CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 714

_id 7400
authors Rizal, H. and Ahmad Rafi, M.E.
year 2002
title The Impact of Internet Enabled Computer Aided Design (iCAD) in Construction Industry
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 085-92
summary The advent of the Internet has opened up and given, particularly, the developing countries and the world in general, a transformation into collective intelligence (Levy, 1998) societies linked to digital communication (Rafi, 2001). Apart from large corporations, the rapid evolution of border-less communication has also synergise between the art and science expertise to form low-cost internet-based networks that have become multi-million dollar companies within a short period of time (e.g. Linux) (Rafi, 2001). In the context of architectural designs and construction industries, the birth of Internet-based CAD (iCAD) solutions has offered a new dimension to architectural practice. The function of CAD has expanded as a tool to communicate and collaborate as well as to better control all phases of the architectural practices. This paper will review the current available iCAD tools and explore the possible utilisation of iCAD in architectural practices. The opportunities for modifying current professional practice standards to best use iCAD will be rationalised as well as the elements in ensuring the effectiveness of iCAD implementation. The final component of the paper will be an evaluation framework to measure the value of iCAD in an architectural practice. The framework will become an early platform for an architectural practice to decide and plan their future in utilising and applying iCAD in the most efficient way.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
email rizalhusin@hotmail.com
last changed 2006/09/29 05:18

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 7c64
authors Tang, S.-K., Liu, Y.-T., Lin, C.-Y., Shih, S.-C., Chang, C.-H. and Chiu, Y.-C.
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 205-210
summary This research is based on a historical architecture restoration project (the Taiwan 921-earthquake damaged Chi-chi train station). The objective of this research is to construct a computerized procedure for allocating roof tiles. We attempt to simulate different combinations of new and existing roof tile layout through the application of computer simulation prior to the actual construction. This computer simulation process assists the professional and non-professionalís analysis and evaluation to achieve a visually harmonious and ready for construction solution.
series CAADRIA
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 2dba
id 2dba
authors Tasli, S
year 2001
title WHAT DOES COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OFFER FOR PRODUCING LIVABLE BUILDINGS IN THE 21ST CENTURY?
source Proceedings of the Livable Environments and Architecture International Congress (LIVENARCH 2001). July 4-7, 2001, Trabzon, Turkey, pp. 278-282.
summary Designing livable buildings has always been a major concern for architects but they are often criticized on account of failing in this aim. However, this is not only due to the ignorance of the designers, but also of the complexity of the factors that are essential to design but difficult to incorporate the design process. Buildings are shaped and occupied under several dynamically changing conditions and paper-based media and conventional Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools are inefficient in representing them. This paper aims to discuss the changing role of digital media for architectural design in response to the increasing complexity of design processes. Some proposals, supported by recent technological innovations, are suggested for the future and they are compared with the conventional uses of CAD. It is claimed that in the 21st century, the main advantage of using computers will be to dynamically simulate buildings in time in highly visualized virtual environments to evaluate the future performance of proposed designs. The design model will not only look as if it were real, but it will also “behave” as if it were real so as to provide dynamic and intelligent response. The two key technologies for the development of such modeling, virtual reality and object-oriented programming are addressed and four promising application areas for near future (evaluation of user-building interaction, visualization of environmental factors, construction scheduling, and combined CAD-GIS) are discussed. Some important considerations for the development of dynamically simulated virtual models are analyzed and suggestions are made for further research.

keywords Architectural Design, Dynamic Simulation, and Virtual Environments
series other
type normal paper
email suletasli@gmail.com
last changed 2005/12/01 15:02

_id 3645
authors Tsou, Jin-Yeu
year 2001
title Strategy on applying computational fluid dynamic for building performance evaluation
source Automation in Construction 10 (3) (2001) pp. 327-335
summary Predicting and evaluating building performance plays an important role in the training of responsible architects. Building performance includes issues such as: structural stability, acoustic quality, natural lighting, thermal comfort, and ventilation and indoor air quality. These types of analyses are often laborious, non-intuitive, and non-graphical. As a result, these important issues do not arouse the enthusiasm of architecture students or building professionals. The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) research team proposes to explore and develop a long-term strategy to apply scientific visualization on teaching and research in environmental technology and building performance. This paper presents the development process and results of research projects for applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on building performance evaluation. CFD On-line Teaching project's aim is to develop a web-based training course for architecture students to apply CFD simulation on design problem solving. Each lesson not only illustrates basic principles regarding airflow in the building design, it also contains CFD sample files with predefined flow cells for students to test different concepts. GiLin Temple project's aim is to apply CFD simulation on investigating the wind resistance of Tong Dynasty heavy timber structure. Airflow information generated in the project includes the visual representation of the pressure distribution and velocity field on all slices through the temple, and the tracking of particles as they flow around or through a building. The China housing residential airduct study focuses on simulating the indoor airflow regarding the airduct design of China Experimental Urban Housing Scheme. The visual representation of the pressure distribution and velocity field in the airducts provides vital information for helping China Housing Research Center improve the current design.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 3e6a
authors Wittkopf, Stephen
year 2001
title I-Light, a webbased learning system for architectural lighting design
source TU Darmstadt
summary With the rising meaning of architectural lighting also the requirement at appropriate light planning rises. The possibilities of digital instruments were realized by several lamp manufacturers, which use 3D-CAD to present visualizations and use the Internet for their distribution. However in the field of universities it is important to offer instruments and methods with which the interaction of light and architecture can be learned descriptive, comprehensibly and interactively. Introductory in a theoretical section the bases of light planning and learn-educational concepts are pointed out. Parallel the state of the art in the areas of computer-aided learning and the light simulation is presented and evaluated regarding the learn-educational suitability. Thereupon an action requirement is formulated, which designates a new integration of the individual areas. It flows into the development of an interactive Web-based training system for the design with light - I-Light - whose concept and implementation in the following sections is described. In an application of examples the author points out finally, how this innovative connection of the Internet, 3D-CAD and simulation supports a better understanding of the medium light in the architecture perception. A new virtual light laboratory forms the core of this training system, in which architectural planning examples can be represented three-dimensional and changed interactively. A developed semantic scene model ensures for the fact that lighting, materials and delimitation surfaces are varied didactically appropriately and compared, so that visual effects and important interrelation can be assumed and checked. The author orients itself at the methodology by simulation and merges 3D-CAD and light simulation programs into the training system. The calculated photo-realistic picture is regarded not - as otherwise usual - as presentation material, but as interactive tools. Since 3D-CAD and light simulation programs presuppose much application knowledge, the author does not pursue to confront the user with these complex programs. He developed a new system with a Web-based graphic surface, that enables 3D-scenes to be loaded, be changed and stored easily (front-end). Furthermore it enables the remote control to an automatic, photo-realistic simulation on push of a button on an external high end render machine, that is connected via Internet, where at least all files are externally stored. For the operation of the front-end is only an average PC with a standard Webbrowser necessary. For the receiving station the author develops a new interface, which extends a standard Web server by the new possibility of storing and executing lighting simulations (back-end). The system presented by the author differs in the didactical concept and in the technical implementation from the solutions existing so far in similar areas. The interactive virtual light laboratories of the architectural planning examples represent a new beginning of Web-based learning environments. To the selected tools (HTML, Java, VRML, Web server, Lightscape) there yet exist no matured alternatives.
series thesis:PhD
email akiskw@nus.edu.sg
more http://elib.tu-darmstadt.de/diss/000131/
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id fc1f
authors Zhang, Z., Tsou, J.-Y. and Hall, T.W.
year 2001
title Web-Based Virtual-Reality for Collaboration on Urban Visual Environment Assessment
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 781-794
summary This research aims to facilitate public participation in urban landscape visual assessment (ULVA). To support virtual collaboration in ULVA, it is desirable to provide both quantitative analysis and 3D simulation over the Internet. Although the rendering of urban models in common web browser plug-ins often lacks vividness compared with native workstation applications, the integration of VRML modeling and Java programming proves effective in sharing and rendering urban scenes through a familiar web interface. The ULVA simulation supports not only static scene rendering, but also interactive functional simulations. They include the viewpoint setting up, view corridor and panorama generation. Although popular VRML viewers such as CosmoPlayer provide similar functions, users are often disoriented by the interface. The obfuscation inhibits people’s immersion in the virtual urban environment and makes the assessment inconvenient. To eliminate such disorientation and improve users’ feelings of immersion, we integrate both a two-dimensional map and a three-dimensional model of the urban area in the user interface. The interaction between 2D map and 3D world includes the matching of avatar positions, visualization of avatar posture, and the setting up of viewpoints and view corridors. To support a web-based urban planning process, the system adopts client/server architecture. The city map is managed by a specific database management system (DBMS) on the server side. Users may retrieve information for various “what if” simulations. The system automatically remodels the virtual environment to respond to users’ requests.
keywords Geographic Information Systems, Internet, Urban Landscape, Visual Assessment, Virtual Reality
series CAAD Futures
email s992332@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id avocaad_2001_18
id avocaad_2001_18
authors Aleksander Asanowicz
year 2001
title The End of Methodology - Towards New Integration
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The present paper is devoted to the deliberation on the genesis and development of designing from the point of view of the potential use of computers in the process. Moreover, it also presents the great hopes which were connected with the use of the systematic designing methods in the 1960’s, as well as the great disappointment resulting from the lack of concrete results. At this time a great deal of attention was paid to the process of design as a branch of a wider process of problem-solving. Many people believed that the intuitive methods of design traditionally used by architects were incapable of dealing with the complexity of the problems to be solved. Therefore, the basic problem was the definition of a vertical structure of the designing process, which would make it possible to optimise each process of architectural design. The studies of design methodology directed at the codification of the norms of actions have not brought about any solutions which could be commonly accepted, as the efforts to present the designing process as a formally logical one and one that is not internally “uncontrary” from the mathematical point of view, were doomed to fail. Moreover, the difficulties connected with the use of the computer in designing were caused by the lack of a graphic interface, which is so very characteristic of an architect’s workshop. In result, the methodology ceased to be the main area of the architect’s interest and efforts were focused on facilitating the method of the designer’s communication with the computer. New tools were created, which enabled both the automatic generation of diversity and the creation of forms on the basis of genetic algorithms, as well as the presentation of the obtained results in the form of rendering, animation and VRML. This was the end of the general methodology of designing and the beginning of a number of methods solving the partial problems of computer-supported design. The present situation can be described with the words of Ian Stewart as a “chaotic run in all directions”. An immediate need for new integration is felt. Cyber-real space could be a solution to the problem. C-R-S is not a virtual reality understood as an unreal world. Whilst VR could be indeed treated as a sort of an illusion, C-R-S is a much more realistic being, defining the area in which the creative activities are taking place. The architect gains the possibility of having a direct contact with the form he or she is creating. Direct design enables one to creatively use the computer technology in the designing process. The intelligent system of recognising speech, integrated with the system of virtual reality, will allow to create an environment for the designer – computer communication which will be most natural to the person. The elimination of this obstacle will facilitate the integration of the new methods into one designing environment. The theoretical assumptions of such an environment are described in the present paper.
series AVOCAAD
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id f95f
authors Angulo, A.H., Davidson, R.J. and Vásquez de Velasco, G.P.
year 2001
title Digital Visualization in the Teaching of Cognitive Visualization
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 292-301
summary Professional design offices claim that our graduates have difficulties with their free-hand perspective drawing skills. This fact, which has become obvious over the last 5 years, is parallel to a clear tendency towards the use of 3-dimensional digital imagery in the projects of our students. Frequently, faculty tends to blame the computer for the shortcomings of our students in the use of traditional media, yet there is no clear evidence on the source of the blame. At a more fundamental level, the visualization skills of our students are questioned. This paper will explain how faculty teaching design communication techniques, with traditional and digital media, are working together in the development of a teaching methodology that makes use of computers in support of our student’s training on cognitive visualization skills, namely; “The Third-Eye Method”. The paper describes the Third-Eye Method as an alternative to traditional methods. As evidence of the benefits offered by the Third-Eye Method, the paper presents the results of testing it against traditional methods among freshman students. At the end, the paper draws as conclusion that computers are not the main source of the problem but a potential solution.
keywords Pedagogy, Visualization, Media
series ACADIA
email Vasquez@taz.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 80f7
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2001
title Knowledge-based System to Support Architectural Design - Intelligent objects, project net-constraints, collaborative work
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 80-85
summary The architectural design business is marked by a progressive increase in operators all cooperating towards the realization of building structures and complex infrastructures (Jenckes, 1997). This type of design implies the simultaneous activity of specialists in different fields, often working a considerable distance apart, on increasingly distributed design studies. Collaborative Architectural Design comprises a vast field of studies that embraces also these sectors and problems. To mention but a few: communication among operators in the building and design sector; design process system logic architecture; conceptual structure of the building organism; building component representation; conflict identification and management; sharing of knowledge; and also, user interface; global evaluation of solutions adopted; IT definition of objects; inter-object communication (in the IT sense). The point of view of the research is that of the designers of the architectural artefact (Simon, 1996); its focus consists of the relations among the various design operators and among the latter and the information exchanged: the Building Objects. Its primary research goal is thus the conceptual structure of the building organism for the purpose of managing conflicts and developing possible methods of resolving them.
keywords Keywords. Collaborative Design, Architectural And Building Knowledge, Distributed Knowledge Bases, Information Management, Multidisciplinarity
series eCAADe
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 3bdb
authors Hanna, R. and Barber, T.
year 2001
title An inquiry into computers in design: attitude before-attitudes after
source Design Studies, 22(3), pp. 255-281
summary This paper reports on the findings of an empirical investigation into the use of the computer as the only design medium. A group of students took part in an experiment to design a studio for a graphic designer on the computer. Student attitudes towards the design process were assessed at two conditions: before using the computer and after using the computer. Prior to the experiment a literature search was carried out to explore some widely researched design issues such as sketching, design creativity, and computer-aided design. Consequently a number of design variables were identified, developed and then empirically tested. Data collection methods included questionnaires and observations. Statistical analysis of the responses confirms that using the computer has produced a statistically significant difference in attitudes to the design process variables.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id f8e3
authors Hew, K.-P., Fisher, N. and Awbi, H.B.
year 2001
title Towards an integrated set of design tools based on a common data format for building and services design
source Automation in Construction 10 (4) (2001) pp. 459-476
summary The emerging technology in building product design using knowledge-based engineering (KBE), is currently exciting practitioners in the building construction industry. This paper investigates the use of KBE techniques and assesses the contribution this approach can make to the traditional design process. To do this, the investigation has developed an integrated set of design tools based on a common data format, for integrating 3D electronic prototypes with building services information for use in building design. This approach has been developed on the basis of an open framework and has been applied to the design of an airport terminal building and its plant room. Within the framework, the design process and the information needed, are divided into modules and represented in the form of 3D digital mock-up models (or electronic prototypes). Within the integrated system, an interface has been developed to facilitate the sharing of information with a thermal analysis software application, which contributes to the design process. In this paper, the methodology is discussed and its working system is illustrated and evaluated.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id e9b1
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2001
title Destination: Practice – Towards a maintenance contract for the architect’s degree
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 090-099
summary Addressing the subject of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) in architectural design, we present a Web-based design assistant for student- and professional architects called DYNAMO. Its main objective is to initiate and nurture the life-long process of learning from (design) experience as suggested by CBR’s cognitive model. Rather than adopting this model as such, DYNAMO extrapolates it beyond the individual by stimulating and intensifying several modes of interaction. One mode – the focus of this paper – concerns the interaction between the realm of design education and the world of practice. DYNAMO offers a platform for exchanging design efforts and insights, in the form of cases, between both parties, which perfectly chimes with the current tendency towards life-long learning and continuing education. Just like our university advises graduates to ‘Take a maintenance contract with your degree’, architecture schools may encourage recently qualified architects to subscribe to DYNAMO. To what extent the tool can fulfill this role of maintenance contract is discussed at the end of the paper, which reports on how DYNAMO was used and appreciated by professional architects at different levels of expertise.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Web-Based Learning, Digital Repositories
series ACADIA
email ann.heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 887c
authors Knight, Michael and Brown, André
year 2001
title Towards a natural and appropriate Architectural Virtual Reality: the nAVRgate project. Past, present, future
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 139-149
summary The lure of virtual environments is strong and the apparent potential is enticing. But questions of how Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues should be handled and married with best practice in Human-Human Interaction (HHI) remains largely unresolved. How should architectural images and ideas be most appropriately represented, and how should designers interact and react through this computer mediated medium? Whilst there is never likely to be unanimity in answer to such questions, we can develop new ideas and new systems, test them, report on them and invite comment. The nature and novelty of virtual environments is such that refinements and innovations are likely to come from a variety of sources and in a variety of ways. The work described here explains the evolution and current plans for the development of a particular approach that has been developed and refined by the authors. Low-cost, effective and appropriate are the key words that have driven the developments behind the evolving nAVRgate system that has arisen from this work, and that is described here.
keywords Virtual Environments, Navigation, Interaction, Perception
series CAAD Futures
email mknight@liv.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 9de9
authors Laakso, Mikko
year 2001
title Practical Navigation in Virtual Architectural Environments
source Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
summary The interest towards virtual reality (VR) and virtual environments (VE) is growing all the time. The applications being developed for VE run a wide spectrum, from games to business planning. This thesis concentrates on navigation in virtual architectural environments, movement in worlds that are very similar to our own. Navigation in a virtual world should be practical, intuitive and simple. Unfortunately, it is very often far from that - for some reason the usability issues in VEs have been usually left with little attention. Currently it is easy for a user to get lost and disoriented when traveling in a VE. This situation must change, navigating through virtual environments can no longer be considered a task reserved for the experts only. 3D-worlds and architectural applications for the common user require new, intuitive interface techniques. This thesis addresses issues related to both physical and cognitive aspects of navigation as well as theoretical models that bind them together. In the technology survey of this thesis, the virtual environment technology is presented. Different visual display systems, new input devices and some 3D user interface design aspects are described. The literature survey section discusses the main issues concerning navigation theory. The two parts of navigation, travel and wayfinding, are described in detail. The major challenges are discussed and some solutions and various research results are presented. A major part of the thesis consists of the description of HCNav, a new navigation system developed by the author. The system was constructed for use in the virtual room at Helsinki University of Technology. The purpose of HCNav is to provide a very intuitive and practical navigation interface. Three new experimental input devices, namely custom wand, data glove and speech recognition system, were tested. Another important part of the work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCNav system. A usability test was conducted to determine if the use of HCNav was actually improving navigation performance. Twelve subjects participated in a test where HCNav was compared with a traditional navigation software used previously in the virtual room. The experiment setup has been described and the results analyzed. The results are promising and show that the navigation methods adopted in HCNav are clearly better.
keywords Virtual Environments, Navigation, Usability
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6d37
authors Léglise, Michel
year 2001
title Computer-stimulated design: construction of a personal repertoire from scattered fragments
source Automation in Construction 10 (5) (2001) pp. 577-588
summary This paper describes some possibilities of creating and structuring a personal digital memory capable of facilitating architectural design and design learning. The raw materials of this memory are different representations that can be found on the Web. Having interpreted these representations, one is able to construct a meaningful memory, educated and personal, which can be called upon subsequently during the design phase, as long as one has a medium that can represent this memory and put it to good use. As a practical, effective application of this process, we will describe part of a configuration geared towards the learning of architectural design. This configuration is composed of various elements, precisely arranged in space and time in a set of interrelations and interactions. The design student is placed at the centre of the arrangement, from where he or she can call on a broad spectrum of possibilities from the Web as provider of image documents. When necessary, students can use specially developed software that allows them a verbal and pictorial interpretation stimulated during particular phases of the learning process. In this way, through pictorial material presented on the network, the students can build up a digital library appropriate to their own understanding of architecture and their own representation of the world. At this point, they can abandon the universe of digital documents and media and return to the world of materials and shapes in intensive design studio sessions, where slowly maturing ideas can at last find concrete form. Thus, we deal with the relationship between the public, shareable aspect of the documents, and the private aspect: the individual interpretation of these documents. In the same way, we show how, within the framework of the teaching programme that has been set up, and without interference, this relationship between public and private can be linked into a dimension of the work of learning which is at times personal, at times collective. The conclusion attempts to outline the issues raised by this sort of configuration, and to show how thoughtful use of computers and networks can stimulate and enrich design rather than just "aid" it, as is generally accepted.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ecaade03_561_150_martens
id ecaade03_561_150_martens
authors Martens, Yuri and Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2003
title Realestate online information systems
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 561-567
summary Several commercial real-estate sites provide listings of available commercial property on the Internet. These listings are generated on the basis of selection criteria as floor area, price and location. Despite the obvious utility of the listings and their promise for the transaction process and market transparency, one third of commercial realestate listing sites went bankrupt in 2001 and 2002. To provide an explanation for the failure, 63 commercial real-estate sites were analysed and classified into three basic business models: the Research / Information model, the Marketing model and the Transaction model. A common success factor for all models is the functionality of the site, especially interaction between the user and the available information. The paper proposes that the transfer of existing architectural representations, information-processing instruments and decision-taking tools is an essential component of future development towards integrated services that accompany a building throughout its lifecycle. This transfer amounts to (1) the addition of building and contextual information from standard documentation and online information services, (2) the derivation and coherent description of programmatic requirements database, and (3) advanced user interaction with building information.
keywords e-commerce, human-computer interaction, building information systems,web-based communication
series eCAADe
email A.Koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.re-h.nl
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id 679c
authors Norman, Frederick
year 2001
title Towards a Paperless Studio
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 336-343
summary The infusion of digital media into the practice of architecture is changing how we design as well as what we design. Digital media has altered the process of design and the culture of design education. The question before us is how does one transition from a completely analog system of representation to one of complete computer immersion or the “paperless studio”. Schools of Architecture have already begun to struggle with the physical issues of integration of new media (infrastructure and economics). But the pedagogical integration of new media should be of a greater concern. New media and its forms of representation are challenging traditional skills of communication and representation, (i.e., sketching, hand drawing and physical model making). The paradox facing architectural practice today is the integration of new media into a realm where traditional or manual forms of representation are ingrained into how we think, produce and communicate. We must ask ourselves, must new media be held to the traditional forms of representation?
keywords Digital Media, Design Studio, 3D Modeling, Animation
series ACADIA
email fnorman@bsu.edu
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 06fd
authors Oxman, Rivka and Heylighen, Ann
year 2001
title A Case with a View - Towards an Integration of Visual and Case-Based Reasoning in Design
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 346-341
summary Despite the long-term effort to establish the theoretical foundations for Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) in design, it appears that additional theoretical efforts are needed in order to achieve the promise of this affinity. In this paper we argue that visual reasoning, is a fundamental attribute of architectural design, and therefore combining it with CBR may provide significant results both for the field of design thinking as well as for the field of CAAD. This paper focuses on reformulating theoretical foundations for CBR in design by incorporating insights from studies in fields like visual imagery and creativity, where visual reasoning is recognized to play a key role. Within classical CBR research, however, visual reasoning has not received much attention until now. Instead, researchers have concentrated on traditional issues and topics in CBR such as indexing, retrieval and adaptation. The second part of the paper therefore switches attention to how these traditional issues may benefit from integrating Case-Based with visual reasoning.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Visual Reasoning, Visual Imagery, Visual Cognition
series eCAADe
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il, ann.heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

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