CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 713

_id 43ec
authors Chen, Sheng-Chih
year 2001
title The Role of Design Creativity in Computer Media
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 226-231
summary This study discusses the use of design media and design creativity in design education. By combining cognitive studies with educational psychology, it analyzes the cognitive processes involved in the use of the computer by experts and novices, and compares the effects of the computer on the design process of both subjects. In doing so, it discusses computer design media as well as creative thinking.
keywords Computer Media, Creativity, Expert And Novice, Creative Thinking
series eCAADe
email phd222@iris.seed.net.tw, shengchih@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 811d
authors Goulthorpe, M., Burry, M. and Dunlop, G.
year 2001
title Aegis Hyposurface©: The Bordering of University and Practice
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 344-349
summary Throughout history, profound technological shifts have been accompanied by significant cultural changes. The current shift from a technical paradigm based on physical, mechanical production to one based on electronic media impacts on forms of architectural practice in unexpected ways. The use of design software not only enhances graphic and modeling capacity but also reveals new possibilities for both form generation and fabrication. At a more subtle level it may influence the patterns of thought and creativity that have underpinned traditional forms of architectural practice. This paper examines the implications of the redefined praxis by considering the new role of ‘town and gown’ in the production of the interactive hypersurface: the AegisHypersurface©, the first working prototype of which was unveiled in March 2001.
keywords Real-Time Animation, Interactive Architecture, Hypersurface
series ACADIA
email mburry@deakin.edu.au
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id caadria2007_659
id caadria2007_659
authors Chen, Zi-Ru
year 2007
title The Combination of Design Media and Design Creativity _ Conventional and Digital Media
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Creativity is always interested in many fields, in particular, creativity and design creativity have many interpretations (Boden, 1991; Gero and Maher, 1992, 1993; Kim, 1990; Sternberg, 1988; Weisberg, 1986). In early conceptual design process, designers used large number of sketches and drawings (Purcell and Gero, 1998). The sketch can inspire the designer to increase the creativity of the designer’s creations(Schenk, 1991; Goldschmidt, 1994; Suwa and Tversky, 1997). The freehand sketches by conventional media have been believed to play important roles in processes of the creative design thinking(Goldschmidt, 1991; Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Goel, 1995; Suwa et al., 2000; Verstijnen et al., 1998; Elsas van and Vergeest, 1998). Recently, there are many researches on inspiration of the design creativity by digital media(Liu, 2001; Sasada, 1999). The digital media have been used to apply the creative activities and that caused the occurrenssce of unexpected discovery in early design processes(Gero and Maher, 1993; Mitchell, 1993; Schmitt, 1994; Gero, 1996, 2000; Coyne and Subrahmanian, 1993; Boden, 1998; Huang, 2001; Chen, 2001; Manolya et al. 1998; Verstijinen et al., 1998; Lynn, 2001). In addition, there are many applications by combination of conventional and digital media in the sketches conceptual process. However, previous works only discussed that the individual media were related to the design creativity. The cognitive research about the application of conceptual sketches design by integrating both conventional and digital media simultaneously is absent.
series CAADRIA
email Ru.zero@gmail.com
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id avocaad_2001_21
id avocaad_2001_21
authors Martijn Stellingwerff
year 2001
title Visual Cues in the CYBER-REAL Complex
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Current Computer Aided Architectural Design deals with issues of complexity in creation and interpretation of the built environment, complexity of the computer systems and complexity of the representations of the design object. The term ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’ in this paper is defined as the whole (un)conscious state of the architectural design project in the heads of the design-group and as how it is maintained in CAAD systems. The ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’ contains the design, its context and all related information such as planning, product specifications and design ideas. An Intranet is an interesting means for storage and approach of such complex project-data. However the knowledge and data of the project participants remains in their heads and new methods have to be developed in order to get each participant to share his or her personal information about the project. Meetings and intense data retrieval by an Intranet can establish a useful ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’. Then, as a designer wants to approach and change the information in the ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’, a very good set of tools, methods and media has to be at hand. The complexity of all the information can be overwhelming and it can take much effort to re-understand and re-interpret the information before new decisions and design-steps can be made. Currently, the understanding of CAAD representations by the designer and the deliberate execution of operations on increasingly complex datasets through increasingly complex user interfaces takes too much time and effort. An enhanced way of representation in the ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’ could help the approach and understanding of the information. Therefore the visual language of information systems needs further research and development. This paper explores several limits of human perception and ways to adhere to the human way of visual thinking in order to find and add new visual cues in CAAD, VR interfaces and in the ‘CYBER-REAL Complex’ as a whole. Successively the perceptive aspects of complex information, the role of visual cues in complex information and several examples of visual cues in research tests are presented. The paper draws from knowledge of the Gestalt Theory, Perception Research and findings of a PhD research project about Visual Language for Context Related Architectural Design. Findings of this research show that designers use distinct views to get overview and insight in the project data and that different kinds of data representation are needed for different phases in the design process. Finally it showed that abstract represented and filtered information can be very useful for remaining focus in the otherwise overwhelming dataset.
series AVOCAAD
email m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ecaade03_601_68_penttila
id ecaade03_601_68_penttila
authors Penttilä, Hannu
year 2003
title Survey of Architectural-ICT in the Educational Curriculumns of Europe
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 601-606
summary The paper documents the findings of the post-graduate study carried out among the 180 European schools of architecture in more than 30 countries during 2002-2003. The objective has been to describe the role of ""modern digital information technology"" and to give an understandable and measurable overview the current architectural education and its relation with ICT and CAAD. The study material has been collected with a web-survey, with questionnaires to eCAADe-conference participants in Helsinki 2001 and Warsaw 2002, and with direct email-contacts to schools’ key-persons. Computer-aided design has developed into architectural information and communication technology (ICT), to become the main tool of the majority. The general image of new media use in the architectural schools seems to be slightly too positive. The invisible or ”normal” ICT-use - writing, surfing, emailing - has a lot more volume than documented. The major hardware platform in european architecture schools is PC/Windows (90-95 %), Linux and Unix are used also commonly (25-35 %). Macintoshes are also used much more widely within architecture (50-55 %) than within the common computing platforms. MS/Office (90-95 %) and PhotoShop (85-90 %) are obviously also used widely in the architecture schools. Graphic tools PageMaker, QuarkXpress, Illustrator, Freehand are common tools for architecture students (30-50 %). AutoCAD is ”the marketing leader"" in architectural platforms (80-90 %) followed by ArchiCAD (60-65 %). MicroStation/Bentley has also a remarkable volume in the schools (35-40 %). 3DStudio is the most common 3D-modelling tool (80-85 %), followed by formZ (35-40 %). Slightly less volume but still remarkable (15-25 %) have Rhino, Maya, Alias, Lightscape and Radiance.
keywords Architectural education; architectural curriculumns; information and communication technology; IT; ICT; questionnaires; statistics
series eCAADe
email penttila@mittaviiva.fi
more http://www.arkit.net
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id 2abf
id 2abf
authors Rafi, A
year 2001
title Design creativity in emerging technologies
source In Von, H., Stocker, G. and Schopf, C. (Eds.), Takeover: Who’s doing art of tomorrow (pp. 41-54), New York: SpringerWein.
summary Human creativity works best when there are constraints – pressures to react to, to shape, to suggest. People are generally not very good at making it all up from scratch (Laurel, 1991). Emerging technology particularly virtual reality (VR) Multimedia and Internet is yet to be fully discovered as it allows unprecedented creative talent, ability, skill set, creative thinking, representation, exploration, observation and reference. In an effort to deliver interactive content, designers tend to freely borrow from different fields such as advertising, medicine, game, fine art, commerce, entertainment, edutainment, film-making and architecture (Rafi, Kamarulzaman, Fauzan and Karboulonis, 2000). As a result, content becomes a base that developers transfer the technique of conventional medium design media to the computer. What developers (e.g. artist and technologist) often miss is that to develop the emerging technology content based on the nature of the medium. In this context, the user is the one that will be the best judge to value the effectiveness of the content.

The paper will introduce Global Information Infrastructure (GII) that is currently being developed in the Asian region and discuss its impact on the Information Age society. It will further highlight the ‘natural’ value and characteristics of the emerging technologies in particular Virtual Reality (VR), Multimedia and Internet as a guidance to design an effective, rich and innovative content development. This paper also argues that content designers of the future must not only be both artist and technologist, but artist and technologist that are aware of the re-convergence of art and science and context in which content is being developed. Some of our exploration at the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University will also be demonstrated. It is hoped that this will be the evidence to guide future ‘techno-creative designers’.

keywords design, creativity, content, emerging technologies
series book
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2007/09/13 01:46

_id bf19
id bf19
authors Rafi, A
year 2001
title Design computing: A new challenge for creative synergy
source In Saito, N. (Ed.), Creative digital media: Its impact on the new century (pp. 132-136), Japan: Keio University Press
summary As content becomes increasingly significant in giving ‘face’ to information technology (IT), the need to train and produce content designers has also become more and more important. The development of powerful computer technologies and the complexity of design have demanded designers to re-examine the design process and consider the adaptation of tools that will provide for creativity, improve the overall design process and, at the same time, reveal new insights (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2000). This paper gives an overview of the relationship between art and science through the ages, and discusses their relatively recent re-convergence. This text further argues that a re-convergence between art and science is currently occurring, highlighting the need to accelerate the process. It is suggested that re-convergence is a result of new technologies being researched, namely related to effective visualisation and communication of ideas and concepts, subsequently adopted by practitioners. Such elements, with tools that offer increased power and new abilities, are widely found today in the multimedia and the Virtual Environment (VE) as scientists and designers venture into each other’s domain. This paper also argues that content designers of the future must not only be both artist and technologist, but artist and technologist that are aware of the context in which content is being developed. The presentation will be a showcase of our exploration at the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University for the last 4 years, in integrating design and computer skills – the synergy that we called DESIGN COMPUTING.
keywords design computing, creativity, content, design
series book
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2007/09/13 01:43

_id 24db
authors Tang, Tsien-Hui
year 2001
title Exploring the Roles of Exploring the roles of Sketches and Knowledge in the Design Process
source The University of Sydney, Faculty of Architecture
summary The needs of computational tools provide the motivation to have a better understanding of the roles of knowledge and sketches in the design process. The inadequacies of current computer-aided conceptual design tools result from our vague comprehension of the nature of the design process. The hypothesis of this study is that the design process involves interlocked and multi-mode processes in which design knowledge and sketches interact with each other to advance the design process. These interactions make current computer-aided design systems unsatisfactory in the conceptual design process. The understanding of these interactions would provide the foundation of more useful computational tools and potentially play a role in developing better pedagogical methods.

This research utilized both process-oriented and content-oriented coding schemes to examine different aspects of the design process. Concurrent and retrospective protocols were analyzed to determine their utility in revealing the design processes. Retrospective protocols and the content-oriented coding scheme were selected for design cognition studies in this research, and the procedures of experiments and analyses were described in detail.

The results of encoded protocols were presented in terms of segments, levels, and instances. They represented the design process in a way that enabled us to observe the interactions among sketches, knowledge, and different cognitive levels.

The examination of the conceptual design process demonstrated its features of interlinked levels and multiple modes; even one snippet of the process contained various modes and sub-processes. The shifting speed of intentions and the vagueness of sketches and functional references were also shown.

The study of the meditated roles of the sketches and knowledge in the design process shows the following. First, sketches are the affordances of perceptual and functional instances while designing. Most of the sketches made by designers are multi-functionally bounded. Second, design knowledge plays various roles in the conceptual design process. The ubiquitous designerly way of knowing demonstrates the differences between active developing and passive utilizing design knowledge. Finally, one of the roles of design sketches and knowledge is shown to be the connector among different cognitive levels in the design process.

The unpredictability of the design process is demonstrated in the results. Design knowledge provides previously generated solutions for the problem at hand, and design situatedness describes the phenomenon that a designer uses his/her experience to produce novelty and innovation. A method to measure the design innovation through an encoded protocol is proposed based on the concept of situated creativity.

The implications for future computer-aided design systems are presented based on the roles of sketches, knowledge, and situatedness in the interlinked and multimode design process. The concept of cognition-oriented CAD is proposed to provide empirical clues to improve current CAD systems.

series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/05/06 09:35

_id 2dba
id 2dba
authors Tasli, S
year 2001
title WHAT DOES COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OFFER FOR PRODUCING LIVABLE BUILDINGS IN THE 21ST CENTURY?
source Proceedings of the Livable Environments and Architecture International Congress (LIVENARCH 2001). July 4-7, 2001, Trabzon, Turkey, pp. 278-282.
summary Designing livable buildings has always been a major concern for architects but they are often criticized on account of failing in this aim. However, this is not only due to the ignorance of the designers, but also of the complexity of the factors that are essential to design but difficult to incorporate the design process. Buildings are shaped and occupied under several dynamically changing conditions and paper-based media and conventional Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools are inefficient in representing them. This paper aims to discuss the changing role of digital media for architectural design in response to the increasing complexity of design processes. Some proposals, supported by recent technological innovations, are suggested for the future and they are compared with the conventional uses of CAD. It is claimed that in the 21st century, the main advantage of using computers will be to dynamically simulate buildings in time in highly visualized virtual environments to evaluate the future performance of proposed designs. The design model will not only look as if it were real, but it will also “behave” as if it were real so as to provide dynamic and intelligent response. The two key technologies for the development of such modeling, virtual reality and object-oriented programming are addressed and four promising application areas for near future (evaluation of user-building interaction, visualization of environmental factors, construction scheduling, and combined CAD-GIS) are discussed. Some important considerations for the development of dynamically simulated virtual models are analyzed and suggestions are made for further research.

keywords Architectural Design, Dynamic Simulation, and Virtual Environments
series other
type normal paper
email suletasli@gmail.com
last changed 2005/12/01 15:02

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 12e3
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E., Che Zulkhairi, A. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2002
title Interactive Storytelling and Its Role in the Design Process
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 151-158
summary Projects of ever increasing complexity and size have incited the need for new and robust design methodologies and tools in an effort to manage complexity, lower costs, ascertain quality and reduce risk. Technology convergence through the growing availability of networked computers, rapid progress in Computer Aided Design (CAD) and information management have encouraged the undertaking of even more complex designs that demand high degrees of interaction, collaboration and the efficient sharing and dissemination of information. It is suggested that interactive storytelling and interactive design (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2001) techniques that use non-linear information mapping systems can be deployed to assist users as they navigate information that is structured to address localized needs as they arise. The design process is a collaborative effort that encompasses diverse knowledge disciplines and demands the management and utilization of available resources to satisfy the needs of a single or set of goals. It is thought that building industry specialists should work close together in an organised manner to solve design problems as they emerge and find alternatives when designs fall short. The design process involves the processing of dynamic and complex information, that can be anything from the amount of soil required to level lands - to the needs of specific lightings systems in operation theatres. Other important factors that affect the design process are related to costs and deadlines. This paper will demonstrate some of our early findings in several experiments to establish nonlinear storytelling. It will conclude with a recommendation for a plausible design of such a system based on experimental work that is currently being conducted and is reaching its final stages. The paper will lay the foundations of a possible path to implementation based on the concept of multi-path animation that is appropriate for structuring the design process as used in the building industry.
series CAADRIA
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ascaad2004_paper12
id ascaad2004_paper12
authors Al-Qawasmi, Jamal
year 2004
title Reflections on e-Design: The e-Studio Experience
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary The influence of digital media and information technology on architectural design education and practice is increasingly evident. The practice and learning of architecture is increasingly aided by and dependant on digital media. Digital technologies not only provide new production methods, but also expand our abilities to create, explore, manipulate and compose space. In contemporary design education, there is a continuous demand to deliver new skills in digital media and to rethink architectural design education in the light of the new developments in digital technology. During the academic years 2001-2003, I had the chance to lead the efforts to promote an effective use of digital media for design education at Department of Architecture, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST). Architectural curriculum at JUST dedicated much time for teaching computing skills. However, in this curriculum, digital media was taught in the form of "software use" education. In this context, digital media is perceived and used mainly as a presentation tool. Furthermore, Computer Aided Architectural Design and architectural design are taught in separate courses without interactions between the two.
series ASCAAD
email jamalq@kfupm.edu.sa
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id avocaad_2001_05
id avocaad_2001_05
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2001
title Analysis and the descriptive approach
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The rise of consciousness concerning the quality of working and living conditions has been a permanent though frequently underplayed theme in architecture and building since the reconstruction period. It has led to an explosive growth of programmatic requirements on building behaviour and performance, thus also stimulating the development of design analysis. The first stage of development was characterized by the evolution of prescriptive systems. These reversed the structure of pre-existing proscriptive systems into sequences of known steps that should be taken in order to achieve adequate results. Prescriptive systems complemented rather than replaced proscriptive ones, thereby creating an uncertain mixture of orthodoxy and orthopraxy that failed to provide design guidance for improving design performance and quality.The second stage in the development of design analysis focuses on descriptive methods and techniques for analyzing and supporting evaluation. Technologies such as simulation and scientific visualization are employed so as to produce detailed, accurate and reliable projections of building behaviour and performance. These projections can be correlated into a comprehensive and coherent description of a building using representations of form as information carriers. In these representations feedback and interaction assume a visual character that fits both design attitudes and lay perception of the built environment, but on the basis of a quantitative background that justifies, verifies and refines design actions. Descriptive analysis is currently the most promising direction for confronting and resolving design complexity. It provides the designer with useful insights into the causes and effects of various design problems but frequently comes short of providing clear design guidance for two main reasons: (1) it adds substantial amounts of information to the already unmanageable loads the designer must handle, and (2) it may provide incoherent cues for the further development of a design. Consequently the descriptive approach to analysis is always in danger of been supplanted by abstract decision making.One way of providing the desired design guidance is to complement the connection of descriptive analyses to representations of form (and from there to synthesis) with two interface components. The first is a memory component, implemented as case-bases of precedent designs. These designs encapsulate integrated design information that can be matched to the design in hand in terms of form, function and performance. Comparison between precedents with a known performance and a new design facilitate identification of design aspects that need be improved, as well as of wider formal and functional consequences. The second component is an adaptive generative system capable of guiding exploration of these aspects, both in the precedents and the new design. The aim of this system is to provide feedback from analysis to synthesis. By exploring the scope of the analysis and the applicability of the conclusions to more designs, the designer generates a coherent and consistent collection of partial solutions that explore a relevant solution space. Development of the first component, the design case-bases, is no trivial task. Transformability in the representation of cases and flexible classification in a database are critical to the identification and treatment of a design aspect. Nevertheless, the state of the art in case-based reasoning and the extensive corpus of analysed designs provide the essential building blocks. The second component, the adaptive generative system, poses more questions. Existing generative techniques do not possess the necessary richness or multidimensionality. Moreover, it is imperative that the designer plays a more active role in the control of the process than merely tweaking local variables. At the same time, the system should prevent that redesigning degenerates into a blind trial-and-error enumeration of possibilities. Guided empirical design research arguably provides the means for the evolutionary development of the second component.
series AVOCAAD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id f95f
authors Angulo, A.H., Davidson, R.J. and Vásquez de Velasco, G.P.
year 2001
title Digital Visualization in the Teaching of Cognitive Visualization
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 292-301
summary Professional design offices claim that our graduates have difficulties with their free-hand perspective drawing skills. This fact, which has become obvious over the last 5 years, is parallel to a clear tendency towards the use of 3-dimensional digital imagery in the projects of our students. Frequently, faculty tends to blame the computer for the shortcomings of our students in the use of traditional media, yet there is no clear evidence on the source of the blame. At a more fundamental level, the visualization skills of our students are questioned. This paper will explain how faculty teaching design communication techniques, with traditional and digital media, are working together in the development of a teaching methodology that makes use of computers in support of our student’s training on cognitive visualization skills, namely; “The Third-Eye Method”. The paper describes the Third-Eye Method as an alternative to traditional methods. As evidence of the benefits offered by the Third-Eye Method, the paper presents the results of testing it against traditional methods among freshman students. At the end, the paper draws as conclusion that computers are not the main source of the problem but a potential solution.
keywords Pedagogy, Visualization, Media
series ACADIA
email Vasquez@taz.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0f18
authors Bailey, Rohan
year 2001
title A Digital Design Coach for Young Designers
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 330-335
summary The present use of digital media in architectural practice and education is primarily focused on representation, communication of ideas and production. Designers, however, still use pencil and paper to assist the early conception of ideas. Recently, research into providing digital tools for designers to use in conceptual designing has focused on enhancing or assisting the designer. Rarely has the computer been regarded as a potential teaching tool for design skills. Based on previous work by the author about visual thinking and the justification for a digital design assistant, the intention of this paper is to illustrate to the reader the feasibility of a digital design coach. Reference is made to recent advances in research about design computability. In particular, research by Mark Gross and Ellen Do with respect to their Electronic Cocktail Napkin project is used as a basis on which to determine what such a digital coach may look and feel like.
keywords Design Education, Protocol Analysis, CADD, Sketching
series ACADIA
email rohan.bailey@vuw.ac.nz
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id caadria2010_043
id caadria2010_043
authors Barker, Tom and M. Hank Haeusler
year 2010
title Urban digital media: facilitating the intersection between science, the arts and culture in the arena of technology and building
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 457-466
summary The research presented in this paper investigates ways of providing better design applications for technologies in the field of Urban Digital Media (UDM). The work takes an emergent approach, evolving a design strategy through the early engagement of stakeholders. The paper discusses research in a design-led creative intersection between media technology, culture and the arts in the built environment. The case study discusses opportunities for the enhancement of a university campus experience, learning culture and community, through the provision of an integrated digital presence within campus architecture and urban spaces. It considers types of information architecture (Manovich, 2001) and designs for use in urban settings to create communication-rich, advanced and interactive designed spaces (Haeusler, 2009). The presented research investigates how to create a strategy for display technologies and networked communications to transform and augment the constructed reality of the built environment, allowing new formats of media activity.
keywords Urban design; outdoor digital media; information architecture; multidisciplinary design; augmented reality; media facades
series CAADRIA
email Matthias.Haeusler@uts.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id avocaad_2001_10
id avocaad_2001_10
authors Bige Tunçer, Rudi Stouffs, Sevil Sariyildiz
year 2001
title Facilitating the complexity of architectural analyses
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary It is common practice for architecture students to collect documents on prominent buildings relevant to their design task in the early stage of design. While practitioners can rely on a body of design experience of their own, during the process of a new design, students can only draw from the examples of success and failure from other architects. In the past, such precedent based learning was implicit in the master-apprentice relationship common in the educational system. Nowadays academics commonly no longer have the possibility to maintain an extensive design practice, and instead introduce important outside precedents to the students. Thus, the study of important historical precedents or designs plays an important role in design instruction and in the students’ design processes. While there is no doubt that the most effective outcome of such a study would be achieved when the student does entire the study herself, students also benefit from a collaboration with peers, where they form groups to do an analysis of various aspects of a same building or over a group of buildings. By integrating the respective results into a common, extensible, library, students can draw upon other results for comparisons and relationships between different aspects or buildings. The complexity this introduces is best supported in a computer medium.The Web offers many examples of architectural analyses on a wide variety of subjects. Commonly, these analyses consist of a collection of documents, categorized and hyperlinked to support navigation through the information space. More sophisticated examples rely on a database for storage and management of the data, and offer a more complex categorization of the information entities and their relationships. These studies present effective ways of accessing and browsing information, however, it is precluded within these analyses to distinguish and relate different components within the project documents. If enabled, instead, this would offer a richer information structure presenting new ways of accessing, viewing, and interpreting this information. Hereto, documents can be decomposed by content. This implies both expanding the document structure, replacing document entities by detailed substructures, and augmenting the structure’s relatedness with content information. The relationships between the resulting components make the documents inherently related by content.We propose a methodology to integrate project documents into a single model, and present an application for the presentation of architectural analyses in an educational setting. This approach provides the students with a simple interface and mechanisms for the presentation of an analysis of design precedents, and possibly their own designs. Since all the information is integrated within a single environment, students will benefit from each others’ studies, and can draw new conclusions across analyses and presentations from their peers.
series AVOCAAD
email b.tuncer@bk.tudelft.nl, I.s.sariyildiz@bk.tudelft.nl, r.stouffs@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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