CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 714

_id 6006
authors Liu, Yu-Tung and Bai, Rui-Yuan
year 2001
title The Hsinchu experience: a computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment
source Automation in Construction 10 (3) (2001) pp. 337-343
summary This paper examines the procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) proposed by Rahman and reviews the use of computer-aided design (CAD) applications in urban projects in the real world. A preliminary computerized procedure for VIAA is proposed. An experiment was conducted in our laboratory to verify the preliminary procedure. In order to further study the revised procedure in real urban projects, it was also applied into the renew project of The Eastern Gate Plaza located in the center of Hsinchu, Taiwan from 1996 to 1998. Based on the face-to-face discussions with Hsinchu habitants, government officials, and professional designers, a final computerized procedure for VIAA is concluded.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id d146
authors He, Jie
year 2001
title CAD Study in Visual Analysis of the Visual Sustainability for China Urban Natural Landscape Planning
source Chinese University of Hong Kong
summary In this thesis a GIS-based CAD system prototype of evaluating visual quality of urban natural landscape environment is presented. This prototype is an indispensable component of the integrative Visual Sustainability research, and offers a calculable and visualizable technique to urban visual natural landscape assessment. This scientific method provides precise data to estimate the visibility of natural landscape in urban construction actuality. Furthermore, it can also work out supporting information for maintaining and protecting valuable visual landscape resources in further planning. Introduction of this methodology intends to improve the natural landscape cooperation in China urban planning through visual protection. Combining with popular CAD software such as AutoCAD and Microstation, the research team uses ArcView GIS software and its 3D Analyst extension to accomplish a set of research procedure, which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis. In addition, this system can create simultaneous 3D scenes or hire other information media as reference tools for professional analysis, design consultation and intercommunication. The core technologies of this proposed system are viewshed calculation and overlay analysis. In viewshed analysis, human visual characteristics are simulated by a series of ergonomics parameters of viewpoints. Viewshed of each viewpoint can be calculated into vector data and mapped by polygons identifying which region is visible and which is not. Overlay function of the proposed system is used in visual sensibility analysis to achieve the division of higher visual sensible area which indicates the common visible area from different viewpoints. Additionally, viewshed maps and visual sensibility results can add more information to mark out the areas that can satisfy certain visual parameters such as appropriate visual angle or visual distance. These overlaying results can visualized the visible areas into hierarchical visual perception quality categories in order to define the visual landscape significance of particular planning regions. A case study was operated to evaluate this system. The case is in Zhongshan city, Guangdong Province of China. Jinzishan hill region is the study site that picked by collaborating discussion of research team and the local government. It is located on the edge of urban built-up area. Jinzishan massif is the prominent landscape element of the surrounding environment. There are three topics in Jinzishan visual perception in this paper. The first topic is the visual quality evaluation of the intersections of its surrounding road system. The second is the integrated visual perception of two main roads called Qiwandao and Bo’ailu. Finally is the analysis of the hill skyline visual quality in surrounding area. The analysis results in GIS vector data can be converted into popular data format and combined with other spatial information for practical application. And comments for future urban planning are collected and analyzed by professional responses to the computer-generated information investigation.
keywords Natural Landscaping; Computer-Aided Design; Landscape Architecture; City Planning; Geographic Information Systems
series thesis:MSc
email hejie@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 7c64
authors Tang, S.-K., Liu, Y.-T., Lin, C.-Y., Shih, S.-C., Chang, C.-H. and Chiu, Y.-C.
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 205-210
summary This research is based on a historical architecture restoration project (the Taiwan 921-earthquake damaged Chi-chi train station). The objective of this research is to construct a computerized procedure for allocating roof tiles. We attempt to simulate different combinations of new and existing roof tile layout through the application of computer simulation prior to the actual construction. This computer simulation process assists the professional and non-professionalís analysis and evaluation to achieve a visually harmonious and ready for construction solution.
series CAADRIA
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 04f2
authors Cimerman, Benjamin
year 2001
title Clients, architects, houses and computers: Experiment and reflection on new roles and relationships in design
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 100-109
summary This paper reports on recent work that focused on the potential impact of standard computer technology on the relationship between client and architect in the context of residential design. A study of software applications a client could use to develop and evaluate ideas exposed the dearth of software available for the design of spatial complexity by individuals without advanced computer skills, and led to the design of a specific piece of software we call “Space Modeler.” It was prototyped using off-the-shelf virtual reality technology, and tested by a group of freshmen students. The paper discusses the specificities of the software and provides analysis and reflection based on the results of the test, both in terms of design artifacts and users’ comments. The paper concludes that the evolution of the interface to electronic environments is a matter of interest for those concerned with rethinking the training, role and activity of the architect. In the near future prospective homeowners may be able to experience and experiment with the space of their home before it is built. How can the profession embrace new information technology developments and appropriate them for the benefits of society at large?
keywords Design Software, Design Participation, Visualization, Simulation
series ACADIA
email cimerb@rpi.edu
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ddss9829
id ddss9829
authors De Hoog, J., Hendriks, N.A. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 1998
title Evaluating Office Buildings with MOLCA(Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment)
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment) is a project that aims to develop a tool that enables designers and builders to evaluate the environmental impact of their designs (of office buildings) from a environmental point of view. The model used is based on guidelinesgiven by ISO 14000, using the so-called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The MOLCA project started in 1997 and will be finished in 2001 resulting in the aforementioned tool. MOLCA is a module within broader research conducted at the Eindhoven University of Technology aiming to reduce design risks to a minimum in the early design stages.Since the MOLCA project started two major case-studies have been carried out. One into the difference in environmental load caused by using concrete and steel roof systems respectively and the role of recycling. The second study focused on biases in LCA data and how to handle them. For the simulations a computer-model named SimaPro was used, using the world-wide accepted method developed by CML (Centre for the Environment, Leiden, the Netherlands). With this model different life-cycle scenarios were studied and evaluated. Based on those two case studies and a third one into an office area, a first model has been developed.Bottle-neck in this field of study is estimating average recycling and re-use percentages of the total flow of material waste in the building sector and collecting reliable process data. Another problem within LCA studies is estimating the reliability of the input data and modelling uncertainties. All these topics will be subject of further analysis.
keywords Life-Cycle Assessment, Office Buildings, Uncertainties in LCA
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id bb4f
authors He, Jie and Tsou Jin-Yeu
year 2001
title GIS-based Visual Perception Analysis of Urban Natural Landscape for Urban Planning Supporting: A Case Study of Jinzishan Hill Region
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 505-510
summary In this paper we present a GIS-based system prototype in evaluating visual perception quality of natural landscape within urban environment. Through a case study, we demonstrate the entire procedure which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis as well as design aiding presentation of this system. This system prototype offers a calculatable and visulizable technique to evaluate the visual quality of urban natural landscape in either actual situation or planning future. Furthermore, we collaborate with local professional organization in a real urban site study to preparing regional planning instruction items by means of this system.
keywords GIS, Urban Natural Landscape, Visual Perception, Viewshed, Jinzishan
series eCAADe
email hejie@cuhk.edu.hk, jinyeutsou@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 360e
authors Mahdjoubi, Lamine and Wiltshire, John
year 2001
title Towards a framework for evaluation of computer visual simulations in environmental design
source Design Studies 22 (2) (2001) pp. 193-209
summary Research has been conducted into the assessment of visual simulation as a credible method for predicting future environments, especially in building and landscape evaluation. Despite this work a conceptual framework to guide research and practice in this field has not been developed. The recent and increasingly widespread use of computer simulation in design has created an urgent need to develop a conceptual framework which can test prevailing assumptions and provide the basis for the development of an accepted theory in the field. This paper proposes such a framework, and identifies and relates the significant variables, which impact upon the application of visual simulation in an environmental design, task-orientated context.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id cf2011_p115
id cf2011_p115
authors Pohl, Ingrid; Hirschberg Urs
year 2011
title Sensitive Voxel - A reactive tangible surface
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 525-538.
summary Haptic and tactile sensations, the active or passive exploration of our built surroundings through our sense of touch, give us a direct feeling and detailed information of space, a sense of architecture (Pallasmaa 2005). This paper presents the prototype of a reactive surface system, which focuses its output on the sense of touch. It explains how touch sensations influence the perception of architecture and discusses potential applications that might arise from such systems in the future. A growing number of projects demonstrate the strong impact of interaction design on the human senses and perception. They offer new ways of sensing and experiencing architectural space. But the majority of these interaction concepts focus on visual and auditory output-effects. The sense of touch is typically used as an input generator, but neglected as as a potential receiver of stimuli. With all the possibilities of sensors and micro-devices available nowadays, there is no longer a technical reason for this. It is possible to explore a much wider range of sense responding projects, to broaden the horizon of sensitive interaction concepts (Bullivant 2006). What if the surfaces of our surroundings can actively change the way it feels to touch them? What if things like walls and furniture get the ability to interactively respond to our touch? What new dimensions of communication and esthetic experience will open up when we conceive of tangibility in this bi-directional way? This paper presents a prototype system aimed at exploring these very questions. The prototype consists of a grid of tangible embedded cells, each one combining three kinds of actuators to produce divergent touch stimuli. All cells can be individually controlled from an interactive computer program. By providing a layering of different combinations and impulse intensities, the grid structure enables altering patterns of actuation. Thus it can be employed to explore a sort of individual touch aesthetic, for which - in order to differentiate it from established types of aesthetic experiences - we have created the term 'Euhaptics' (from the Greek ευ = good and άπτω = touch, finger). The possibility to mix a wide range of actuators leads to blending options of touch stimuli. The sense of touch has an expanded perception- spectrum, which can be exploited by this technically embedded superposition. The juxtaposed arrangement of identical multilayered cell-units offers blending and pattern effects of different touch-stimuli. It reveals an augmented form of interaction with surfaces and interactive material structures. The combination of impulses does not need to be fixed a priori; it can be adjusted during the process of use. Thus the sensation of touch can be made personally unique in its qualities. The application on architectural shapes and surfaces allows the user to feel the sensations in a holistic manner – potentially on the entire body. Hence the various dimensions of touch phenomena on the skin can be explored through empirical investigations by the prototype construction. The prototype system presented in the paper is limited in size and resolution, but its functionality suggests various directions of further development. In architectural applications, this new form of overlay may lead to create augmented environments that let inhabitants experience multimodal touch sensations. By interactively controlling the sensual patterns, such environments could get a unique “touch” for every person that inhabit them. But there may be further applications that go beyond the interactive configuration of comfort, possibly opening up new forms of communication for handicapped people or applications in medical and therapeutic fields (Grunwald 2001). The well-known influence of touch- sensations on human psychological processes and moreover their bodily implications suggest that there is a wide scope of beneficial utilisations yet to be investigated.
keywords Sensitive Voxel- A reactive tangible surface
series CAAD Futures
email inge@sbox.tugraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 0767
authors Ries, Robert and Mahdavi, Ardeshir
year 2001
title Evaluation of Design Performance through Regional Environmental Simulation
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 629-642
summary Computational building simulation tools have historically viewed buildings as artefacts isolated and disconnected from their contexts. At most, the external environmental conditions have been viewed as outside influences or stressors encapsulated in, for example, weather files for energy simulation or sky models for lighting simulation. In the field of environmental assessment, life cycle analysis (LCA) has followed a similar path of isolating the artefact under analysis from its context. Modeling the building artefact as a participant in multiple contexts over time so that the interactions and dependencies between the regions and the building can be adequately explored in the design process requires support for the modeling of regional areas, as well as the artefact and the related life cycle processes. Using computational design and evaluation tools can provide the computing capability required for effective design decision support. This paper presents the implementation of the affordance impact assessment method and the regional environmental simulation in Ecologue. Ecologue is the computational tool for life cycle environmental impact assessment in the SEMPER integrated building design and simulation system. Ecologue contains a building model and an environmental model. The building model is automatically derived from the shared building model of the SEMPER system. The environmental model is a combination of a representation of the processes and emissions occurring in the life cycle of buildings and an impact assessment model. The impact assessment model is a combination of a context model of the physical characteristics of a region and a sub-regional fate and transport model based on the fugacity concept.
keywords Environmental Simulation, Design Decision Support, Life Cycle Analysis
series CAAD Futures
email robries@pitt.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id adc6
authors Zhang, H., Tan, C.M. and Shi, J.J.
year 2001
title Activity-object oriented simulation on a visual environment
source CIDAC, Volume 3 Issue 2 May 2001
summary Although computer simulation has been applied to analyse and plan construction processes for decades, the practitioners in construction have still experienced difficulties in modelling. To model a construction process requires multiple types of modelling elements, and to verify the models requires comprehensive knowledge and experience. This paper discusses an activity object-oriented analysis method that incorporates the object-oriented approach with the graphical activity-based modelling methods that requires only one type of modelling element, and the activity object-oriented simulation strategy that effectively advances the activity-based simulation. The visual modelling capabilities and the easy-to-use animation function are also introduced, which respectively help model graphically complicated construction processes with one single element (activities) without the use of simulation programming and assist users, especially the non-specialists of the construction industry, in verifying the simulation models.
keywords Simulation for Construction; Simulation Strategy; Object-Oriented; Visual Modelling, Animation; Verification
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 18:41

_id fc1f
authors Zhang, Z., Tsou, J.-Y. and Hall, T.W.
year 2001
title Web-Based Virtual-Reality for Collaboration on Urban Visual Environment Assessment
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 781-794
summary This research aims to facilitate public participation in urban landscape visual assessment (ULVA). To support virtual collaboration in ULVA, it is desirable to provide both quantitative analysis and 3D simulation over the Internet. Although the rendering of urban models in common web browser plug-ins often lacks vividness compared with native workstation applications, the integration of VRML modeling and Java programming proves effective in sharing and rendering urban scenes through a familiar web interface. The ULVA simulation supports not only static scene rendering, but also interactive functional simulations. They include the viewpoint setting up, view corridor and panorama generation. Although popular VRML viewers such as CosmoPlayer provide similar functions, users are often disoriented by the interface. The obfuscation inhibits people’s immersion in the virtual urban environment and makes the assessment inconvenient. To eliminate such disorientation and improve users’ feelings of immersion, we integrate both a two-dimensional map and a three-dimensional model of the urban area in the user interface. The interaction between 2D map and 3D world includes the matching of avatar positions, visualization of avatar posture, and the setting up of viewpoints and view corridors. To support a web-based urban planning process, the system adopts client/server architecture. The city map is managed by a specific database management system (DBMS) on the server side. Users may retrieve information for various “what if” simulations. The system automatically remodels the virtual environment to respond to users’ requests.
keywords Geographic Information Systems, Internet, Urban Landscape, Visual Assessment, Virtual Reality
series CAAD Futures
email s992332@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id avocaad_2001_05
id avocaad_2001_05
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2001
title Analysis and the descriptive approach
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The rise of consciousness concerning the quality of working and living conditions has been a permanent though frequently underplayed theme in architecture and building since the reconstruction period. It has led to an explosive growth of programmatic requirements on building behaviour and performance, thus also stimulating the development of design analysis. The first stage of development was characterized by the evolution of prescriptive systems. These reversed the structure of pre-existing proscriptive systems into sequences of known steps that should be taken in order to achieve adequate results. Prescriptive systems complemented rather than replaced proscriptive ones, thereby creating an uncertain mixture of orthodoxy and orthopraxy that failed to provide design guidance for improving design performance and quality.The second stage in the development of design analysis focuses on descriptive methods and techniques for analyzing and supporting evaluation. Technologies such as simulation and scientific visualization are employed so as to produce detailed, accurate and reliable projections of building behaviour and performance. These projections can be correlated into a comprehensive and coherent description of a building using representations of form as information carriers. In these representations feedback and interaction assume a visual character that fits both design attitudes and lay perception of the built environment, but on the basis of a quantitative background that justifies, verifies and refines design actions. Descriptive analysis is currently the most promising direction for confronting and resolving design complexity. It provides the designer with useful insights into the causes and effects of various design problems but frequently comes short of providing clear design guidance for two main reasons: (1) it adds substantial amounts of information to the already unmanageable loads the designer must handle, and (2) it may provide incoherent cues for the further development of a design. Consequently the descriptive approach to analysis is always in danger of been supplanted by abstract decision making.One way of providing the desired design guidance is to complement the connection of descriptive analyses to representations of form (and from there to synthesis) with two interface components. The first is a memory component, implemented as case-bases of precedent designs. These designs encapsulate integrated design information that can be matched to the design in hand in terms of form, function and performance. Comparison between precedents with a known performance and a new design facilitate identification of design aspects that need be improved, as well as of wider formal and functional consequences. The second component is an adaptive generative system capable of guiding exploration of these aspects, both in the precedents and the new design. The aim of this system is to provide feedback from analysis to synthesis. By exploring the scope of the analysis and the applicability of the conclusions to more designs, the designer generates a coherent and consistent collection of partial solutions that explore a relevant solution space. Development of the first component, the design case-bases, is no trivial task. Transformability in the representation of cases and flexible classification in a database are critical to the identification and treatment of a design aspect. Nevertheless, the state of the art in case-based reasoning and the extensive corpus of analysed designs provide the essential building blocks. The second component, the adaptive generative system, poses more questions. Existing generative techniques do not possess the necessary richness or multidimensionality. Moreover, it is imperative that the designer plays a more active role in the control of the process than merely tweaking local variables. At the same time, the system should prevent that redesigning degenerates into a blind trial-and-error enumeration of possibilities. Guided empirical design research arguably provides the means for the evolutionary development of the second component.
series AVOCAAD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0f18
authors Bailey, Rohan
year 2001
title A Digital Design Coach for Young Designers
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 330-335
summary The present use of digital media in architectural practice and education is primarily focused on representation, communication of ideas and production. Designers, however, still use pencil and paper to assist the early conception of ideas. Recently, research into providing digital tools for designers to use in conceptual designing has focused on enhancing or assisting the designer. Rarely has the computer been regarded as a potential teaching tool for design skills. Based on previous work by the author about visual thinking and the justification for a digital design assistant, the intention of this paper is to illustrate to the reader the feasibility of a digital design coach. Reference is made to recent advances in research about design computability. In particular, research by Mark Gross and Ellen Do with respect to their Electronic Cocktail Napkin project is used as a basis on which to determine what such a digital coach may look and feel like.
keywords Design Education, Protocol Analysis, CADD, Sketching
series ACADIA
email rohan.bailey@vuw.ac.nz
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 1543
authors Bailey, Rohan O.
year 2001
title A digital design coach for young designers
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 311-314
summary It is the intention of this paper is to construct for the reader a suitable foundation on which to determine a digital design coach. It seeks to define this possibility by examining two ideas. The first is visual thinking, as used by designers in the process of design. The second idea, that of providing students with expert partners for the learning of design is supported by evidence from a variation on protocol analysis (developed by the author) and a related design studio conducted in New Zealand and Jamaica. Using these concepts in relation to recent advances in the development of digital tools the paper proposes what a digital coach may look like.
series CAADRIA
email baileyroha@scs.vuw.ac.nz
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss2004_ra-177
id ddss2004_ra-177
authors Ballas, D., R. Kingston, and J. Stillwell
year 2004
title Using a Spatial Microsimulation Decision Support System for Policy Scenario Analysis
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 177-191
summary This paper discusses the potential of a spatial microsimulation-based decision support system for policy analysis. The system can be used to describe current conditions and issues in neighbourhoods, predict future trends in the composition and health of neighbourhoods and conduct modelling and predictive analysis to measure the likely impact of policy interventions at the local level. A large dynamic spatial micro-simulation model is being constructed for the population of Leeds (approximately 715,000 individuals) based on spatial microsimulation techniques in conjunction with a range of data, including 2001 Census data for Output Areas and sample data from the British Household Panel Survey. The project has three main aims as follows: (i) to develop a static microsimulation model to describe current conditions in Leeds; (ii) to enable the performance of ‘What if?’ analysis on a range of policy scenarios; and (iii) to develop a dynamic microsimulation model to predict future conditions in Leeds under different policy scenarios. The paper reports progress in meeting the above aims and outlines the associated difficulties and data issues. One of the significant advantages of the spatial microsimulation approach adopted by this project is that it enables the user to query any combination of variables that is deemed desirable for policy analysis. The paper will illustrate the software tool being developed in the context of this project that is capable of carrying out queries of this type and of mapping their results. The decision support tool is being developed to support policy-makers concerned with urban regeneration and neighbourhood renewal.
keywords Spatial Microsimulation, Spatial Decision Support Systems, Geotools
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id avocaad_2001_10
id avocaad_2001_10
authors Bige Tunçer, Rudi Stouffs, Sevil Sariyildiz
year 2001
title Facilitating the complexity of architectural analyses
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary It is common practice for architecture students to collect documents on prominent buildings relevant to their design task in the early stage of design. While practitioners can rely on a body of design experience of their own, during the process of a new design, students can only draw from the examples of success and failure from other architects. In the past, such precedent based learning was implicit in the master-apprentice relationship common in the educational system. Nowadays academics commonly no longer have the possibility to maintain an extensive design practice, and instead introduce important outside precedents to the students. Thus, the study of important historical precedents or designs plays an important role in design instruction and in the students’ design processes. While there is no doubt that the most effective outcome of such a study would be achieved when the student does entire the study herself, students also benefit from a collaboration with peers, where they form groups to do an analysis of various aspects of a same building or over a group of buildings. By integrating the respective results into a common, extensible, library, students can draw upon other results for comparisons and relationships between different aspects or buildings. The complexity this introduces is best supported in a computer medium.The Web offers many examples of architectural analyses on a wide variety of subjects. Commonly, these analyses consist of a collection of documents, categorized and hyperlinked to support navigation through the information space. More sophisticated examples rely on a database for storage and management of the data, and offer a more complex categorization of the information entities and their relationships. These studies present effective ways of accessing and browsing information, however, it is precluded within these analyses to distinguish and relate different components within the project documents. If enabled, instead, this would offer a richer information structure presenting new ways of accessing, viewing, and interpreting this information. Hereto, documents can be decomposed by content. This implies both expanding the document structure, replacing document entities by detailed substructures, and augmenting the structure’s relatedness with content information. The relationships between the resulting components make the documents inherently related by content.We propose a methodology to integrate project documents into a single model, and present an application for the presentation of architectural analyses in an educational setting. This approach provides the students with a simple interface and mechanisms for the presentation of an analysis of design precedents, and possibly their own designs. Since all the information is integrated within a single environment, students will benefit from each others’ studies, and can draw new conclusions across analyses and presentations from their peers.
series AVOCAAD
email b.tuncer@bk.tudelft.nl, I.s.sariyildiz@bk.tudelft.nl, r.stouffs@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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