CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 497

_id 132eaea2001
id 132eaea2001
authors Borg, Manuela and Walz, Manfred
year 2002
title Orientation Strategies within Public Spaces as the Rudiments of Space Usage and Layout” – A Workshop Contribution
source Environmental Simulation - New Impulses in Planning Processes [Proceedings of the 5th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-922602-85-1]
summary Our guiding questions in research are: - how does one orient oneself in an unknown urban space, - are there typical strategies in orientation, which become visible during the search process and finally:- do men and women orientate in the same unknown urban space in the same way or are there hints that they are following different strategies?Our long-term theme in research is to find out the regularity and the rules of the processes of moving and using public spaces. In the first step we are trying to find out in which way the individual perception of urban spaces in moving depends on the design of urban spaces. Therefore in our research design we try to explore the qualities of urban spaces which become visible in moving processes. It is one of the oldest questions of urban design and – by the way – nearly every architect or planner pretends to know everything on this subject. But nobody is yet able to predict real moving or using processes while designing. On the other side: the parameters of the material frame work are well known while moving and using processes are still nearly unknown.
series EAEA
email borg@fh-dortmund.de
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 1df8
authors Fedeski, M. and Sidawi, B.
year 2002
title The Management of Internet Use, in UK Architectural Practices
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 357-364
summary The architectural profession has been slow to adopt new innovations in such areas as buildingtechnology, management, and CAD, as earlier research has shown. The Internet presents a particularchallenge. With even greater changes to the Internet expected in the near future, it is timely to ask howthe profession is adapting.Field research conducted by the author has found shortcomings in the way that architects use Internettechnology in the U.K. These involve the decisions to adopt the Internet, the management of its dailyuse, and forward planning for future adaptation. U.K. architects under-use the services available, andexperience problems with the services they do use. Their resultant dissatisfaction with what the Internetcan offer leads to a reluctance to adopt and use further Internet services.This paper discusses one aspect of that research, which is how architects are managing Internetresources in their practices. It argues that many of the difficulties that architects have are related topractice management. The paper presents these under the headings of the knowledge and attitude ofthe staff, and the decisions made by practice managers. The paper highlights features that needattention from practices and from the architects who guide them.
series ACADIA
email fedeski@cardiff.ac.uk
last changed 2002/11/15 18:20

_id 192eaea2001
id 192eaea2001
authors Kardos, Peter
year 2002
title Perceptual Evaluation of the Spatial Manifestations of Urban Structures
source Environmental Simulation - New Impulses in Planning Processes [Proceedings of the 5th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-922602-85-1]
summary The objective of this contribution is to bring to the attention of the community of experts in the field of architectural simulation the interdependence of the spatial manifestations of material components of urban environments and the phenomena of visual perception and imagination which we practically employ in education, professional design and which we also try to use in our contact with the clients. The way towards finding new qualities of urban environments should be dominated by our efforts to understand and perceive the urban structure as a real space-time manifestation, which is being mediated to the user also as a sensually experienced image (scene). Its atmosphere and informative content give impulses for an individualized reaction from various aspects. The content of the experience is multileveled and the sensorial effects of its iconic components can be precisely verified by means of simulation processes in temporal sequences. Taking these aspects as basis, we are developing methods, which would by taking determined conditions into consideration, broaden the spectrum of research, verification, or evaluation of the real spatial manifestations and interactive actions in situ as well as their possible anticipation and performance in laboratory conditions. Perceptual simulation is, together with the significance of experiencing and evaluating the urban environment in the eye-level horizon, a starting point of spatial model simulation methods as a supportive experimental creative and verification tool. The new information technologies and the creative technical cooperation of analog and digital iconic simulation systems create unconventional possibilities for exact recording of information and impulses for the complicated transformational process engaging more actively the community in their participation. Practice in teaching architectural design has verified
series EAEA
email kardos@fa.stuba.sk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id bff9
authors Proctor, George (Ed.)
year 2002
title ACADIA 2002 [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X / Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, 446 p.
summary The 2002 ACADIA conference finds digital tec_nology ubiquitous as the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture moves into its third decade. The organization of ACADIA is on the threshold of restating its mission. After 20 years, many of the organization’s initial objectives have been achieved. ACADIA members have been instrumental in the development of design software, and in bringing computers and digital technology into architectural practice and design school curriculum. At first, ACADIAns faced the debate over the appropriateness and utility of digital technology in the disciplines of architecture, planning and building science. Today the use of computers and information technology is widely accepted by architects and CAAD and digital technology have brought profound change to design practice. The debate in ACADIA has long since moved from "should we use this technology" to "how", "for what" and "why". Now that many practitioners, learning institutions and professional organizations have taken up the call, ACADIA must restate its mission, if it wishes to remain “distinct”. This does not mean that the work of ACADIA is complete. Much remains to be done and much more needs to be improved. ACADIA’s Mission Statement places particular focus on “education and the software, hardware and pedagogy involved in education.” And “(t)he organization is also committed to the research and development of computer aides that enhance design creativity, and that aim at contributing to the construction of humane physical environments.” These are the areas that continue to evolve, grow and provide for ACADIA’s continued relevance. The ACADIA 2002 conference theme reflects the state of digital technology’s application to the discipline, as much as it refers to ACADIA’s future. With the general acceptance of digital technology and CAAD, we have arrived at a place where the work of great interest and relevance lies in the space between what is digital and what is analog. The environments of real space and cyberspace have in a very short time become so intertwined that the space between real and virtual (not to be confused with reality and fantasy) is becoming indistinguishable. You cannot eat, travel, use public utilities, bank, shop, vacation or recreate without at the very least coming into contact with or passing through information space. The landscape between these two environments has become a cultural phenomenon for those societies with access to the Internet and information networks. And while the computer and World Wide Web have empowered individuals, the collective impact of the technology holds all the potential and problems that similarly emerged in other technology induced landscapes. Consider this last point in the context of ACADIA’s stated mission to “enhance design creativity while contributing to the construction of humane physical environments.” And you can see why many of the 260 initial submissions to this conference were in the area of design artifacts and design methodology, providing evidence that ACADIA’s mission remains relevant and in accord with the trends of research and professional creative activity.
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id ddssar0226
id ddssar0226
authors Segers, N.M.
year 2002
title Towards a Data-Structure that can Handle Ambiguous Information in a Computer-Aided Tool for the Early Phase of Architectural Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary The goal of our research is to develop a computer system that supports an architect in the early phase of the design process. We envision a system that aids in three ways. It helps the architect in maintaining an overview of the development of his or her ideas over time. It shows the current state of the process in a restructured representation. It supports and stimulates the generation of new associations whenever required.The difficulty lies in linking up with the rich information structure of the architect and the various cognitive processes he or she uses to handle this information structure. The consequence is that the system must be able to include all design content, to interpret it, but not to restrict the architect in his or her creativity. Moreover, the system should stimulate creativity.We conducted an experiment to get better insight in what the architect provides as input for the system in the early phase of the design process. Several difficulties have been encountered, which we discuss along with possible solutions for managing the data. The system makes use of user-defined relations and system-defined relations. With these relations we can represent the design content in a comprehensive network that we call the Idea Space. This Idea Space is the basis for above-mentionedfunctionality. In this paper we focus on the (textual) input provided by the architect. In order to get better insight in the ideas and relations made by the architect, in other words the input for the system, we conducted an experiment. Several difficulties were encountered, which we discuss along with possible solutions for managing the data.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/12/16 11:52

_id ddssar0201
id ddssar0201
authors Achten, H.H.
year 2002
title Requirements for Collaborative Design in Architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary The concept of collaborative design has recently come under renewed attention in the field of computer aided architectural design support. Although collaborative design deals with the same aspects of cooperation by various participants in the design process as previously studiedin, for example, concurrent engineering and multi-disciplinary design, it nevertheless puts a different research emphasis. Collaborative design looks at how the process can be improved in such a way that collaboration –working together in a manner to enhance each participants contribution to the design– emerges from the process. In engineering design practice, thismeans a shift forward in the design process where engineers are asked earlier for their input in the design solution. For CAAD research, the phenomenon of collaborative design poses the question how design tools and environments can be made in such a way that collaboration will occur. In this paper, the aims is to describe the concept of collaborative design in architecture, and to give an outline of the perceived requirements in the organisation of design and Computer Aided Design Support to achieve collaborative design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 9c41
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E., Chee W.K., Mai, N., Ken, T.-K. N. and Sharifah Nur, A.S.A. (Eds.)
year 2002
title CAADRIA 2002 [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X / Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, 370 p.
summary Evolution of trends in the realm of computer aided architectural design (CAAD) has seen the convergence of technologies – complementing traditional tools with emerging sciences like Information Technology (IT) and multimedia applications. This appliqué of technologies has not just expanded the scope and enhanced the realm of CAAD research and practice, but is also breaking new frontiers. This creative nexus will be realised at the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research In Asia (CAADRIA 2002) to be held at the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Malaysia, between 18th-20th April, 2002. CAADRIA 2002’s theme, "Redefining Content", seeks to recognise and infuse these emerging components in the field of architecture and design with a holistic approach towards online, digital and interactive systems. The 41 papers compiled were selected through a blind review process conducted by an international review panel. To reflect the multi-disciplinary nature of this year's conference, the chapters are arranged topically to facilitate the in-depth study of key components. The component sessions include: // Web Design, Database and Networks // CAD, Modelling and Tools // Collaborative Design, Creative Design and Case Reasoning // Simulation and Prototyping // Virtual Environment and Knowledge Management // Design Education, Teaching and Learning /// We believe that this specialised approach will provide a deeper and more illuminating feel of the various components and their critical convergence in the field of architecture and design.
series CAADRIA
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
more www.caadria.org
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id ddssar0202
id ddssar0202
authors Akin, Ömer and Özkaya, Ipek
year 2002
title Models of Design Requirement
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Case studies show that significant proportions of design errors and failures are linked to poor requirement specification during both early stages of design and as changes occur. Computational requirements engineering as a front-end to design iterations is a promising area addressing theseproblems. In other design disciplines, such as in software engineering, requirement engineering has given significant product improvements. In this paper, we present a state-space representation of requirement models for architectural design. The purpose of requirement modeling in design is tocreate a process by which requirements can be converted into working design solutions through frontend validation. We suggest three models of requirement specification, co-evolutionary [CoM], multiple domain [MDM] and single domain [SDM] models, that can facilitate this effort. Taken together all three models provide a full set of logical permutations of requirement-solution “worlds” and “operations.” We compare each model against the others in terms of facilitating change management and computability.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id bcf7
authors Arvin, Scott A. and House, Donald H.
year 2002
title Modeling architectural design objectives in physically based space planning
source Automation in Construction 11 (2) (2002) pp. 213-225
summary Physically based space planning is a means for automating the conceptual design process by applying the physics of motion to space plan elements. This methodology provides for a responsive design process, which allows a designer to easily make decisions whose consequences immediately propagate throughout the design. It combines the speed of automated design methods with the flexibility of manual design methods, while adding a highly interactive quality and a sense of collaboration with the design itself. In our approach, the designer creates a space plan by specifying and modifying graphic design objectives rather than by directly manipulating primitive geometry. The plan adapts to the changing state of objectives by applying the physics of motion to its elements. For design objectives to affect a physically based space plan, they need to apply appropriate forces to space plan elements. Space planning can be separated into two problems, determining topological properties and determining geometric properties. Design objectives can then be categorized as topological or geometric objectives. Topological objectives influence the location of individual spaces, affecting how one space relates to another. Geometric objectives influence the size and shape of space boundaries, affecting the dimensions of individual walls. This paper focuses on how to model a variety of design objectives for use in a physically based space planning system. We describe how topological objectives, such as adjacency and orientation can be modeled to apply forces to space locations, and how geometric objectives, such as area, proportion, and alignment, can be modeled to apply forces to boundary edges.
series journal paper
email arvin@viz.tamu.edu
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ecaade03_587_34_asanowicz
id ecaade03_587_34_asanowicz
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 2003
title Architectural Composition in Digital Space
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 587-590
summary In this paper the possibilities of using the computers at course of architectural compositions are considered. As the start point of the new teaching method of architectural composition we used the course of tradition architectural composition, elaborated at our Faculty. The course of Digital Architectural Composition was finished in 2002. The main goal of using the new digital media for modelling architectural forms was checking the new possibilities of form creation. Traditionally, searching of forms at the conceptual design stage is performed by using sketches, drawings and physical models. Our new method showed that is possible to do the same thing using the computerbased 3D modelling, experiencing no physical limitations of the 'real' substance. At the same time, at the early design stages, when formal value is sought, computer modelling can be done almost intuitively. In ours work we try to find a creative way of using computer - transforming the tool into medium. The attention was paid on exploring the possibilities characteristic for computers and not available with traditional methods of modelling. Architect’s tradition tools are effectively replaced by a computer, which create a new way of doing things.
keywords Architectural composition, computer modelling, method of teaching
series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/22 08:51

_id 077a
authors Boucard, D., Huot, S., Colin, Ch., Hégron, G. and Siret, D.
year 2002
title An Image-based and Knowledge-based System for Efficient Architectural and Urban Modeling
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 229-238
summary In this paper, we present two user-centered systems aiming at making easier the modeling ofarchitectural and urban scenes by using two different but complementary approaches. The first oneMArINa, an image-based modeler, allows the user to reconstruct urban scenes from one or moregraphical documents. This method focuses more on reconstructing models and is more dedicated tothe production of 3D sketches. The second modeler, MArCo is a knowledge-based modelercontaining the know-from and know-how on classical architecture. It allows the user to modelclassical architectural scenes verifying automatically all the domain rules. Finally, we show howMArINa and MArCo can cooperate providing the user a tool combining efficiently their respectivecapabilities.
series ACADIA
email Didier.Boucard@emn.fr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 138eaea2001
id 138eaea2001
authors Breen, Jack
year 2002
title A Room with a Different View
source Environmental Simulation - New Impulses in Planning Processes [Proceedings of the 5th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-922602-85-1]
summary This contribution documents the developments, results and findings of an experimental design visualisation and presentation exercise entitled ‘A Different View of Delft’. The primary aim of this project was to make students aware of the potentials of the active utilisation of physical models for the sake of designerly enquiry. Furthermore the ambition was to explore new ways of using such model ‘environments’ for the benefit of design communication and presentation. For this exercise a ‘game’ situation with clear constraints and rules was developed beforehand. The students were to work out a proposal for a new exhibition space, as an annex to a – hypothetical – existing museum. The new space was to create a fitting ‘setting’ for a single work of art: Johannes Vermeer’s famous View of Delft. The maximum contours of the new exhibition space were given, along with clear guidelines concerning which walls and roof segments might be (partly) opened. The emphasis lay on the viewer’s ‘approach’ to the painting, its positioning and ‘framing’ in an architectural context. A designerly search involving form and space, the choice of colours and materials and particularly the strategic use of (natural) lighting.
series EAEA
email J.L.H.Breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ad19
id ad19
authors Calderon, C., and Noble, R
year 2005
title BEYOND MODELLING: AVANT-GARDE COMPUTER TECHNIQUES IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS.
source I Jornadas de Investigacion en Construccion, Madrid, 2-4 June, 2005.
summary If the result of computer innovations can be interpreted as an emerging “difference” in the quality of constructed space, then in order to truly understand what future applications may be regarding architecture at present, we should look at what advanced functions are available in the process of designing forms and space (DeLuca and Nardini, 2002). Recently the so called parametric approach, a technique for describing a large class of designs with a small description in programming code, has become a focus of attention in architectural computing. In this paper, we reflect on the current use of parametric tools using real case studies as well as our own proof of concept parametric programmes and report on how the avant-garde computer techniques may help to increase the quality of residential building.
keywords Building Quality, Parametric Design
series other
type normal paper
email carlos.calderon@ncl.ac.uk
last changed 2005/12/02 10:42

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id c229
authors Cavazos, María Estela Sánchez
year 2002
title Experiencia en Digitalización de Procesos de Diseño Arquitectónico Caso Taller de Modelación Espacial, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes [Experience in Digitalization Processes of Architectural Design: Study Case of Space Modeling, Independent University of Aguascalientes ]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 252-256
summary This project has been based in an experience that took time in the years 1999 and 2000 where a group of 13 students of the Architectonic Design Masters in the U.A.A. were submitted to a project that consisted in register their Architectonic Design Processing during a year with the main purpose of having the most complete material possible to be used as material for different research projects. At the end of the architectonic project the students scanned all the graphics and ordered them in the format that was established by the group using ACDSee32 as the program, which resulted very simple to manage and permitted to order the graphics and write comments to them as it was thought. The result obtained was 12 ordered texts by seven segments pefectly identifi ed and with easy manage for any investigation that you want to realice with them, in fact today exist two fi nished investigations that were realized with this information added to one formal investigation and some informal in process.
series SIGRADI
email mesanche@correo.uaa.mx
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 6440
authors Chang, Y.L., Lee, Y.Z. and Liu, Y.T.
year 2002
title Construction of Digital City in Physical City: Cyberspatial Cognition Approach to the Project of Hsin-Chu Digital City in Taiwan
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 109-116
summary The cyberspace upon physical space forms a new spatial structure to increase the influence on the urban fabric and the concept of space in architecture. Today, digital cities are being developed all over the world. By using a city metaphor, digital cities integrate urban information and create public spaces. How do digital cities directly connect to physical cities and become an imaginable city? Therefore, we argue that a new spatial analysis theory must be established for digital city, comparing with theories of disciplines, to find the explicitly spatial structures and relations in digital city upon physical city.
series CAADRIA
email jecho@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id cf_2003_000
id cf_2003_000
authors Chiu, M.-L., Tsou, J.-Y., Kvan, Th., Morozumi, M. and Jeng, T.-S. (Eds.)
year 2003
title Digital Design - Research and Practice
source Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1 / Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, 464 p.
summary The use of computers in the design of the built environment has reached a watershed. From peripheral devices in the design process, they have in recent years come to take centre stage. An illustration is immediately at hand. Just as the entries to the competition for the Chicago Tribune Tower in 1922 defined the state-of-the-art at the beginning of the twentieth century, we have a similar marker at the end of the century, the competition in 2002 to replace the World Trade Centre towers in Lower Manhattan offered us a range of architectural solutions that exemplified the state-of-the-art eighty years later, setting forth not only architectural statements but also illustrating clearly the importance of computers in the design of the built environment. In these entries of 2002, we can see that computers have not only become essential to the communication of design but in the investigation and generation of structure, form and composition. The papers in this book are the current state-of-the-art in computer-aided design as it stands in 2003. It is the tenth in a series sponsored by the CAAD Futures Foundation, compiled from papers presented at the biennial CAAD Futures Conferences. As a series, the publications have charted the steady progress in developing the theoretical and practical foundations for applications in design practice. This volume continues in that tradition; thus, this book is entitled Digital Design: Research and Practice. The papers are grouped into three major categories, reflecting thrusts of research and practice, namely: Data and information: its organisation, handling and access, including agents; Virtual worlds: their creation, application and interfaces; and Analysis and creation of form and fabric. The editors received 121 abstracts after the initial call for contributions. From these, 61 abstracts were selected for development into complete papers for further review. From these submissions, 39 papers were chosen for inclusion in this publication. These papers show that the field has evolved from theoretical and development concerns to questions of practice in the decade during which this conference has showcased leading work. Questions of theoretical nature remain as the boundaries of our field expand. As design projects have grasped the potentials of computer-aided design, so have they challenged the capabilities of the tools. Papers here address questions in geometric representation and manipulation (Chiu and Chiu; Kocaturk, Veltkamp and Tuncer), topics that may have been considered to be solved. As design practice becomes increasingly knowledge based, better ways of managing, manipulating and accessing the complex wealth of design information becomes more pressing, demanding continuing research in issues such as modelling (Yang; Wang; Zreik et al), data retrieval and querying (Hwang and Choi; Stouffs and Cumming; Zreik, Stouffs, Tuncer, Ozsariyildiz and Beheshti), new modes of perceiving data (Segers; Tan). Tools are needed to manage, mine and create information for creative work, such as agents (Liew and Gero; Smith; Caneparo and Robiglio; Ding et al) or to support design processes (Smith; Chase). Systems for the support and development of designs continue (Gero; Achten and Jessurun). As progress is made on some fronts, such as user interfaces, attention is again turned to previously research areas such as lighting (Jung, Gross and Do; Ng et al; Wittkopf; Chevier; Glaser, Do and Tai) or services (Garcia; Chen and Lin). In recent years the growth of connectivity has led to a rapid growth in collaborative experience and understanding of the opportunities and issues continues to mature (Jabi; Dave; Zamenopoulos and Alexiou). Increasing interest is given to implications in practice and education (Dave; Oxman; Caneparo, Grassi and Giretti). Topics new to this conference are in the area of design to production or manufacture (Fischer, Burry and Frazer; Shih). Three additional invited papers (Rekimoto; Liu; Kalay) provide clear indication that there is still room to develop new spatial concepts and computer augmented environments for design. In conclusion, we note that these papers represent a good record of the current state of the evolving research in the field of digital design.
series CAAD Futures
email mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
more http://www.caadfutures.arch.tue.nl/
last changed 2003/09/22 10:21

_id aef5
authors De Paoli, Giovanni and Léglise, Michel
year 2002
title Architectural Design Education and Digital Technologies: Toward a Multinational Research Observatory
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 56-63
summary New visions that do not confine the computer to strictly technical and representation functions have appeared in schools of architecture over the past few years. The use of new information and communication technologies (NICT), in the field of design education in particular, have allowed the creation of innovative teaching tools and teaching configurations that are operational in certain European and North American schools. Unfortunately, the comparison of experiences is rare, and it would be beneficial to facilitate educational exchanges on a scientific basis. It is clear, now, that the general use of NICT will have to promote educational programs that are evaluated scientifically, that are “efficient” and that are occasionally multinational, even if the cultural differences make the task difficult. These considerations have lead us to the proposal of recommendations for the creation of a multinational observatory for the teaching of design that could benefit from the presence of researchers from European countries and from North America already implicated in activities in our laboratories. This observatory is conceived as a depository of pedagogical works serving as observation material destined for scientific research. As such, it would act as an observation site for research in didactics of design. It would allow for a new understanding of the opportunities and limitations derived from the emerging globalisation of distributed design education and offer new challenges for architectural schools. This article describes the beginnings of this observation system and underscores its potential to produce results in the future.
series eCAADe
email michel.leglise@toulouse.archi.fr
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

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