CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 700

_id 1b10
id 1b10
authors Bay, Joo-Hwa
year 2001
title Cognitive Biases - The case of tropical architecture
source Delft University of Technology
summary This dissertation investigates, i) How cognitive biases (or illusions) may lead to errors in design thinking, ii) Why architects use architectural precedents as heuristics despite such possible errors, and iii) Develops a design tool that can overcome this type of errors through the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism. The mechanism controls biases and improves accuracy in architectural thinking. // The research method applied is interdisciplinary. It employs knowledge from cognitive science, environmental engineering, and architectural theory. The case study approach is also used. The investigation is made in the case of tropical architecture. The investigation of architectural biases draws from work by A. Tversky and D. Kahneman in 1982 on “Heuristics and biases”. According to Tversky and Kahneman, the use of heuristics of representativeness (based on similarity) and availability (based on ease of recall and imaginability) for judgement of probability can result in cognitive biases of illusions of validity and biases due to imaginability respectively. This theory can be used analogically to understand how errors arise in the judgement of environmental behaviour anticipated from various spatial configurations, leading to designs with dysfunctional performances when built. Incomplete information, limited time, and human mental resources make design thinking in practice difficult and impossible to solve. It is not possible to analyse all possible alternative solutions, multiple contingencies, and multiple conflicting demands, as doing so will lead to combinatorial explosion. One of the ways to cope with the difficult design problem is to use precedents as heuristic devices, as shortcuts in design thinking, and at the risk of errors. This is done with analogical, pre-parametric, and qualitative means of thinking, without quantitative calculations. Heuristics can be efficient and reasonably effective, but may not always be good enough or even correct, because they can have associated cognitive biases that lead to errors. Several debiasing strategies are discussed, and one possibility is to introduce a rebuttal mechanism to refocus the designer’s thinking on the negative and opposite outcomes in his judgements, in order to debias these illusions. The research is carried out within the framework of design theory developed by the Design Knowledge System Research Centre, TUDelft. This strategy is tested with an experiment. The results show that the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism can debias and improve design judgements substantially in environmental control. The tool developed has possible applications in design practice and education, and in particular, in the designing of sustainable environments.
keywords Design bias; Design knowledge; Design rebuttal; Design Precedent; Pre-parametric design; Tropical architecture; Sustainability
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email philipjhbay@gmail.com
last changed 2006/05/28 05:42

_id caadria2003_b6-1
id caadria2003_b6-1
authors Howe, A.S., Kang, P. and Nasari, Omid
year 2003
title Digiosk Digital Design to Robotic Deployment in Two Months
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 811-826
summary In this paper, we discuss Kit-of-parts Theory and how it applies to the design, manufacture, and operation of a small robotic deployable demonstration structure called the Digiosk (Howe, 2001). "Kit-of-parts Theory" refers to the study and application of objectoriented building techniques, where building components are predesigned / pre-engineered / pre-fabricated for inclusion in joint-based (linear element), panel-based (planar element), module-based (solid element), and deployable (time element) construction systems. The Digiosk is an exposition display kiosk that was designed and manufactured digitally, and brought from concept to robotic functionality in a short period of time. Using kinematic mechanisms the cylinder opens up and deploys into a 2.7m cubical display booth complete with integral power and network connections. The kiosk was designed using a solid modeler, from which data was extracted to drive digital manufacturing processes. Owing to the well-developed understanding of Kit-of-parts Theory and the new "kinematic architecture" principles, the paperless process yielded a working prototype only eight weeks after initial conceptualization. The paper concludes with a discussion of how these concepts can be applied to large-scale projects and design processes.
series CAADRIA
email ashowe@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id ga0128
id ga0128
authors Singh, S.K., Vatsa, M.and Singh, R.
year 2001
title Face Recognizing Robot
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary In the biological evolution process, logical thinking has been the last to evolve, and lies at the surface of our consciousness, its means and methodologies available for introspection. On the other hand, the intelligence required to interpret sensory signals and activate motor commands is so well known biologically that it is buried in the subconscious and is entirely inaccessible at the conscious level. The variation in human intelligence is usually measured by the ability to process logical information, whereas the other forms of intelligence needed in daily life are not normallyassociated with the word intelligence. In the recent years man wants to develop a machine having its own intelligence. He wants to make machine, to which he can treat as a real servant. In this paper a simulated robotic system is described, which can be used as a criminal-detecting robot. In this project, an attempt will be made to design a Robot and it’s software, which will have an optimal solution of conditions (for which the Robot is to be designed i.e. security). It will not only reduce the cost (the cost spend insecurity of VIP’s is very high) but also will increase the security strength and stop the criminal activities. It will take snaps of the people and match from its database to check for criminals. Thus, such operations with minimum errors will cause the better security. Computer vision concerned with the sensing of vision data and its interpretation by a computer. Detecting faces in images with complex backgrounds is a difficult task. The approach presented in this paper, which obtains state of the art results, is based on a new neural network model. To detect a face in an image means to find its position in the image plane (x, y) and its size or scale (z). An image of a face can be considered as a set of features such as eyes, mouth, and nose with constrained positions and size within an oval: an explicit model can be used. The think and adjust himself in any condition, can take the optimal and possible decision. The Robot can perform only those tasks and take decisions, which are specified in its programming code.
series other
email sksiet@yahoo.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga0104
id ga0104
authors Caillaud, Bernard
year 2001
title Cellular Automata and Algorithmic Visual Creation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The cellular automaton concept, a reduced form of automaton concept (specific , in the beginning, to cybernetics and computer science) relates to the notion of local order, dear to Abraham Moles, and refers to the creation of a complex order in a set of cells ( or pixels for digital images) based on a simple law which determine the colorimetric state of each pixelaccording to the colorimetric state of its nearest neighbours. I will examine one-dimensional automata and then two-dimensional ones. I will study theirmorphogenetical properties in the case of neutral values and then of chromatic ones. I will talk about my own creative work, closely related to an "orientated morphogenesis".This latter has its place quite naturally in Generative Art . I will look at paradigmatic explorations,parametric creations, programming perturbations, conditional choices, "chromatisation" and hybridation. To finish, I will describe the last stage of the work which consists, if necessary, of reworking the initial files so as to modify then through "software creation".
series other
email Bernard.Caillaud@info.unicaen.fr
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 6a37
authors Fowler, Thomas and Muller, Brook
year 2002
title Physical and Digital Media Strategies For Exploring ‘Imagined’ Realities of Space, Skin and Light
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 13-23
summary This paper will discuss an unconventional methodology for using physical and digital media strategies ina tightly structured framework for the integration of Environmental Control Systems (ECS) principles intoa third year design studio. An interchangeable use of digital media and physical material enabledarchitectural explorations of rich tactile and luminous engagement.The principles that provide the foundation for integrative strategies between a design studio and buildingtechnology course spring from the Bauhaus tradition where a systematic approach to craftsmanship andvisual perception is emphasized. Focusing particularly on color, light, texture and materials, Josef Albersexplored the assemblage of found objects, transforming these materials into unexpected dynamiccompositions. Moholy-Nagy developed a technique called the photogram or camera-less photograph torecord the temporal movements of light. Wassily Kandinsky developed a method of analytical drawingthat breaks a still life composition into diagrammatic forces to express tension and geometry. Theseschematic diagrams provide a method for students to examine and analyze the implications of elementplacements in space (Bermudez, Neiman 1997). Gyorgy Kepes's Language of Vision provides a primerfor learning basic design principles. Kepes argued that the perception of a visual image needs aprocess of organization. According to Kepes, the experience of an image is "a creative act ofintegration". All of these principles provide the framework for the studio investigation.The quarter started with a series of intense short workshops that used an interchangeable use of digitaland physical media to focus on ECS topics such as day lighting, electric lighting, and skin vocabulary tolead students to consider these components as part of their form-making inspiration.In integrating ECS components with the design studio, an nine-step methodology was established toprovide students with a compelling and tangible framework for design:Examples of student work will be presented for the two times this course was offered (2001/02) to showhow exercises were linked to allow for a clear design progression.
series ACADIA
email tfowler@calpoly.edu
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 8599
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2001
title Baptism of fire of a Web-based design assistant
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 111-124
summary DYNAMO – a Dynamic Architectural Memory On-line – is a Web-based design assistant to support architectural design education. The tool is conceived as an (inter-)active workhouse rather than a passive warehouse: it is interactively developed by and actively develops its users' design knowledge. Its most important feature is not merely that it presents students with design cases, but that those cases trigger in-depth explorations, stimulate reflection and prime discussions between students, design teachers and professional architects. Whereas previous papers have focused on the theoretical ideas behind DYNAMO and on how Web-technology enabled us to translate these ideas into a working prototype, this paper reports on the prototype's baptism of fire in a 4th year design studio. It describes the setting and procedure of the baptism, the participation of the studio teaching staff, and the reactions and appreciation of the students. Based on students' responses to a questionnaire and observations of the tool in use, we investigated whether DYNAMO succeeded in engaging students and what factors stimulated/hampered this engagement. Despite the prototype nature of the system, students were noticeably enthusiastic about the tool. Moreover, DYNAMO turned out to be fairly 'democratic', in the sense that it did not seem to privilege students with private access to or prior knowledge of computer technology. However, the responses to the questionnaire raise questions about the nature of students' engagement. Three factors revealed themselves as major obstacles to student (inter-)action: lack of time, lack of encouragement by the teachers and lack of studio equipment. Although these obstacles may not relate directly to DYNAMO itself, they might have prevented the tool from functioning the way it was originally meant to. The paper concludes with lessons learned for the future of DYNAMO and, more in general, of ICT in architectural design education.
keywords Design Studios, Utilization Of Internet, Design Support, Case-Based Design
series CAAD Futures
email ann.heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ea05
authors Huang, Jeffrey and Schroepfer, Thomas
year 2002
title i+a: Explorations in Emerging Architectural / Typologies and Design Processes
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 1-12
summary In this paper, we describe Internet and Architecture (i+a), a research and teaching program, startedfour years ago at Harvard Design School, to explore the possibilities that lie in the convergence of aphysical with a virtual architecture. The approach starts with the analysis of everyday verbs and thechanges that occur in the virtualization of everyday situations, and moves on to critically rethinkexisting architectural typologies and develop new architectures that combine physical and virtualcomponents. This paper describes our experiences with the approach in the year 2001-2002. Wepresent samples of design projects as illustrative examples of new architectural typologies thatcombine the physical and virtual, and describe how incorporating technologies for virtual collaborationinto the design process can enhance architectural practice in the broadest sense.
series ACADIA
email tschroepfer@gsd.harvard.edu
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 22ec
authors Bechthold, Martin
year 2001
title Complex shapes in wood: Computer-aided design and manufacture of wood-sandwich roof shells
source Harvard University
summary Computer-Aided-Design, Engineering and Manufacturing (CAD/CAE/CAM) technology has changed the way consumer products, automobiles or airplanes are designed and made. The emerging applications for CAD/CAE/CAM technology in architecture, and the way this technology impacts how we design and construct the built environment, are yet unclear. This thesis investigates the relation between advanced digital design tools and the making of physical objects by focusing on an exemplary architectural element—wooden roof shells. The research objective is to expand the scope of architectural design through the application of CAD/CAE/CAM technology rather than to use this technology to streamline existing processes. The thesis develops a specific technical solution that allows the design and manufacture of new types of wooden roof shells. These are complexly shaped multifunctional construction elements that are manufactured off-site. Based on the close connection between digital design tools and the new Computer-Numerically-Controlled manufacturing process the author proposes a theoretical model of shared digital environments for collaborative design in architecture. The proposed manufacturing process treats wood as a modern composite material. Thin wood strips and foams combine into structural sandwich panels that can then be joined into a roof shell. The geometrically complex panels are generated by a combination of subtractive Computer-Numerically-Controlled machining processes and manual work. Infrastructure elements can be embedded into the sandwich build-up in order to enhance the functionality of the roof as a building envelope. Numerical tools are proposed that allow the determination of manufacturing-related parameters in the digital design environment. These inform the architectural and structural design in the early design phases. The digital collaborative design environment is based on a shared parametric solid model and an associated database. This collectively owned, feature-based design model is employed throughout the design and manufacturing process and constitutes the means of concurrent design coordination of all participants. The new manufacturing process for wood/foam sandwich shells is verified by designing and manufacturing prototypes. Design guidelines and a cost estimation are presented as the practical basis for architects and engineers to incorporate new types of roof shells into architectural projects.
keywords Architecture; Agriculture; Wood Technology; Design and Decorative Arts
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6fb3
authors Bemergui Holcblat, Jeanette and Ortega Díaz - Arias, Félix
year 2001
title Usabilidad: su incorporación en la formación de los diseñadores de sitios web eficaces [Usability: Its Incorporation In the Creation of the Efficient Web Designers]
source 2da Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Maracaibo (Venezuela) december 2001, pp. 184-193
summary To design in the user's function has become the fundamental key to achieve the effectiveness of a Web site. This work is guided to approach a key and fundamental concept to guarantee the success of a design for a web site that is the "usability". It is presented in first term the basic concepts of the usability, the importance of the establishment of some principles based on the usability engineering. In a second he/she leaves they will expose some guidelines, rules and methods that he/she offers this technique and that they constitute the essence of the design centered in users. some of the keys of the usability methods will be described.
keywords Web Site; Usability; Design
series other
email jennybemergui@terra.es, flodar@airtel.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id b0be
authors Chien, Sheng-Fen
year 2001
title Ensuring Usability of CAAD Systems. A Hybrid Approach
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 361-374
summary Many CAAD software prototypes today are developed with the aim to bring research results closer to practice. This paper describes a hybrid approach that integrates an Object-Oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) methodology with a usability analysis methodology—GOMS. This approach is examined through two case studies and has shown promising results. It enables CAAD system developers to be aware of usability issues and conduct usability evaluation as early as the analysis phase of the software development process. Consequently, this may improve the quality of CAAD software systems as well as ensure the usability of the systems.
keywords Usability Evaluation, GOMS Analysis, Usability Engineering, Object-Oriented Software Engineering
series CAAD Futures
email schien@mail.ntust.edu.tw
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id f97e
authors Commission of the European Communities
year 2001
title The e-learning action plan: designing tomorrow’s education
source Communication from the Commission to the Council and the EuropeanParliament, COM(2001) 172 final, 28 March 2001
summary The "eLearning: Designing tomorrow's education" initiative1 was adopted by the European Commission on 24 May 2000. Following up the conclusions of the Lisbon European Council, it set out the principles, objectives and lines of action of eLearning, defined as the use of new multimedia technologies and the Internet to improve the quality of learning by facilitating access to resources and services as well as remote exchanges and collaboration. The eLearning initiative was welcomed by the Ministers of Education and by the Feira European Council in June 2000. The eLearning initiative is part of the comprehensive eEurope Action Plan2, the aim of which is to allow Europe to exploit its strengths and overcome the barriers holding back the uptake of digital technologies. It also falls in with the Report on the concrete future objectives of education systems3 by adopting information and communication technology development as one of its objectives. The effectiveness of education systems depends entirely on the effectiveness of the approaches to teaching and learning. In order to be effective, the introduction of information and communication technologies will have to be accompanied by a far-reaching reorganisation of learning structures. The eLearning initiative is also of relevance for the candidate countries given the interest they have shown for the eEurope action plan.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ecaade2014_153
id ecaade2014_153
authors David Morton
year 2014
title Augmented Reality in architectural studio learning:How Augmented Reality can be used as an exploratory tool in the design learning journey
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 343-356
summary The boundaries of augmented reality in the academic field are now being explored at an ever increasing level. In this paper we present the initial findings of an educational project focusing on the use of augmented reality in the design process of an architectural student. The study seeks to evaluate the use of AR as a tool in the design stages, allowing effective exploration of spatial qualities of design projects undertaken in the studio. The learning process is guided by the exploration and detection of a design idea in both form and function, with the virtual environment providing a dynamic environment (Mantovani, 2001). This is further reflected in the constructivist theory where the learning processes use conceptual models, which are used to create incremental stages that become the platform to attain the next [Winn, 1993]. The additional benefit of augmented reality within the learning journey is the ability of the students to visually explore the architectural forms they are creating in greater depth.
wos WOS:000361384700034
keywords Augmented reality; pedagogy; learning journey; exploration
series eCAADe
email david.e.morton@northumbria.ac.uk
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 5c22
authors Durmisevic, S., Ciftcioglu, Ö. and Sariyildiz, S.
year 2001
title Quantifying the Qualitative Design Aspects
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 111-116
summary Architecture is a mixture of art and technique. This implies that the architect deals not only with engineering aspects that can be easily quantified and thereafter processed, but deals with aesthetics as well which is in first place qualitative and therefore rather difficult to estimate and numerically represent. As an example, in such cases, these ‘qualitative quantities’ are expressed in linguistic form which should be somehow expressed in numerical form in order to treat such data by powerful and conclusive numerical analysis methods. Expressions such as: bright colour, light room, large space are some of these examples. These expressions are fuzzy concepts whose actual interpretation is hidden and all of them together attach a qualitative value to a certain space. To deal with such information the emerging technologies of the last decade can provide an important aid. One of them is the soft computing technology that can deal with such soft data. In this paper, based on the case studies, we explain the potential of using soft computing techniques.
keywords Qualitative Design Data, Information Processing, Soft Computing, Knowledge Modeling, Neuro-Fuzzy Network
series eCAADe
email I.S.Sariyildiz@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id bfc8
authors Fukai, Dennis and Srinivasan, Ravi
year 2001
title PCIS Revisited: A Visual Database for Design and Construction
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 372-379
summary This paper presents research on a piece-based construction information system called PCIS(pronounced “pieces”) first published as a visual information concept at ACADIA’96, Tucson. After more than five years of development it has evolved into a multidimensional visual information system for design and construction. It includes a piece-based anatomical construction model layered according to a work breakdown structure; a dataTheater that surrounds the model as an index to plans, elevations, sections, and details; and a dataWorld with cameras fixed to the intersections of its latitudes and longitudes to add context and perspective. A standard services matrix (SSM) controls layer visibility and camera settings. PCIS can be “played” to access archived resources; support design development, analyze and resolve preconstruction conflicts, and coordinate construction activities. Current research will be used to demonstrate how PCIS might be valuable to increase the potential for technical cooperation, collaboration, and communication by literally aligning the points of view of architectural, engineering, and construction methodology.
keywords Construction, Pictorial, 3D/4D, Modeling, Database
series ACADIA
email dennis@insitebuilders.com
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id avocaad_2001_11
id avocaad_2001_11
authors Gernot Pittioni
year 2001
title Handling of Complex Projects As Engineering-Partner of Planning Groups
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The collaborative handling of design activities is a growing matter of present planning processes. Most planning partners in the meantime have agreed on using CAD-systems. The common use of the design information is a vital factor which enables us to handle complex problems.The instruments offered by the CAD-systems are performing on a very low level. Many intelligent features get lost by data-transfer. But experience shows that more obstacles are built up by ineffective and insufficient use of the CAD-system and their properties.Huge efforts have to be done in improving the knowledge and the handling abilities of many users. They often do not even know that they are not using their systems in an appropriate way. In fact looking only at the plotted results nobody would guess that the data sometimes are entirely worthless for common use. This only turns out when complex projects rely on timesaving common data use and the partners get stuck in endless difficulties trying to get some information out of badly organised project files.
series AVOCAAD
email g.pittioni@pittioni.de
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 7054
authors Gibson, Ian and Kvan, Thomas
year 2001
title The use of Rapid Prototyping for Architectural Concept Modelling
source Proc. 2nd Annual Conf. on Rapid Technologies, Rapid Product Development Association of South Africa, 14-15 November, 2001, pp. 27-35
summary This paper describes how Rapid Prototyping technology has been integrated into a conceptual design course in the Department of Architecture in The University of Hong Kong. Students have been using this technology for nearly 3 years now and the demand for models and the range and complexity of the models is ever increasing. A number of factors have been found to be of general interest; including the constraints of technology used; the use of colour; material and texture; and applications. Some observations on use of software are also included. As a result of this program; a large research project is now looking into the differences in the teaching of design and conceptual modelling to Architectural and Mechanical Engineering students.
keywords Rapid Prototyping; Architectural Design; Learning
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id d146
authors He, Jie
year 2001
title CAD Study in Visual Analysis of the Visual Sustainability for China Urban Natural Landscape Planning
source Chinese University of Hong Kong
summary In this thesis a GIS-based CAD system prototype of evaluating visual quality of urban natural landscape environment is presented. This prototype is an indispensable component of the integrative Visual Sustainability research, and offers a calculable and visualizable technique to urban visual natural landscape assessment. This scientific method provides precise data to estimate the visibility of natural landscape in urban construction actuality. Furthermore, it can also work out supporting information for maintaining and protecting valuable visual landscape resources in further planning. Introduction of this methodology intends to improve the natural landscape cooperation in China urban planning through visual protection. Combining with popular CAD software such as AutoCAD and Microstation, the research team uses ArcView GIS software and its 3D Analyst extension to accomplish a set of research procedure, which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis. In addition, this system can create simultaneous 3D scenes or hire other information media as reference tools for professional analysis, design consultation and intercommunication. The core technologies of this proposed system are viewshed calculation and overlay analysis. In viewshed analysis, human visual characteristics are simulated by a series of ergonomics parameters of viewpoints. Viewshed of each viewpoint can be calculated into vector data and mapped by polygons identifying which region is visible and which is not. Overlay function of the proposed system is used in visual sensibility analysis to achieve the division of higher visual sensible area which indicates the common visible area from different viewpoints. Additionally, viewshed maps and visual sensibility results can add more information to mark out the areas that can satisfy certain visual parameters such as appropriate visual angle or visual distance. These overlaying results can visualized the visible areas into hierarchical visual perception quality categories in order to define the visual landscape significance of particular planning regions. A case study was operated to evaluate this system. The case is in Zhongshan city, Guangdong Province of China. Jinzishan hill region is the study site that picked by collaborating discussion of research team and the local government. It is located on the edge of urban built-up area. Jinzishan massif is the prominent landscape element of the surrounding environment. There are three topics in Jinzishan visual perception in this paper. The first topic is the visual quality evaluation of the intersections of its surrounding road system. The second is the integrated visual perception of two main roads called Qiwandao and Bo’ailu. Finally is the analysis of the hill skyline visual quality in surrounding area. The analysis results in GIS vector data can be converted into popular data format and combined with other spatial information for practical application. And comments for future urban planning are collected and analyzed by professional responses to the computer-generated information investigation.
keywords Natural Landscaping; Computer-Aided Design; Landscape Architecture; City Planning; Geographic Information Systems
series thesis:MSc
email hejie@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

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