CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 713

_id 3815
authors Qaqish, Ra’ed
year 2001
title VDS/DDS Practice Hinges on Interventions and Simplicity - A Case Study of Hard Realism vs. Distorted Idealism
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 249-255
summary This paper reports on a contemporary and laborious ongoing experimental work initiated during the establishment of a new Virtual/Digital design studio “VDS” in Sept. 1999 by CAAD tutors at University of Petra “UOP”. The new VDS/DDS now works as an experimental laboratory to explore several solutions to problems of efficiency in design teaching as a new digital design studio paradigm, in tandem with CAD/Design staff, DS environment, materials and facilities. Two groups of graduating level students participated as volunteers in this experiment. The first group was comprised of three fifth-year architectural design students while the second group was comprised of two fourth-year interior design students. The media currently in use are ArchiCAD 6.5 as a design tool along with CorelDraw 9 as a presentational tool, running on Pentium III computers. The series of experiments evaluated the impression on architectural design studio tuition requirements arising from the changes brought about by the implementation of the new CAD pedagogical approach (VDS/DDS) at UOP. The findings echo several important key issues in tandem with CAAD, such as: the changes brought about by the new design strategies, adaptation in problem solving decision-making techniques, studio employment in terms of environment, means and methods. Other issues are VDS/DDS integration schemes carried out by both students and staff as one team in design studio practice on one hand and the curriculum on the other. Finally, the paper discusses the negative impact of conventional design studio hardliner teaching advocates and students alike whose outlook and impressions undermine and deplete effective CAAD integration and obstruct, in many instances, the improvement of such experiments in a VDS environment.
keywords Design Studio Strategies, Problem Solving Decisions, Transformation And Integration Policies
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@index.com.jo
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 1d5a
authors Schnabel, M.A., Kvan, T., Kruijff, E. and Donath, D.
year 2001
title The First Virtual Environment Design Studio
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 394-400
summary Since 1993 schools of architecture all over the world conduct in various forms of Virtual Design Studio (VDS). They have become an established part of teaching design within the digital realm. They vary in task and structure, are purely text-based or include various forms of interactive, synchronous or asynchronous collaboration. However, ‘virtual’ always refers to the method of communication and exchange of design and ideas. Students have never designed within immersive virtuality. This paper describes the first successful attempt to conduct a Joint Design Studio, which uses Virtual Environment (VE) as tool of design and communication between the remote partners. This first VeDS focused on how architectural students make use of this particular different approach to design within immersive three-dimensional VEs. For example, the students created 3D-immersive design proposals, explored dependencies to textual description of initial intentions and communicated between local and remote team-partners in immersive VE as well as textbased communication-channels. The paper subsequently describes the VeDS, its set-up, realization and outcome. We discuss frameworks and factors influencing how architectural students communicate their proposals in immersive VeDS, and how this new approach of design studio enables new forms of design expressions.
keywords Immersive Virtual Reality, Collaborative Design, Joint Design Studio, Preliminary Design
series eCAADe
email marcaurel@hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 705c
authors Schnabel, Marc Aurel and Kvan, Thomas
year 2001
title Implementing The First Virtual Environment Design Studio
source Architectural Education for the Asian Century, Proceedings of the 1st ACAE Conference on Architectural Education, Milton Tan, editor, Centre for Advanced Studies in Architecture, National University of Singapore, pp. 157-166
summary Since 1993 schools of architecture all over the world conduct in various forms of Virtual Design Studio (VDS). They have become an established part of teaching design within the digital realm. They vary in task and structure; are purely text-based or include various forms of interactive; synchronous or asynchronous collaboration. However; ‘virtual’ always refers to the method of communication and exchange of design and ideas. Students have never designed within immersive virtuality. This paper describes the first successful attempt to conduct a Joint Design Studio; which uses Virtual Environment (VE) as tool of design and communication between the remote partners. This first VeDS focused on how architectural students make use of this particular different approach to design within immersive three-dimensional VEs. For example; the students created 3D-immersive design proposals; explored dependencies to textual description of initial intentions and communicated between local and remote team-partners in immersive VE as well as text-based communication-channels. The paper subsequently describes the VeDS; its set-up; realization and outcome. We discuss frameworks and factors influencing how architectural students communicate their proposals in immersive VeDS; and how this new approach of design studio enables new forms of design expressions.
keywords Virtual Environment; Remote Collaboration; Design Evaluation; Spatial Understanding
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id a469
authors Brown, Andre and Berridge, Phil
year 2001
title Games One : Two : Three A triangle of virtual game scenarios for architectural collaboration
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 95-120 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary This paper is split into three parts, each of which deals with different aspects of, and approaches to, the collaboration process. Each of the approaches shares a common root in an aspect of games or gaming. Together the three approaches represent a tripartite attack on the spectrum of problems that need to be addressed to achieve successful collaboration. The first technique is dealt with in Game One One. This deals with the issue of encouraging collaboration. It is based on work using a role playing game scenario and is intended to allow construction industry professionals and clients to develop a common framework for discussion. It originally existed as a paper based game and is now being tested in a web-based environment. Game Two is based on work that has evolved from contemporary game and meeting place environments that have been attracting attention recently. Here internet-based three-dimensional worlds are used as a virtual replacement of real spaces and participants meet as avatars. In the architectural context we have investigated the potential for application of such 3D worlds as meeting, and discussion places where architectural information and ideas can be exchanged. In Game Three we take the idea that currently, virtual environments are still rather uncomfortable and unnatural in terms of human interaction, and in particular in the way that we move around and display architectural scenes. We develop the idea that games software incorporates techniques that make the representation of animated, interactive 3D architectural environments computationally efficient. We have augmented the software used in games environments and have considered how we construct architectural models and man-machine interfaces to improve the effectiveness of such environments in an architectural context.
series other
email andygpb@liverpool.ac.uk
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 88d3
id 88d3
authors Calderon, C., Cavazza., M
year 2001
title REACTIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS IN BUILDING DESIGN
source Proceedings: SCI 2001, The Fifth Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, Florida, USA, July 22 - 25, 2001. http://www.iiis.org/sci/
summary This paper presents the first prototype of a reconfigurable Virtual Environment (VE). The objective of the system is to link 3D Intelligent Virtual Environments to interactive planning systems. This type of system makes possible interactive solutions where the user refines a possible configuration and enables the system to generate a complete new solution enforcing all the design constraints, previously programmed. In this first prototype we link our constraint solver with the visualization engine so that the solution produced by the constraint solver is displayed in a VE.
keywords Intelligent, Reactive, Virtual Environment, Spatial configuration tasks
series other
type normal paper
email carlos.calderon@ncl.ac.uk
last changed 2005/12/02 10:12

_id 403f
authors Clark, Steve and Maher, Mary Lou
year 2001
title The Role of Place in Designing a Learner Centred Virtual Learning Environment
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 187-200
summary There are numerous approaches and tools for creating a virtual learning environment. The most common approach is to provide a repository of learning materials on a network to facilitate the distribution of the course content and to supplement this material with communications software such as email and bulletin boards. In this paper we highlight the role of place in creating a learning experience and its relevance to current learning theories. Architectural design becomes an important consideration when virtual learning environments are considered places. We present a framework for guiding the development of virtual learning environments that shows how place and design can combine with learning theories and technology. Finally, we draw on our experience in developing a virtual campus and virtual design studios to demonstrate how place and design can be the basis for virtual learning environments.
keywords Virtual Place, Virtual Learning Environments, Design Studio
series CAAD Futures
email stevec@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2006/11/07 06:23

_id ecaade2014_153
id ecaade2014_153
authors David Morton
year 2014
title Augmented Reality in architectural studio learning:How Augmented Reality can be used as an exploratory tool in the design learning journey
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 343-356
summary The boundaries of augmented reality in the academic field are now being explored at an ever increasing level. In this paper we present the initial findings of an educational project focusing on the use of augmented reality in the design process of an architectural student. The study seeks to evaluate the use of AR as a tool in the design stages, allowing effective exploration of spatial qualities of design projects undertaken in the studio. The learning process is guided by the exploration and detection of a design idea in both form and function, with the virtual environment providing a dynamic environment (Mantovani, 2001). This is further reflected in the constructivist theory where the learning processes use conceptual models, which are used to create incremental stages that become the platform to attain the next [Winn, 1993]. The additional benefit of augmented reality within the learning journey is the ability of the students to visually explore the architectural forms they are creating in greater depth.
wos WOS:000361384700034
keywords Augmented reality; pedagogy; learning journey; exploration
series eCAADe
email david.e.morton@northumbria.ac.uk
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 7e02
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2002
title The Virtual Campus: A new place for (lifelong) learning?
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 472-477
summary 472 eCAADe 20 [design e-ducation] Modeling Real and Virtual Worlds Session 13 In the early spring of 2001 a collection of German universities founded a virtual faculty of architecture, which was named „Liquid Campus“. Current thinking about future forms of education in the field of architecture combined with over 4 years of experience with net-based design studios, led to questions about the future of existing universities, their buildings and their use. This problem was put to 43 students in the form of a design exercise to create a place for a virtual university. In the current situation, in which the administration of knowledge is more and more located on the internet, and even the so-called meeting places themselves can be virtualised through the help of video-conference-software, the exercise was to design a virtual campus in the framework and to carry out this design work in a simulation of distributed practice. Initial criticism of the project came from the students in that exemplary working methods were not described, but left for the students to discover on their own. The creation of a concept for the Liquid Campus meant that the participants had to imagine working in a world without the face to face contacts that form the basis (at present) of personal interaction. Additionally, the assignment to create or design possible links between the real and the virtual was not an easy task for students who normally design and plan real physical buildings. Even the tutors had difficulties in producing focused constructive criticism about a virtual campus; in effect the virtualisation of the university leads to a distinctive blurring of its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosophical approach to the design problem. The paper explores the implications of the student’s conclusions on the nature of the university in general and draws conclusions specific to architectural education and the role of architecture in this process.
series eCAADe
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 5de9
authors Gavin, Lesley
year 2001
title Online Learning in Multi-User Environments
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 59-64 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary Over the last 2 years the MSc Virtual Environments course in the Bartlett School of Graduate Studies has used a 3-dimensional on-line multi-user environment to explore the possibilities for the architectural design of virtual environments. The 'Bartlett' virtual world is established as the environment where students undertake group design projects. After an initial computer based face-to-face workshop, students work from terminals at home and around the university. Using avatar representations of themselves, tutors and students meet in the on-line environment. The environment is used for student group discussions and demonstrations, tutorials and as the virtual 'site' for their design projects. The 'Bartlett' world is currently open to every internet user and so often has 'visitors'. These visitors often engage in discussions with the students resulting in interesting dynamics in the teaching pattern. This project has been very successful and is particularly popular with the students. Observations made over the 2 years the project has been running have resulted in interesting reflections on both the role of architectural design in virtual environments and the use of such environments to extend the pedagogical structure used in traditional studio teaching. This paper will review the educational experience gained by the project and propose the ideal software environment for further development. We are now examining similar types of environments currently on the market with a view to adapting them for use as a distance learning medium.
series other
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 728a
authors Mantere, Markku
year 2001
title Visualization of Flow Data in Photo-realistic Virtual Environment
source Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
summary Virtual reality technology has been adopted in many different fields and new application areas are searched continuously. At the moment virtual reality has been applied separately for instance to scientific visualization and illustration of architectural spaces. In this work, a photo-realistic room model and a visualization of an air flow inside the room has been combined. The integrated illustrative three-dimensional model is presented within an immersive virtual environment. The first part of the work covers scientific visualization and virtual reality implementation techniques. The visualization review begins with a discussion about human percepion of visual information and proceeds with an introduction to three-dimensional visualization. The focus is on illustration of a flow data produced as a result of a computational simulation. The flow visualization techniques utilizing all three dimensions are discussed and many examples of different graphical elements are presented. Virtual reality is examined from technical solutions point of view. The features having effect on the quality of a virtual experience are discussed and three different commonly used display techniques are introduced. The hardware of Experimental Virtual Environment -facility at Helsinki University of Technology is given as a detailed example. The implementation of a visualization software is described in the applied part of this thesis. Discussion covers the evaluation of different software tools, the tool selection process, and a detailed description of the design principles and implementation of the software. The different visualization solutions are also justified in this part. In the implementation, the real-time system requirements and utilization of all three dimensions have been taken into account. Finally, the results and their meaning are discussed and the performance of the implementation is evaluated. The applied part successfully integrated the room model and the flow visualization in an interactive virtual environment.
keywords Virtual Environments, Virtual Reality, Flow Visualization, CFD, 3D, Computer Graphics
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ecaade2007_114
id ecaade2007_114
authors Olmos, Francisco
year 2007
title Training Programs for Art and Design Learning in the Virtual Studio
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 639-646
summary Computers are very common drawing tools at university design studios but their potential as training tools in arts and design has not been explored in depth. In arts and design the learning process is based on ‘knowing in action’ (Schön 1983). Therefore, training is the keystone of the learning process in arts and design. This action takes the form of a reflective practice based on the manipulation of a media where each media has its own possibilities, its own limits in communicating design ideas or artistic concepts. With the introduction of digital media in the design studio, it is expected that reflective practices in design learning will experience a qualitative change. However, currently there is little understanding of how to use the digital and virtual media in a design studio as a learning tool (Szalapaj 2001), nor of the use of design training programs. In this paper the use of training programs in an experimental design course at a university level, is discussed. This experience was carried out as a PhD research experiment at the Faculty of Architecture and Arts of the Universidad de Los Andes in Merida, Venezuela. The training programs discussed here were designed for an eight week introductory design course in a virtual design studio. The programs were written in VRML and conceived as a virtual design training environment. Each program was designed for a specific design exercise, based on a learning strategy and an interactivity model proposed for object manipulation in design training. A comparative analysis of the data gathered from the course was made of training exercises done with a Cad program and with the training programs and crossing information with other sources. The experiment shows that the training programs, their learning strategy and the interactivity model proposed were successful in guiding the scope of the design exercises during the training process.
keywords E-learning, virtual studio, design training, virtual environment
series eCAADe
email f_olmos_2000@yahoo.com
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id 6df6
authors Pratini, Edison
year 2001
title New Approaches to 3D Gestural Modeling - The 3D SketchMaker Project
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 466-471
summary The 3D SketchMaker project has developed two prototypes for a gestural 3D sketching system to be used in the earliest phases of the design process. The goal of this ongoing research is to provide architects, and other designers involved in object conception, with a 3D gestural instrument that takes advantage of new virtual reality resources and is more natural than using the mouse, less difficult than learning complex software and less abstract than manipulating 2D entities on orthogonal projections. The system was conceived to assist or replace the first 2D drawing steps in the design process, generating rough 3D sketches that can be refined later using any 3D package. It is, in essence, a 3D modeling system directed to do sketching with hand movements and gestures in a virtual reality environment.
keywords Gestural Interface, Virtual Reality, 3D Modeling, Sketching
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 5b1e
authors Stellingwerff, Martijn
year 2001
title The concept of Carrying in Collaborative Virtual Environments
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 195-208 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary Collaborative Architectural Design can take place within a virtual environment with a team of remote but virtually present people. However, in most virtual environments, the ability to perform actions is still limited to the availability of some interactive objects and a set of tools for the specific purposes of the system. As the interface of most systems is designed for unshared use, the graphic feedback signals are limited to local information about the state of objects and tools. If multiuser interaction is added to such Virtual Environments, many new possibilities and problems emerge. Users of shared applications should not only be informed about the state of local objects, tools and their own actions, they should also be made aware of what the other users undertake. Aspects, which are in daily life so obvious, should be restudied thoroughly for the application within Virtual Environments for Collaborative Design. Much research has to be undertaken in order to make such virtual places as intuitively interactive as ordinary shared working places. The 'concept of carrying', which is proposed and explained in this paper, is expected to become a useful metaphoric mechanism for solving several issues related to Spatial User Interfaces (SUI's) and Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVE's). The visual feedback from 'carrying-events' should provide more mutual understanding about ongoing processes in shared applications and it should add a more 'natural' interface for processes concerning people, tools and content in virtual and digitally augmented environments. At the start of this paper some basic human action patterns for tasks on a 2Ddesktop are compared to tasks in a 3D-environment. These action patterns are checked for their implementation in Windows Icons Menus and Pointer (WIMP) interfaces and Virtual Reality systems. Carrying is focused upon as an important interactive event in Virtual Environments. Three carrying actions related to Collaborative Architectural Design are explained by means of prototypes in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). Finally the usefulness of a general carrying concept as part of a new Visual Language is considered. The research at hand is in its first exploring phases and draws from a running PhD research about SUI's for Context Related Architectural Design and from recent experiences in CVE's.
series other
email m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id ecaade2015_211
id ecaade2015_211
authors Stellingwerff, Martijn
year 2015
title The MOOC-ability of Design Education
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 57-60
summary In the past three years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have become an important new way for universities to reach out to possible matriculates, life long learners and alumni. Although MOOCs already cover a vast amount of subjects and curricula, it is remarkable to ascertain the lack of Architectural Design courses on the main platforms like edX and Coursera. Online courses do cover design aspects, e.g. about styles and building materials, but 'design as activity' is an exceptional subject in the portfolio of available MOOCs. In contrast, the CAAD community was one of the first to develop Virtual Design Studio's (VDS) and experimental predecessors of MOOC platforms, such as the AVOCAAD course database system (Af Klercker et al. 2001). Yet, the query 'MOOC' still does not ring a bell in the CUMINCAD publication database (per May 2015). In this paper I will explore a palette of design education settings, in order to find a fit to what a MOOC platform can offer. I will compare the 'MOOC-ability' of Design Education to chances in Virtual Design Studio's and developments in ubiquitous mobile platforms.
wos WOS:000372316000008
series eCAADe
email m.c.stellingwerff@tudelft.nl
more https://mh-engage.ltcc.tuwien.ac.at/engage/ui/watch.html?id=fe4b575c-6e8e-11e5-a43c-c7a045e8393b
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 68f0
id 68f0
authors Talbott K, Snyder G and Dicker J
year 2006
title Design + Virtual Modeling: Course Integration on a Large Scale
source Marjanovic I and Robinson C (eds) Intersections: Design Education and Other Fields of Inquiry, Proceedings of the 22nd National Conference on the Beginning Design Student, Ames, Iowa, April 2006, 309-313
summary Starting in 2001 a group of faculty at the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee School of Architecture and Urban Planning undertook a three year effort to integrate introductory studio with introductory computer-aided design. Each year 160 incoming sophomores begin their first design studio. They also receive a laptop computer and begin concurrent enrollment in an introductory computer course entitled Virtual Modeling. Students participate in studio projects, computer assignments, hand drawing tutorials, computer tutorials, studio course lectures and computer course lectures. This takes the dedicated effort of four faculty members and five graduate teaching assistants. The goals of this paper are 1) to describe the evolution of this large-scale integration effort, 2) to identify key success factors, and 3) to describe the impact on our students’ beginning design education. The paper provides a balanced perspective by discussing both benefits and challenges. It begins with more concrete information and moves gradually into deeper issues.
keywords pedagogy, design studio, collaboration, curriculum
series other
type normal paper
email ktalbott@uwm.edu
last changed 2006/08/13 04:49

_id 5da8
authors Tokman, Leyla Y.
year 2001
title Collaborative e-Design
source DCNET'2000: Design Computing on the Net'2000, Organized by Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney ve the International Journal of Design Computing
summary In early 1900’s, successful architects who have a strong influencewith not only their ideas on architecture but also their own work gave desk criticism ‘the form of one-on-one conversation’ in their atelier or studio. Being in these studios was a big opportunity for limited number of accepted students. The architectural education in the first half of 1900’s has many other parallels to education from the other professions. Developments in computer technology have been created a new medium in architectural design and education since 1960’s. Today, Computer technology and communication technology together (Information Technology- IT) help architects and students communicate ideas. This is a big opportunity for architecture candidates in 1990’s comparing with the candidates in 1900âs. One of the main changes is desk criticism from ‘the form of one-on-one conversation’ to ‘the form of multiple consultants’. That means today, not only students but also professionals can develop projects together with any adviser/ partner at any time and at any place where IT can be accessible. Moreover, This collaboration for synchronous - asynchronous studies in virtual environments also brings the equal opportunity to the students from not only developed countries but also developing countries. Students and professionals can share and enhance different ideas, progression of design decisions in educational view and practice view. In this study, some experiences will be shared on design computing and also some new visions/ conceptual models of design computing in collaborative environments will be offered.
keywords Collaborative Design, Computing, Information Technology, Participation, Opportunity, Network, Team Design
series journal paper
email lytokman@anadolu.edu.tr
more http://www.arch.usyd.EDU.AU/kcdc/journal/vol3/dcnet/tokman
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id a46a
authors Tsou, J.-Y., Lam, S. and Hall, T.W.
year 2001
title Integrating Scientific Visualization with Studio Education – Developing Design Options by Applying CFD
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 302-310
summary To meet the urgent need of education in environmentally responsive architecture, the Architecture Department of The Chinese University of Hong Kong has organized lectures and studios to provide students with knowledge and hands-on experience in environmental design strategies. Considering the context of Hong Kong with a hot-humid sub-tropical climate and hyper-dense urban environment, the current approach in the design studio education has been mainly based on intuition with very limited supports in terms of technical know-how and scientific evidence. Many students of architecture tend to follow established paradigms that have evolved through experience with similar projects. In this paper, we report the research findings of a pilot study that applied advanced scientific simulation skills in studio education designed to help students explore environmental design strategies during early stages of project design development.
keywords Scientific Visualization, Studio Education, Computer-Aided Architectural Design
series ACADIA
email jinyeutsou@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id viswa
id viswa
authors Viswanadha,Kameshwari
year 2001
title Digital Charrette: A Web Based Tool to Supplement the Admission Procedure to Graduate Architectural Degree Programs
source Texas A&M University
summary The NAAB (National Architectural Accrediting Board Inc.), as an evaluator of architectural education in the United States has established both graduate architectural curriculum criteria and student performance criteria expected to be fulfilled by the student at the time of graduation. To fulfill these standards set by the NAAB, the graduate selection committees of architecture schools require the ability to predict graduate design studio performance of the applicants. The high percentage of international applicants suggests the necessity of a standardized evaluation tool.

This research presents a standardized web based testing environment titled Digital Charrete‚ that would contribute towards the fair evaluation of applicants to graduate architectural degree programs. Spatial ability is related to Design and Visualization skills‚, a part of the NAAB criteria, and also associated with design studio performance of architecture students. The Digital Charrette is a VRML environment within which spatial exercises are administered. It is designed to supplement the current admission procedure, and would enable the selection of students with greater potential to perform well in graduate architectural design studios. This research is also an attempt to understand the implications of using virtual three-dimensional environments for such testing purposes. The ability of this web based tool to predict student performance in architectural design studios is investigated. Finally, the user reactions to testing in a virtual three-dimensional environment and timed tasks are included in this study.

Analysis of the results showed that the test takers thought the Digital Charrette was a good evaluator of their spatial ability. The study population showed a preference for paper-based media in the pre-task analysis. A huge percentage of the study population found the Digital Charrette Œfun to do‚ and Œchallenging‚. The major drawback of this study was that the VRML environment was unable to render itself for testing purposes in a way that the medium would not hinder the test takers‚ performance. This may also be considered a cause for a relatively smaller percentage of success amongst test takers. The study population however unanimously considered the concept of the Digital Charrette, i.e. testing in virtual environments, significant to evaluation of architecture students.

keywords Architectural Education
series thesis:MSc
email vkameshwari@hotmail.com
last changed 2003/12/06 07:18

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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