CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 263a
authors Bermúdez, Julio
year 2002
title Implicaciones Arquitectónicas de La Naturaleza del Hacer en Ambientes Digitales [Architectonic Implications of the Nature of the Digital Atmosphere ]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 142-145
summary Architectural Implications of the Nature of Making in Digital Environments There exists an a-priori relationship between the basic structural constrains of an environment and the types of construction that may evolve there. For instance, the inexorable laws of nature have caused architecture to develop as a physical, stable, containing and inert object. Hence there are good reasons to study how cyberspace with its different ontological foundations may define the architecture to be built there. This examination may be best accomplished by concentrating in how what is structurally unique to the cyber impacts architectural design This paper investigates the ontology of construction in cyberspace by analyzing ordinary digital laws that defy reality. The findings both challenge our traditional conceptions of architecture and guide us toward totally unprecedented design potentials. The goal is to begin building a fundamental theory of architectural space, design and construction applicable to cyberspace.
series SIGRADI
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 6440
authors Chang, Y.L., Lee, Y.Z. and Liu, Y.T.
year 2002
title Construction of Digital City in Physical City: Cyberspatial Cognition Approach to the Project of Hsin-Chu Digital City in Taiwan
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 109-116
summary The cyberspace upon physical space forms a new spatial structure to increase the influence on the urban fabric and the concept of space in architecture. Today, digital cities are being developed all over the world. By using a city metaphor, digital cities integrate urban information and create public spaces. How do digital cities directly connect to physical cities and become an imaginable city? Therefore, we argue that a new spatial analysis theory must be established for digital city, comparing with theories of disciplines, to find the explicitly spatial structures and relations in digital city upon physical city.
series CAADRIA
email jecho@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id ddss2008-02
id ddss2008-02
authors Gonçalves Barros, Ana Paula Borba; Valério Augusto Soares de Medeiros, Paulo Cesar Marques da Silva and Frederico de Holanda
year 2008
title Road hierarchy and speed limits in Brasília/Brazil
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper aims at exploring the theory of the Social Logic of Space or Space Syntax as a strategy to define parameters of road hierarchy and, if this use is found possible, to establish maximum speeds allowed in the transportation system of Brasília, the capital city of Brazil. Space Syntax – a theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) – incorporates the space topological relationships, considering the city shape and its influence in the distribution of movements within the space. The theory’s axiality method – used in this study – analyses the accessibility to the street network relationships, by means of the system’s integration, one of its explicative variables in terms of copresence, or potential co-existence between the through-passing movements of people and vehicles (Hillier, 1996). One of the most used concepts of Space Syntax in the integration, which represents the potential flow generation in the road axes and is the focus of this paper. It is believed there is a strong correlation between urban space-form configuration and the way flows and movements are distributed in the city, considering nodes articulations and the topological location of segments and streets in the grid (Holanda, 2002; Medeiros, 2006). For urban transportation studies, traffic-related problems are often investigated and simulated by assignment models – well-established in traffic studies. Space Syntax, on the other hand, is a tool with few applications in transport (Barros, 2006; Barros et al, 2007), an area where configurational models are considered to present inconsistencies when used in transportation (cf. Cybis et al, 1996). Although this is true in some cases, it should not be generalized. Therefore, in order to simulate and evaluate Space Syntax for the traffic approach, the city of Brasília was used as a case study. The reason for the choice was the fact the capital of Brazil is a masterpiece of modern urban design and presents a unique urban layout based on an axial grid system considering several express and arterial long roads, each one with 3 to 6 lanes,
keywords Space syntax, road hierarchy
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id b74f
authors Dijkstra, Jan and Timmermans, Harry
year 2002
title Towards a multi-agent model for visualizing simulated user behavior to support the assessment of design performance
source Automation in Construction 11 (2) (2002) pp. 135-145
summary We introduce the outline of a multi-agent model that can be used for visualizing simulated user behavior to support the assessment of design performance. We will consider various performance indicators of building environments, which are related to user reaction to design decisions. This system may serve as a media tool in the design process for a better understanding of what the design will look like, especially for those cases where design or planning decisions will affect the behavior of individuals. The system is based on cellular automata and multi-agent simulation technology. The system simulates how agents move around in a particular 3D (or 2D) environment, in which space is represented as a lattice of cells. Agents represent objects or people with their own behavior, moving over the network. Each agent will be located in a simulated space, based on the cellular automata grid. Each iteration of the simulation is based on a parallel update of the agents conforming local rules. Agents positioned within an environment will need sensors to perceive their local neighborhood and some means with which to affect the environment. In this way, autonomous individuals and the interaction between them can be simulated by the system. As a result, designers can use the system to assess the likely consequences of their design decisions on user behavior. We think that the system provides a potentially valuable tool to support design and decision-making processes, related to user behavior in architecture and urban planning.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 765f
authors Adam, Holger
year 2002
title Reinterpretation or replacement? The effects of the information and communication technologies on urban space
source CORP 2002, Vienna, pp. 345-349
summary The timid question “Virtual spaces or real places?” forms the core of many debates within the spatial sciences addressing theconsequences of the rapid development of information and communication technologies1 on existing spatial structures. So far several opinions rival each other for the interpretation of current and the prediction of future spatial developments. The spacelessness ofcomputer networks and the possibility to transmit data in real-time have lead visionaries to predict a far-reaching devaluation of timeand space, so questioning the future importance of traditional spatial structures: The “annihilation of distance and time constraints [incomputer networks] could undermine the very rationale for the existence of the city by dissolving the need for physical proximity”(Graham and Marvin 1996: 318). The disappearance of the city into the net, therefore, seems to become a distinct possibility.
series other
email h-adam@gmx.de
more www.corp.at
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 060b
authors Af Klercker, J.
year 1997
title A National Strategy for CAAD and IT-Implementation in the Construction Industry the Construction Industry
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The objective of this paper is to present a strategy for implementation of CAD and IT in the construction and building management#1 industry in Sweden. The interest is in how to make the best use of the limited resources in a small country or region, cooperating internationally and at the same time avoiding to be totally dominated by the great international actors in the market of information technology.

In Sweden representatives from the construction and building management industry have put forward a research and development program called: "IT-Bygg#2 2002 - Implementation". It aims at making IT the vehicle for decreasing the building costs and at the same time getting better quality and efficiency out of the industry.

The presented strategy is based on a seminar with some of the most experienced researchers, developers and practitioners of CAD in Sweden. The activities were recorded and annotated, analyzed and put together afterwards.

The proposal in brief is that object oriented distributed CAD is to be used in the long perspective. It will need to be based on international standards such as STEP and it will take at least another 5 years to get established.

Meanwhile something temporary has to be used. Pragmatically a "de facto standard" on formats has to be accepted and implemented. To support new users of IT all software in use in the country will be analyzed, described and published for a national platform for IT-communication within the construction industry.

Finally the question is discussed "How can architect schools then contribute to IT being implemented within the housing sector at a regional or national level?" Some ideas are presented: Creating the good example, better support for the customer, sharing the holistic concept of the project with all actors, taking part in an integrated education process and international collaboration like AVOCAAD and ECAADE.

 

keywords CAAD, IT, Implementation, Education, Collaboration
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/afklerck/afklerck.htm
last changed 2007/01/21 13:05

_id ddssar0214
id ddssar0214
authors Al Hassan, F., Trum, H.M.G.J. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 2002
title Strategic Briefing A Conceptual Process Model for Building Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Nowadays building design problems are divided in partial discipline related sub-problems. Through targeted and focused attention to sub problems however the awareness of the whole is lost. Each designparticipant gives his sub-problem first priority. In contrast in the past the master builder saw the whole problem as his problem first. Thus the process of seeing the design problem as a whole, as a result ofprioritizing, considering constraints, or strategizing, is lost in today’s practice, basically because this process is a mental and implicit process, that occurred in the brain of the multi-disciplinary master builder.In most cases it is the task of no one in a design team today. The aim of this paper is modeling this conceptual mental implicit process design using System Theory and Cognitive Psychology, trying to determine the structure of the design problem as it occurs intuitively in the brain. The result will provide us with a mechanism that enables us each time to refine a unique common design problem representation. This leads to more effective use of design team capabilities, and forms an essential basis for organizing efforts toward collaborative solutions. Also some kind of clarity is provided as to how proposed solutions are to be judged.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id bcf7
authors Arvin, Scott A. and House, Donald H.
year 2002
title Modeling architectural design objectives in physically based space planning
source Automation in Construction 11 (2) (2002) pp. 213-225
summary Physically based space planning is a means for automating the conceptual design process by applying the physics of motion to space plan elements. This methodology provides for a responsive design process, which allows a designer to easily make decisions whose consequences immediately propagate throughout the design. It combines the speed of automated design methods with the flexibility of manual design methods, while adding a highly interactive quality and a sense of collaboration with the design itself. In our approach, the designer creates a space plan by specifying and modifying graphic design objectives rather than by directly manipulating primitive geometry. The plan adapts to the changing state of objectives by applying the physics of motion to its elements. For design objectives to affect a physically based space plan, they need to apply appropriate forces to space plan elements. Space planning can be separated into two problems, determining topological properties and determining geometric properties. Design objectives can then be categorized as topological or geometric objectives. Topological objectives influence the location of individual spaces, affecting how one space relates to another. Geometric objectives influence the size and shape of space boundaries, affecting the dimensions of individual walls. This paper focuses on how to model a variety of design objectives for use in a physically based space planning system. We describe how topological objectives, such as adjacency and orientation can be modeled to apply forces to space locations, and how geometric objectives, such as area, proportion, and alignment, can be modeled to apply forces to boundary edges.
series journal paper
email arvin@viz.tamu.edu
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 8869
authors Ataman, Osman
year 2002
title Historical Analysis of Building - (Re)Construction in Olivette Park, USA
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 63-66
summary From 1959 to 1990, East St. Louis, Illinois deteriorated from an “All-American City” to a national symbol of urban blight. Located on the Mississippi River, the East St. Louis of today faces severe economic, social, and environmental problems. Nearly onequarter of the city’s work force is unemployed and about 40 percent of families are living below the poverty level. But East St. Louis was not always a distressed community. With strong ties to St. Louis and the surrounding region, East St. Louis onceflourished as the country’s second busiest railroad hub. Powerful economic and socio-political forces, as well as unfortunate historical circumstance, propelled the city into a downward spiral that drastically decreased the quality of life in East St. Louis. This paper presents the digital re-construction of the buildings and the analyses of the historical aspects of the housing construction and types in this area. Furthermore, it reports the survey and assessment of the quality of building stocks based on therevitalization plan that will provide some guidelines and suggestions for improvement, stability, and future needs.
series SIGRADI
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ddssar0206
id ddssar0206
authors Bax, M.F.Th. and Trum, H.M.G.J.
year 2002
title Faculties of Architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In order to be inscribed in the European Architect’s register the study program leading to the diploma ‘Architect’ has to meet the criteria of the EC Architect’s Directive (1985). The criteria are enumerated in 11 principles of Article 3 of the Directive. The Advisory Committee, established by the European Council got the task to examine such diplomas in the case some doubts are raised by other Member States. To carry out this task a matrix was designed, as an independent interpreting framework that mediates between the principles of Article 3 and the actual study program of a faculty. Such a tool was needed because of inconsistencies in the list of principles, differences between linguistic versions ofthe Directive, and quantification problems with time, devoted to the principles in the study programs. The core of the matrix, its headings, is a categorisation of the principles on a higher level of abstractionin the form of a taxonomy of domains and corresponding concepts. Filling in the matrix means that each study element of the study programs is analysed according to their content in terms of domains; thesummation of study time devoted to the various domains results in a so-called ‘profile of a faculty’. Judgement of that profile takes place by committee of peers. The domains of the taxonomy are intrinsically the same as the concepts and categories, needed for the description of an architectural design object: the faculties of architecture. This correspondence relates the taxonomy to the field of design theory and philosophy. The taxonomy is an application of Domain theory. This theory,developed by the authors since 1977, takes as a view that the architectural object only can be described fully as an integration of all types of domains. The theory supports the idea of a participatory andinterdisciplinary approach to design, which proved to be awarding both from a scientific and a social point of view. All types of domains have in common that they are measured in three dimensions: form, function and process, connecting the material aspects of the object with its social and proceduralaspects. In the taxonomy the function dimension is emphasised. It will be argued in the paper that the taxonomy is a categorisation following the pragmatistic philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce. It will bedemonstrated as well that the taxonomy is easy to handle by giving examples of its application in various countries in the last 5 years. The taxonomy proved to be an adequate tool for judgement ofstudy programs and their subsequent improvement, as constituted by the faculties of a Faculty of Architecture. The matrix is described as the result of theoretical reflection and practical application of a matrix, already in use since 1995. The major improvement of the matrix is its direct connection with Peirce’s universal categories and the self-explanatory character of its structure. The connection with Peirce’s categories gave the matrix a more universal character, which enables application in other fieldswhere the term ‘architecture’ is used as a metaphor for artefacts.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 132eaea2001
id 132eaea2001
authors Borg, Manuela and Walz, Manfred
year 2002
title Orientation Strategies within Public Spaces as the Rudiments of Space Usage and Layout” – A Workshop Contribution
source Environmental Simulation - New Impulses in Planning Processes [Proceedings of the 5th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-922602-85-1]
summary Our guiding questions in research are: - how does one orient oneself in an unknown urban space, - are there typical strategies in orientation, which become visible during the search process and finally:- do men and women orientate in the same unknown urban space in the same way or are there hints that they are following different strategies?Our long-term theme in research is to find out the regularity and the rules of the processes of moving and using public spaces. In the first step we are trying to find out in which way the individual perception of urban spaces in moving depends on the design of urban spaces. Therefore in our research design we try to explore the qualities of urban spaces which become visible in moving processes. It is one of the oldest questions of urban design and – by the way – nearly every architect or planner pretends to know everything on this subject. But nobody is yet able to predict real moving or using processes while designing. On the other side: the parameters of the material frame work are well known while moving and using processes are still nearly unknown.
series EAEA
email borg@fh-dortmund.de
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id c82f
authors Chang, Yu-Li
year 2002
title Exploring syntax and semantics of spatial structure - A study on Traditional Taiwanese City form in Chi’i’ng Dynasty
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 412-416
summary Abstract. In this paper, we want to figure out the relations of complex semantics and syntax on five traditional Taiwanese cities in Chi’i’ng Dynasty by using a language approach. The issues of traditional Taiwanese central city in Chi’ing Dynasty had been interpreting by historical, social, and cultural research but had lacked the explicit construction of spatial structure on semantics-syntax. Therefore, we use a data modeling on knowledge level to describe the relationship between syntax and semantics. Through the research of Chi’ing Dynasty‘s history, we find out the spatial relations of Taiwanese traditional city to establish the functional categories of spatial structures. Then the language of semantics components and the meaning’s attributes are coded as logical statements to map the elements of syntax on architectural form, political vocabularies, spatial layout, and spatial myth. We argue that using this approach several social and spatial structures of cities can be clearly defined and understood.
series eCAADe
email jecho@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 154d
authors Colajanni, B., Pellitteri, G. and Concialdi, S.
year 2002
title Intelligent Structures for Collaborating with the Architect
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 360-364
summary The number of different designers with different competencies collaborating in a building project is today conspicuous. An undesired consequence is the possible rise of conflicts between decisions taken independently by more than one specialist on the same building object. The early detection of such conflicts is then one of the most important features in collaborative design. Moreover, of great interest would be the possibility not only of automatic detection but also of solution proposal of at least the most manageable of those conflicts. In this perspective smart models of building components could be very useful. This is possible giving the building elements, represented as objects, the specific intelligence. A simple example of this possibility is given in this paper. In a precedent work we proposed a way of managing elementary spatial conflicts between building components tending to occupy the same spaces. The automatic detection derived from the previous declaration of two levels of constraints (soft constraint and hard constraints) in such way that a violation of them could be immediately signaled to the actor wanting to take the decision triggering the conflict. In this paper the topic is the consequences of the rise of a spatial conflict (occupation of the same space) between a column of a spatial frame of columns and beams, and another building object of any sort subject to a soft or hard constraint. The procedure identifies the minimum displacement of the two objects, propagates the column displacement to the other structural elements connected to it and checks the feasibility of the new configuration of the structural schema both with regard to the possible rise of new conflicts and with the compliance to previous structural criteria.
series eCAADe
email pellitt@unipa.it
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id e5e7
authors Fischer, Th., Fischer, T. and Ceccato, C.
year 2002
title Distributed Agents for Morphologic and Behavioral Expression in Cellular Design Systems
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 111-121
summary After more than a century of domination by neo-Darwinian theory, biological thought is beginning to giveincreasing recognition to developmental theory. Amongst other reasons, this recent widening ofperspective is grounded on the incompleteness of the neo-Darwinian perspective in providing modelsfor the invention of novel forms or species and individual development. Evolutionary design theory hasdrawn much of its inspiration from evolutionary biology and consequently shows analogous flaws. Thispaper demonstrates an adoption of biological developmental theory to the field of design theory in orderto fill the corresponding gap. As natural developmental processes are based on the development ofcellular units, which form composite structures, this paper employs the cellular model as a means for thedevelopment of a corresponding design and construction theory. The discussion of this approachincludes possible linkages between morphologic and behavioral attributes of tissues with implicationsfor self-assembly, growth, healing and self-reproduction of man-made structures.
series ACADIA
email sdtom@polyu.edu.hk
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 1a42
authors Fjeld, M., Lauche, K., Bichsel, M., Voorhorst, F., Krueger, H., Rauterberg, M.
year 2002
title Physical and Virtual Tools: Activity Theory Applied to the Design of Groupware
source Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), Kluwer
summary Activity theory is based on the concept of tools mediating between subjects and objects. In this theory, an individual's creative interaction with his or her surroundings can result in the production of tools. When an individual's mental processes are exteriorized in the form of tools - termed objectification - they become more accessible to other people and are therefore useful for social interaction. This paper shows how our understanding of activity theory has shaped our design philosophy for groupware and how we have applied it. Our design philosophy and practice is exemplified by a description of the BUILD-IT system. This is an Augmented Reality system we developed to enhance group work; it is a kind of graspable groupware which supports cooperative planning. The system allows a group of people, co-located around a table, to interact, by means of physical bricks, with models in a virtual three-dimensional (3D) setting. Guided by task analysis, a set of specific tools for different 3D planning and configuration tasks was implemented as part of this system. We investigate both physical and virtual tools. These tools allow users to adjust model height, viewpoint, and scale of the virtual setting. Finally, our design practice is summarized in a set of design guidelines. Based on these guidelines, we reflect on our own design practice and the usefulness of activity theory for design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddssar0210
id ddssar0210
authors Friedl, G., Trum, H.M.G.J. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 2002
title An Innovative Model of the Building Development ProcessDesign as a Process of Crystallisation
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In the past, models describing the development of artefacts, including buildings, usually were of a linear nature thereby suggesting a sequential path from conception of the artefact to its completion. This has consequences for the sequence of activities in the design and programming phase. However, designing is basically a thinking activity and is as such not bound to the same laws as e.g. the construction process. This must have repercussions for the way the design process is designed andmanaged. The proposed conceptual model of the artefact development process – in this case a building design process – is a kind of framework which is more in accordance with the nature of thinkingactivities. It should stimulate a non-sequential process. The development of a solution to a design problem thus should become a responsive search process driven by insights and creative leaps but guided by the framework the model provides. Furthermore, the model is meant to support the exploration and clarification of the problem as well as to extend the solution space by various means such as the development of scenarios and strategic values as a basis for the realisation of the building project’s goals. This model is an essential element in the development of an innovative approach towards the process design of the building design process. The creation of a building (conception, design and development) is not considered a sequential process but a process of crystallisation with the potential of developing in all directions, thus growing from a conceptual centre outwards.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c839
authors Hwang, Jie-Eun
year 2002
title SpaceScope: Developing a Spatial Information Retrieval System - Focused on Apartment Unit Floor Plans -
source Yonsei University, Dept. of Housing & Interior Design
summary This research investigates the spatial information retrieval (IR) in architecture focused on constructing efficient metadata that is crucial for data retrieval. Generally speaking, metadata is ‘structured data about data’ to describe resources especially in a digital format. In this research, metadata is a sort of data object to be useful in searching spatial information. Metadata is also used to describe raw spatial data object as not only attribute data but also content structurally and semantic ally. There are two issues that motivate this research; 1) what is the spatial information – that materializes the intangible space as a data object, and 2) how we can search the information efficiently – the content-based information retrieval. Although knowledge of a building’s spatial content is most important in architecture, there has been no logical method to manage it.

From the viewpoint of content-based retrieval, the researcher analyzes spatial information of a floor plan, with a focus on the apartment unit floor plan common in Korea. Then the metadata items are extracted in a structured manner. To manage the items efficiently, the researcher develops a data model for spatial information according to the concept of the “Structured Floor Plan”. The main object of content to retrieve is a spatial network that consists of nodes of spaces and their linkages. There are two ways to organize the metadata: the traditional index files and the RDF (Resource Description Framework). While the index files are still efficient with computability, the RDF applies greater options to retrieve, such as fuzzy predicates, semantic predicates, and so on. To exploit the metadata, this research shows several possibilities of query operations that present a set of sample queries about L-DK(Living room – Dining room – Kitchen). Implementation of the prototype system is divided into three parts: 1) a modeling module using Vitruvius; 2) an indexing module using MS SQL Server? 2000 in conjunction XML; and 3) a browsing module using the SpaceScope browser.

The future works may consider XML-based databases and a knowledge based query language, such as RQL/XQL, working on such databases. The more specific domain knowledge is involved, the more practical systems would be. Even in architecture, there may be a diverse range of domain knowledge, such as design, building performance, facility management, energy management, post occupied evaluation, historical research, and so on. Also the issue of interface should be investigated in depth, so that it will be adequate to the needs of the architectural field.

keywords Content-based Information Retrieval; Metadata; RDF; XML; Spatial Information; Apartment Floor Plan; Semantics
series thesis:MSc
email curiozen@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2003/04/25 05:27

_id ddssar0216
id ddssar0216
authors Jones, Dennis B.
year 2002
title The Quantum Matrix:A Three Dimensional Data Integration and Collaboration ToolFor Virtual Environments
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary If a picture is worth a thousand words, what if they could walk and talk? How would you like to bring a whole new dimension to your ideas; to use visualization to convey a sense of time and motion, to use imagery to give your ideas vividness; to use sound to give them voice and view them threedimensionally. The Matrix allows you to do all of this and much more. The Matrix resembles Rubik’s cube, but its purpose is to store, manage and access data of all types and to view them in three dimensions in virtual environments such as the CAVE and on your desktop. The current version can store, access and view almost anything that is in digital form, including:Text files Pictures Video Clips Sound Files Spreadsheets URL’s HTML pages Databases CAD drawings Gantt Charts Business Graphics VRML modelsExecutable Programs OLE (Object Link & Embedded) The Matrix is a three-dimensional multimedia and document management tool. The Matrix anticipates the convergence of electronic media into one consistent environment for analysis and representation. the Matrix uses VMRL and OpenGL technologies to allow the user to be immersed in their data as withCinerama, IMAX and Virtual Reality Environments. The Matrix allows the user to exercise their creativity by interactively placing and organizing their data three dimensionally and navigating through and viewingdata and documents in 3D (monocular and binocular – stereo). The Matrix user interface is simple to use. Employing the now familiar “drag and drop” method to manage data and documents. Items can be placed into the matrix grid at a user selected matrix cube location. Upon dropping a document on a cube it appears as a mapped image onto the surface. Navigating through the 3D Matrix-space is fun. All navigation uses real-time animation giving you instant feed back as to where you are. Data drilling is as simple as mouse click on a Matrix cube. Double clicking the on an object in the matrix activates that object. Data dreams was an image that preexisted the program by several years. The dream was to create a new way oforganizing and exploring data. The Qube image was created using Microstation by Bentley Systems, Inc. The figure was modeled using Poser by MetaCreations and composited using Adobe Photoshop.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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