and suggests space as a metaphor for the communication of ideas, knowledge and experiences about space. In this paper the module ReSpace taught by the author is described. Its central theme is the representation and communication of oneís notion, perception, and interpretation of space with the help of a 3D, interactive, virtual, environment. http://alterego.arch.ethz.ch
series CAADRIA
email papan@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id avocaad_2001_18
id avocaad_2001_18
authors Aleksander Asanowicz
year 2001
title The End of Methodology - Towards New Integration
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The present paper is devoted to the deliberation on the genesis and development of designing from the point of view of the potential use of computers in the process. Moreover, it also presents the great hopes which were connected with the use of the systematic designing methods in the 1960’s, as well as the great disappointment resulting from the lack of concrete results. At this time a great deal of attention was paid to the process of design as a branch of a wider process of problem-solving. Many people believed that the intuitive methods of design traditionally used by architects were incapable of dealing with the complexity of the problems to be solved. Therefore, the basic problem was the definition of a vertical structure of the designing process, which would make it possible to optimise each process of architectural design. The studies of design methodology directed at the codification of the norms of actions have not brought about any solutions which could be commonly accepted, as the efforts to present the designing process as a formally logical one and one that is not internally “uncontrary” from the mathematical point of view, were doomed to fail. Moreover, the difficulties connected with the use of the computer in designing were caused by the lack of a graphic interface, which is so very characteristic of an architect’s workshop. In result, the methodology ceased to be the main area of the architect’s interest and efforts were focused on facilitating the method of the designer’s communication with the computer. New tools were created, which enabled both the automatic generation of diversity and the creation of forms on the basis of genetic algorithms, as well as the presentation of the obtained results in the form of rendering, animation and VRML. This was the end of the general methodology of designing and the beginning of a number of methods solving the partial problems of computer-supported design. The present situation can be described with the words of Ian Stewart as a “chaotic run in all directions”. An immediate need for new integration is felt. Cyber-real space could be a solution to the problem. C-R-S is not a virtual reality understood as an unreal world. Whilst VR could be indeed treated as a sort of an illusion, C-R-S is a much more realistic being, defining the area in which the creative activities are taking place. The architect gains the possibility of having a direct contact with the form he or she is creating. Direct design enables one to creatively use the computer technology in the designing process. The intelligent system of recognising speech, integrated with the system of virtual reality, will allow to create an environment for the designer – computer communication which will be most natural to the person. The elimination of this obstacle will facilitate the integration of the new methods into one designing environment. The theoretical assumptions of such an environment are described in the present paper.
series AVOCAAD
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id c8ce
authors Keefe, D., Acevedo, D., Moscovich, T., Laidlaw, D., and La Viola, J.
year 2001
title CavePainting: A Fully Immersive 3D Artistic Medium and Interactive Experience
source Proceedings of the 2001 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, March 2001
summary CavePainting is an artistic medium that uses a 3D analog of 2D brush strokes to create 3D works of art in a fully immersive Cave environment. Physical props and gestures are used to provide an intuitive interface for artists who may not be familiar with virtual reality. The system is designed to take advantage of the 8 ft. x 8 ft. x 8 ft. space in which the artist works. CavePainting enables the artist to create a new type of art and provides a novel approach to viewing this art after it has been created. In this paper, we describe Cave- Painting's 3D brush strokes, color pickers, artwork viewing mode, and interface.We also present several works of art created using the system along with feedback from artists. Artists are excited about this form of art and the gestural, full-body experience of creating it.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 174f
authors Bakker, N.H.
year 2001
title Spatial Orientation in Virtual Environments
source Delft University of Technology
summary Recently, a growing interest can be detected in the application of Virtual Environment (VE) technology as an operator interface. VEs are three-dimensional computer-generated images that can be shown on a conventional monitor, on a large screen display, or on a head-mounted display. In order to use these three-dimensional interfaces for finding and retrieving information, the user must be able to spatially orient themselves. Different types of VE technology are available for navigating in these VEs, and different types of navigation can be enabled. A choice has to be made between the different options to enable good spatial orientation of the user. There are two main types of VE interfaces: an immersive interface that provides rich sensory feedback to the user when moving around in the VE, and a non-immersive interface that provides only visual feedback to the user when moving around in the VE. Furthermore, navigation through the VE can either be continuous providing fluent motion, or can be discontinuous which means that the viewpoint is displaced instantaneously over a large distance. To provide insight into the possible effects of these options a series of nine experiments was carried out. In the experiments the quality of spatial orientation behaviour of test subjects is measured while using the different types of interface and the different types of navigation. The results of the experiments indicate that immersive navigation improves the perception of displacement through the VE, which in turn aids the acquisition of spatial knowledge. However, as soon as the spatial layout of the VE is learned the two types of navigation interface do not lead to differences in spatial orientation performance. A discontinuous displacement leads to temporary disorientation, which will hinder the acquisition of spatial knowledge. The type of discontinuous displacements has an effect on the time needed for anticipation. The disorienting effects of a discontinuous displacement can be compensated for by enabling cognitive anticipation to the destination of the displacement. These results suggest that immersive navigation might only be beneficial for application domains in which new spatial layouts have to be learned every time or in domains where the primary users are novices. For instance, in training firemen to teach them the layout of new buildings with VE, or in using architectural walkthroughs in VE to show new building designs to potential buyers. Discontinuous movement should not be allowed when exploring a new environment. Once the environment is learned and if fast displacement is essential then discontinuous displacement should be preferred. In this case, the interface designer must make sure that information is provided about the destination of a discontinuous displacement.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c006
authors Chang, T.-W. and Huang, J. H.
year 2001
title The acting roles model of web-based learning - Web-based Architectural Learning Envirnoment (WALE)
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 323-327
summary Some useful aspects are learned on the asynchrony characteristics of Web and a crucial exhibiting space so-called gallery composed by studentsÌ creation proposes a positive virtual learning space. In this paper, an acting role-interplayed system (WALE) is demonstrated through a CAD subject for third-year architectural students at Ming Chuan University will reveal and evaluate the potential or drawback of such environment. WALE is based on a game-playing learning environment for students to interact motivated and to evolve the design potential of individual. This study of WALE is facilitated with CAD tools and developed to help students to explore possible design alternatives by acting multi-role in the process of design.
series CAADRIA
email tengwen@mcu.edu.tw
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 2178
authors Chevrier, C. and Perrin, J.P.
year 2001
title Interactive 3D reconstruction for urban areas. An image based tool
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 753-765
summary Urban applications (for example arrangement, new buildings, virtual sightseeing and walkthrough) require a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model of town areas. However, most of them do not need an accurate model of reality. Such model would occupy a considerable memory space and would be too slow to handle. Architects, urban designers and civil engineers can find in our tool a medium to conceive their projects. Some types of software exist but they do not correspond exactly to our needs. Consequently we have conceived and developed an interactive tool for virtual 3D rough reconstruction of buildings. The software development has been performed in the Maya environment (ALIAS Wavefront) with C++ language and MEL (Maya Embedded Language). A constraint we set for ourselves was the use of only light devices (for easy transportation) at low price (everybody can buy such devices). The principle is to overlay on the scanned photograph of the area we want to deal with, the two dimensional (2D) cadastral plan displayed from the same viewpoint as the picture. Then each building body can be extruded from its ground polygon and the roof can be created from what the user sees on the picture. A constraint is the flatness of the polygonal surfaces. Our application context was the town of Nancy in France for which some areas have been reconstructed. Some pictures have been used as textures for polygonal surfaces, giving more reality effect to the simulation.
keywords Geometrical Modelling, Architecture, Urban Area, Virtual Visit
series CAAD Futures
email chevrier@crai.archi.fr
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 04f2
authors Cimerman, Benjamin
year 2001
title Clients, architects, houses and computers: Experiment and reflection on new roles and relationships in design
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 100-109
summary This paper reports on recent work that focused on the potential impact of standard computer technology on the relationship between client and architect in the context of residential design. A study of software applications a client could use to develop and evaluate ideas exposed the dearth of software available for the design of spatial complexity by individuals without advanced computer skills, and led to the design of a specific piece of software we call “Space Modeler.” It was prototyped using off-the-shelf virtual reality technology, and tested by a group of freshmen students. The paper discusses the specificities of the software and provides analysis and reflection based on the results of the test, both in terms of design artifacts and users’ comments. The paper concludes that the evolution of the interface to electronic environments is a matter of interest for those concerned with rethinking the training, role and activity of the architect. In the near future prospective homeowners may be able to experience and experiment with the space of their home before it is built. How can the profession embrace new information technology developments and appropriate them for the benefits of society at large?
keywords Design Software, Design Participation, Visualization, Simulation
series ACADIA
email cimerb@rpi.edu
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 51a0
authors Conti, G., Ucelli, G. and Maver, T.
year 2001
title JCAD-VR: Java Collaborative Architectural Design Tool in Virtual Reality - A Java3D based scalable framework for real-time, multiplatform VR environments
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 454-459
summary This paper proposes a framework that provides the architect with a tool that uses Virtual Reality (VR) as part of the design path. It offers the possibility to deploy a system capable of assisting the design profession during the early stages of the design process. This way VR becomes the means for a new experience where the architect can, free from constraints of the 2D world, create and manipulate the space she/he is designing. The idea upon which JCAD-VR is being built is that all the users present in the virtual world have to be able to share the same virtual environment in a “transparent fashion” where the user interface, instead of the traditional menu/windows based layout, it is part of the virtual world itself. The aim is to provide the designer with a tool for creating 3D-shapes in a shared VR environment, thus allowing the design to be shared as it evolves.
keywords Collaborative Design, Virtual Reality, Java 3D, Distributed Environment
series eCAADe
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 7e02
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2002
title The Virtual Campus: A new place for (lifelong) learning?
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 472-477
summary 472 eCAADe 20 [design e-ducation] Modeling Real and Virtual Worlds Session 13 In the early spring of 2001 a collection of German universities founded a virtual faculty of architecture, which was named „Liquid Campus“. Current thinking about future forms of education in the field of architecture combined with over 4 years of experience with net-based design studios, led to questions about the future of existing universities, their buildings and their use. This problem was put to 43 students in the form of a design exercise to create a place for a virtual university. In the current situation, in which the administration of knowledge is more and more located on the internet, and even the so-called meeting places themselves can be virtualised through the help of video-conference-software, the exercise was to design a virtual campus in the framework and to carry out this design work in a simulation of distributed practice. Initial criticism of the project came from the students in that exemplary working methods were not described, but left for the students to discover on their own. The creation of a concept for the Liquid Campus meant that the participants had to imagine working in a world without the face to face contacts that form the basis (at present) of personal interaction. Additionally, the assignment to create or design possible links between the real and the virtual was not an easy task for students who normally design and plan real physical buildings. Even the tutors had difficulties in producing focused constructive criticism about a virtual campus; in effect the virtualisation of the university leads to a distinctive blurring of its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosophical approach to the design problem. The paper explores the implications of the student’s conclusions on the nature of the university in general and draws conclusions specific to architectural education and the role of architecture in this process.
series eCAADe
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 40a6
authors Ennis, Gareth and Lindsay, Malcolm
year 2001
title VRGLASGOW.CO.UK implementation of internet multi-user functionality to Glasgow's virtual city
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 135-142 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary The development of the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) for the Internet has resulted in the emergence of a multiplicity of 3D web sites. The metaphor used by these sites varies enormously from virtual galleries to virtual cities and style varies from abstract to reality. Additionally these worlds are populated by virtual objects, some having reactive or interactive properties, including movement, audio, video, databases, artificial intelligence etc. Perhaps the most stimulating embodiment of these new environments are those that offer the participant the opportunity to meet and communicate with other visitors exploring the same virtual space/world. The Glasgow Directory is an established 3D web space, with around 10,000 visitors per year. The model represents approximayely 10,000 properties in the city and is populated by contextual information on its culture and socio-economic topography. This paper will describe the background to this VR space, and suggest a set of design criteria for successfully deploying multi-user software within this and similar environments. These criteria will take into account lessons learned by 'observing' and analysing how participants interact with the existing system under different conditions and also what benefits they perceive on entering the environment via the multi-user interface. These recommendations will hopefully be applicable to a wide spectrum of internet virtual environment builders and users.
series other
email gary.ennis@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 3dcd
authors Ennis, Gary and Maver, Tom
year 2001
title Visit VR Glasgow - Welcoming multiple visitors to the Virtual City
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 423-429
summary The development of the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) for the Internet has resulted in the emergence of a multiplicity of 3D web sites. The metaphor used by these sites varies enormously from virtual galleries to virtual cities and style varies from abstract to reality. Additionally these worlds are populated by virtual objects, some having reactive or interactive properties, including movement, audio, video, databases, artificial intelligence etc. Perhaps the most stimulating embodiment of these new environments are those that offer the participant the opportunity to meet and communicate with other visitors exploring the same virtual space/world. The Glasgow Directory is an established 3D web space, with around 10,000 visitors per year. The model represents approximately 10,000 properties in the city and is populated by contextual information on its culture and socio-economic topography. This paper describes the background to this VR space, and suggests a set of design criteria for successfully deploying multi-user software within this and similar environments. These criteria take into account lessons learned by ‘observing’ and analysing how participants interact with the existing system under different conditions and also what benefits they perceive on entering the environment via the multi-user interface. These recommendations will hopefully be applicable to a wide spectrum of internet virtual environment builders and users.
keywords Virtual, City, 3-D, Databases, Interaction
series eCAADe
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk, gary.ennis@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 89fe
authors Ferrar, Steve
year 2001
title The Nature of Non-Physical Space - Or how I learned to love cyberspace wherever it may be
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 208-213
summary More designers are concerned with the occupation of the virtual world, through immersive techniques, for example, than in using it as a means for conceptualising and theorising architectural space. The paper examines how architects think about space and how our consideration of nonphysical space might assist in spatial theory and in teaching. It also considers cyberspace fiction both in writing and film to see how it might help us think about space in a more liberating way. Architects and architectural teaching tends to focus on space as an element of construction rather than a theoretical proposition. By discussing imaginary spaces in greater depth we could encourage students to think about space and spatial concepts in a less rigid way. In particular the paper addresses the issues of interaction and transactions in these environments and how information is represented and accessed in an apparently threedimensional manner. In his book ‘Snow Crash’, Neil Stephenson deals with many ideas concerning not only architectural space but also universal space and its organisation in space and time. He uses metaphor in his depiction of the ultimate in information gathering and management. These are compelling ways in which to communicate ideas about threedimensional thinking, and information collection and management to students of architecture as well as helping architects with the theory and visualisation of non-physical space.
keywords Space: Virtual Reality, Cyberspace, Film, Literature
series eCAADe
email steve.ferrar@uce.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architects—like other designers—tend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses—in the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiqued—results in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as “movement”, “guiding” and/or “rest” plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
email jherssens@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id e515
authors Kieferle, Joachim and Wössner, Uwe
year 2001
title Showing the invisible - Seven rules for a new approach of using immersive virtual reality in architecture
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 376-381
summary Virtual reality, especially in a CAVE environment can be used in different ways. In architecture up to now it is mainly used to visualize planned or ancient buildings. Based on the information approach, on the approach that VR can be used not only to show the visual appearance of things but also information, which might be invisible in real world, seven rules are set up. The rules have been applied in university courses as testbed and verified in commercial projects.
keywords Virtual Reality, Information, Cognition, Space, Collaboration
series eCAADe
email woessner@hlrs.de
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 880b
authors Kruijff, Ernst and Donath, Dirk
year 2001
title Supporting Shared Architectural Understanding
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 143-152 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary This article describes how architects can use the strengths of an immersive or semi-immersive virtual environment to create a shared understanding about a design problem. Virtual environments can allow the strong shared understanding under particular circumstances within a collaborative design set-up. The authors will describe which particular factors of shared understanding could be supported within a virtual environment, and which kind of requirements this poses on the virtual environment itself, and the technology which generates the environment. Specifically focused is at how one can create a common understanding of the spatial construction and meaning of a preliminary design idea. Therefore, a major focus is at the transfer of spatial knowledge about architectural space.
series other
email caad@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 8095
authors Mahrouq, Abdulrahman and Al-Haddad, Baha'uddin
year 2001
title Gaza City: Virtual space and the control of physical space
source CORP 2001, Vienna, pp. 397-402
summary The interaction between virtual space and physical space is increasingly gaining more importance and consideration [1]. Much of theinterest concentrates upon theorizing this interaction and investigating the different concepts behind it [2]. Another concern is toexplore aspects of the physical space through its virtuality especially in the field of architecture and urban design [3]. Yet with theevidence that the increasing pace of development in multimedia, information and communications technology is exerting vastchanges on the physical space, there is a disparate need for control over these very fast changes. Control of the physical space is themain subject of physical planning where it is crucial to develop new tools and procedures for better control of the urban change.Applications of data, information and communications technologies in urban planning and geographic information system (GIS)constitute one of the vital fields for the control and guidance of urban development.In Gaza Strip for example, unprecedented developments resulted after the declaration of the Palestinian- Israeli peace agreements in1994. Information and communications technologies and data sources were improved with the introduction of computers, moderntelephone and wireless communications and satellite imaging. The new developments began to impinge the existing British Mandatesystem and the physical planning process. The municipality of Gaza city took the lead and became the most important and activelocal planning institution to benefit from the new situation. Although the new developments are in their early stage, the positiveimpact on the planning process and the control over the built environment in the city are paramount.This paper aims at exploring the new developments of spatial technologies in the municipality of Gaza and their impact on theplanning conduct and the built environment in the city.
series other
more www.corp.at
last changed 2002/09/04 11:19

_id 728a
authors Mantere, Markku
year 2001
title Visualization of Flow Data in Photo-realistic Virtual Environment
source Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
summary Virtual reality technology has been adopted in many different fields and new application areas are searched continuously. At the moment virtual reality has been applied separately for instance to scientific visualization and illustration of architectural spaces. In this work, a photo-realistic room model and a visualization of an air flow inside the room has been combined. The integrated illustrative three-dimensional model is presented within an immersive virtual environment. The first part of the work covers scientific visualization and virtual reality implementation techniques. The visualization review begins with a discussion about human percepion of visual information and proceeds with an introduction to three-dimensional visualization. The focus is on illustration of a flow data produced as a result of a computational simulation. The flow visualization techniques utilizing all three dimensions are discussed and many examples of different graphical elements are presented. Virtual reality is examined from technical solutions point of view. The features having effect on the quality of a virtual experience are discussed and three different commonly used display techniques are introduced. The hardware of Experimental Virtual Environment -facility at Helsinki University of Technology is given as a detailed example. The implementation of a visualization software is described in the applied part of this thesis. Discussion covers the evaluation of different software tools, the tool selection process, and a detailed description of the design principles and implementation of the software. The different visualization solutions are also justified in this part. In the implementation, the real-time system requirements and utilization of all three dimensions have been taken into account. Finally, the results and their meaning are discussed and the performance of the implementation is evaluated. The applied part successfully integrated the room model and the flow visualization in an interactive virtual environment.
keywords Virtual Environments, Virtual Reality, Flow Visualization, CFD, 3D, Computer Graphics
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 2a58
authors Orzechowski, M.A., Timmermans, H.J.P. and De Vries, B.
year 2001
title MuseV2 - THE VIRTUAL REALITY APPLICATION TO COLLECT USER PREFERENCE DATA
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 162-164
summary In this research project, we are creating an AI environment that helps architects to identify user preferences through a Virtual Reality Interface. At the current stage of development, the project has resulted in a VR application – MuseV2 that allows users to instantly modify an architectural design. The distinctive feature of this application is that a space is considered as a base for all user modifications and as a connection between all design elements. To gather preference information, AI agents observe user-induced modifications in VR. The system that we envision should not become an automated design tool, but an adviser and viewer for novice users.
series SIGRADI
email m.a.orzechowski@tue.nl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

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