CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 505

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 54b0
authors Duarte, J.P., Heitor, M. and Mitchell, W.J.
year 2002
title The Glass Chair - Competence Building for Innovation
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 180-185
summary This paper tells the strange tale of a glass chair. Creating a glass chair might seem a perverse – maybe impossible – enterprise. After all, chairs are normally held together by moment connections, such as those joining the legs to the seat. Glass is a notoriously bad material for forming moment connections; it is brittle, and quickly snaps if you subject it to bending. But there are advantages to such startling formulations of design problems. They force you to challenge conventional wisdom, to ignore standard prototypes, and to ask interesting new questions. How might you design a chair without moment connections? How might you do so without making the result impossibly heavy? How would you built it? And what interesting qualities might such a chair have? These were questions investigated in the design project pursued jointly by students at an American and a Portuguese school, in collaboration with glass and molding fabricators. The students explored many possibilities, and in doing so learned a great deal about chairs and about the properties and potentials of glass. The final project is a particularly elegant outcome of their investigations. It is created from just two curved pieces of glass, which held together by metal tie-rods. In the end, the finished glass chair looked just like the initial computer visualizations.
series eCAADe
email jduarte@civil.ist.utl.pt
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 1083
authors Wu, Rui
year 2002
title Computer Aided Dimensional Control in Building Construction
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary Dimensional control in the building industry can be defined as the operational techniques and activities that are necessary, during the construction process of a building, for the assurance of the defined dimension quality of a building (Hoof, 1986). Efficient and precise dimensional control of buildings under construction is becoming ever more important because of changes in the construction industry. More prefabricated components are used; more regulations appear; newly designed buildings have more complex shapes, and building construction is speeding up. To ensure the predefined dimensional quality, a plan of dimensional control must be designed, on the basis of building drawings and specifications delivered by architects, before the building is constructed. The dimensional control plan must provide site personnel with adequate information on, among others, setting out and assembling building components, which can often be done by means of Total Stations. The essence of designing a dimensional control plan is to find out which points should be used as positioning points, which points should be set out in advance or controlled afterwards, and not to forget why. In an effort to contribute to the improvement of the dimensional control of on-site construction projects, this research tries to capture the knowledge required to design an adequate dimensional control plan and make that knowledge more generally available, and build a digital connection between CAD systems and Total Stations, focusing on prefabricated concrete building structural elements. The instrument developed in this research for capturing of essential dimensional control information and knowledge makes use of Product Data Technology (PDT) and Knowledge Technology (KT). The chosen solution supports the stochastic analysis of optimal positioning points taking account of various sorts of deviations and their mutual relationships. The resulting information model has been written in a standardized information modelling language called UML (Unified Modelling Language). The model has been implemented in a Dimensional Control System (DCS) and applied in the “La Tour” construction project in Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. The DCS provides a digital way to bridge the floor plan design with dimensional control, predict dimensional deviation limits and output the data needed for a Total Station. The case study of “La Tour” tests the UML model and prototype of the DCS. The results prove that direct positioning of objects (by putting reflectors on the objects and using a Total Station and by inputting coordinates extracted and calculated from the AutoCAD drawings) provides higher speed, accuracy and reliability. It also shows a way to (pre)position free form objects in 3D where traditional methods cannot. In conclusion: (1) it seems to be justified to expect that the application of the DCS will contribute to increased confidence in dimensional control and the reduction of costs of failure, which potentially could support the increased use of cheaper construction methods, and will also contribute to the improvement of building design and construction process. (2) the scientific contribution of this research is a first step towards providing dimensional quality in a construction process covered by stochastic dimensional uncertainty, even for positioning of free form objects.
keywords Construction Management; Constructional Engineering; Computer Applications
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ddssar0210
id ddssar0210
authors Friedl, G., Trum, H.M.G.J. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 2002
title An Innovative Model of the Building Development ProcessDesign as a Process of Crystallisation
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In the past, models describing the development of artefacts, including buildings, usually were of a linear nature thereby suggesting a sequential path from conception of the artefact to its completion. This has consequences for the sequence of activities in the design and programming phase. However, designing is basically a thinking activity and is as such not bound to the same laws as e.g. the construction process. This must have repercussions for the way the design process is designed andmanaged. The proposed conceptual model of the artefact development process – in this case a building design process – is a kind of framework which is more in accordance with the nature of thinkingactivities. It should stimulate a non-sequential process. The development of a solution to a design problem thus should become a responsive search process driven by insights and creative leaps but guided by the framework the model provides. Furthermore, the model is meant to support the exploration and clarification of the problem as well as to extend the solution space by various means such as the development of scenarios and strategic values as a basis for the realisation of the building project’s goals. This model is an essential element in the development of an innovative approach towards the process design of the building design process. The creation of a building (conception, design and development) is not considered a sequential process but a process of crystallisation with the potential of developing in all directions, thus growing from a conceptual centre outwards.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar0229
id ddssar0229
authors De Vries, B., Jessurun, A.J. and J. Dijkstra, J.
year 2002
title Conformance Checking by Capturing and Simulating Human Behaviour in the Built Environment
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In order to model natural human behaviour, it is necessary to capture this behaviour. First, we will start out by modelling behaviour for specific situations, such as taking a seat in a theatre. To capture humanbehaviour, the following experiment is performed: Given a virtual environment, a sufficient number of subjects (real humans) are asked to execute a human task in this virtual environment (e.g. take a seat inthe theatre). Whenever the subject deviates from the shortest path, the system will ask for a clue why this is done. The hypothesis is that the combination of the motion paths and the clues for making/changing decisions will provide decision rules to make reliable predictions about human behaviour under the same conditions when using virtual persons. To test the hypothesis, we propose to use the university’s main conference and presentation hall as a test case. A 3D model and a motion pathgraph are constructed that enables a virtual person to find its way to a selected chair. The clues from the experiment are implemented as decision rules that determine a virtual person’s behaviour. Running thesimulation will result in the following data: Time per person to find a chair, Deviation from the shortest path, Distance covered per person to find a chair, Distribution of seated persons over time and Relocation of persons. To validate the test case, the process of people entering the hall and finding a chair is recorded on videotape. The walking behaviour of the people observed on the video is analysed and compared with the data from the simulation.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup0211
id ddssup0211
authors Lolonis, P., Rokos, D. and Maragou, M.
year 2002
title Use of Cadastral Data for the Development of Spatial Decision Support Systemsfor Coping with the Consequences of Natural Disasters
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary This paper investigates the potential usefulness of cadastral data to form the core part of databases of Spatial Decision Support Systems [SDSS] that are capable to support decision-makers in dealing with emergency situations, such as earthquakes, floods and fires. Particular emphasis is given on how those data can be used to generate information that is necessary to planners and decision-makers when they cope with natural disasters at every stage of the development of the disaster: before the occurrence (planning and preventive measures), immediately after occurrence (short term measures), and well-after occurrence (medium and long term measures). This investigation is conducted using the Municipality of Magoula, Attica, Greece, as a case study area. This municipality is situated in the greater Athens area and was struck by the earthquake that occurred there in September 1999. Within the scope of the project, wehave used cadastral data about the study area and data recorded by the inspection teams in order to set-up a prototype SDSS database that could facilitate planning and decision-making in such a situation. Then, we have used that prototype to generate scenarios and information about typical tasks that are performed during emergency situations. The advantages that are realized from the integration of such data and information technologies are described and assessed, particularly, in comparison with the traditional approaches that are used in such situations.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id caadria2003_b2-1
id caadria2003_b2-1
authors Rafi, Ahmad M.E.
year 2003
title i-putra.com: a Digital Soft City of Putrajaya
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 225-236
summary This paper presents our experiment and development of i.Putra.com - a digital soft city of Malaysia's new administrative Capital Putrajaya. This project is funded by Putrajaya Holdings Sdn. Bhd. Malaysia and was originally developed by the Multimedia University before finally executed by I-Design Sdn. Bhd. It is designed to be an interactive channel for the civic and urban activities that parallel, enhance, compliment, and sometimes 'compete' with physical Putrajaya. Putrajaya's goal is to be the administrative capital for the governance of cyber communities where digital bits rather than physical assets are the primary scarce resource (Putrajaya Holdings, 2002). The guiding principle for i.Putra.com is content, context, community and commerce in which they will be integrated with the city information such as residential, commercial, service and public areas. As the city is being built, i.Putra.com will expand to provide an interactive channel for those who live in, work in, or visit Putrajaya.
series CAADRIA
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id 4219
authors Wang, Shengwei and Wang, Jin-Bo
year 2002
title Automatic sensor evaluation in BMS commissioning of building refrigeration systems
source Automation in Construction 11 (1) (2002) pp. 59-73
summary A strategy and software is developed to automatically diagnose and evaluate the Building Management Systems (BMS) sensors of building refrigeration systems during commissioning or periodical check (recommissioning). The strategy is based on the first law of thermodynamics (i.e., heat and mass balance of water networks). The strategy evaluates soft sensor faults (biases) by examining and minimizing the weighted sum of the squares of the concerned mass and/or steady state energy balance residuals represented by the corrected measurements over a period, on the basis of the measurements downloaded from BMS. A Genetic Algorithm is employed to determine the global minimal solution to the multimodal objective function, which can be difficult to achieve by traditional gradient-directed search methods. The sensor bias estimates, the confidence intervals of bias estimates and the comparisons of the balance residuals before and after the correction are generated by the software to provide a convenient and reliable means for the engineers to check and diagnose the measurement devices of BMS. The strategy, the software configuration and examples of application are presented in this paper.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 2acf
authors Gero, John
year 2002
title Situated Computing: A New Paradigm for Design Computing
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, p. 1
summary Computer usage in design has largely been in the areas of document production, 3D modelling and to a lesser extent in specialised design analysis and design synthesis tasks. This use of computers by designers has been based on well-defined practices that have their genesis in the scientific approach to knowledge. Just as knowledge is independent of its use and independent of its user, so computer programs are designed to be independent of their use and independent of their users. This talk presents a complementary paradigm based on the notions of situated cognition as the basis of the development of new kinds of computational design tools.Situated cognition holds that where are you and when you are there matters and that the state you are in affects what you do. The fundamental difference is between encoding all knowledge prior to its use to allowing the knowledge to be grounded in the interaction between the computational system and its environment. In addition to the concepts of situated cognition there is another important concept called constructive memory. Constructive memory changes our view of “memory” in acomputational system from being a thing in a place that can be accessed with the correct index to being a process that produces a “memory” when needed. Thus, memory is constructed as needed and becomes a function of both the question it is used to respond to and the situation within which it was asked. These concepts provide the foundation for the developmentof novel tools to support computer-aided designing. Examples of situated cognition and constructive memory will be presented. This will be followed by examples of situated design analysis and situated computational design creativity.
series SIGRADI
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id bff9
authors Proctor, George (Ed.)
year 2002
title ACADIA 2002 [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X / Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, 446 p.
summary The 2002 ACADIA conference finds digital tec_nology ubiquitous as the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture moves into its third decade. The organization of ACADIA is on the threshold of restating its mission. After 20 years, many of the organization’s initial objectives have been achieved. ACADIA members have been instrumental in the development of design software, and in bringing computers and digital technology into architectural practice and design school curriculum. At first, ACADIAns faced the debate over the appropriateness and utility of digital technology in the disciplines of architecture, planning and building science. Today the use of computers and information technology is widely accepted by architects and CAAD and digital technology have brought profound change to design practice. The debate in ACADIA has long since moved from "should we use this technology" to "how", "for what" and "why". Now that many practitioners, learning institutions and professional organizations have taken up the call, ACADIA must restate its mission, if it wishes to remain “distinct”. This does not mean that the work of ACADIA is complete. Much remains to be done and much more needs to be improved. ACADIA’s Mission Statement places particular focus on “education and the software, hardware and pedagogy involved in education.” And “(t)he organization is also committed to the research and development of computer aides that enhance design creativity, and that aim at contributing to the construction of humane physical environments.” These are the areas that continue to evolve, grow and provide for ACADIA’s continued relevance. The ACADIA 2002 conference theme reflects the state of digital technology’s application to the discipline, as much as it refers to ACADIA’s future. With the general acceptance of digital technology and CAAD, we have arrived at a place where the work of great interest and relevance lies in the space between what is digital and what is analog. The environments of real space and cyberspace have in a very short time become so intertwined that the space between real and virtual (not to be confused with reality and fantasy) is becoming indistinguishable. You cannot eat, travel, use public utilities, bank, shop, vacation or recreate without at the very least coming into contact with or passing through information space. The landscape between these two environments has become a cultural phenomenon for those societies with access to the Internet and information networks. And while the computer and World Wide Web have empowered individuals, the collective impact of the technology holds all the potential and problems that similarly emerged in other technology induced landscapes. Consider this last point in the context of ACADIA’s stated mission to “enhance design creativity while contributing to the construction of humane physical environments.” And you can see why many of the 260 initial submissions to this conference were in the area of design artifacts and design methodology, providing evidence that ACADIA’s mission remains relevant and in accord with the trends of research and professional creative activity.
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 82ac
authors Caldas, Luisa Gama and Norford, Leslie K.
year 2002
title A design optimization tool based on a genetic algorithm
source Automation in Construction 11 (2) (2002) pp. 173-184
summary Much interest has been recently devoted to generative processes in design. Advances in computational tools for design applications, coupled with techniques from the field of artificial intelligence, have lead to new possibilities in the way computers can inform and actively interact with the design process. In this paper, we use the concepts of generative and goal-oriented design to propose a computer tool that can help the designer to generate and evaluate certain aspects of a solution towards an optimized behavior of the final configuration. This work focuses mostly on those aspects related to the environmental performance of buildings. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are applied as a generative and search procedure to look for optimized design solutions in terms of thermal and lighting performance in a building. The GA is first used to generate possible design solutions, which are then evaluated in terms of lighting and thermal behavior using a detailed thermal analysis program (DOE2.1E). The results from the simulations are subsequently used to further guide the GA search towards finding low-energy solutions to the problem under study. Solutions can be visualized using an AutoLisp routine. The specific problem addressed in this study is the placing and sizing of windows in an office building. The same method is applicable to a wide range of design problems like the choice of construction materials, design of shading elements, or sizing of lighting and mechanical systems for buildings.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id c839
authors Hwang, Jie-Eun
year 2002
title SpaceScope: Developing a Spatial Information Retrieval System - Focused on Apartment Unit Floor Plans -
source Yonsei University, Dept. of Housing & Interior Design
summary This research investigates the spatial information retrieval (IR) in architecture focused on constructing efficient metadata that is crucial for data retrieval. Generally speaking, metadata is ‘structured data about data’ to describe resources especially in a digital format. In this research, metadata is a sort of data object to be useful in searching spatial information. Metadata is also used to describe raw spatial data object as not only attribute data but also content structurally and semantic ally. There are two issues that motivate this research; 1) what is the spatial information – that materializes the intangible space as a data object, and 2) how we can search the information efficiently – the content-based information retrieval. Although knowledge of a building’s spatial content is most important in architecture, there has been no logical method to manage it.

From the viewpoint of content-based retrieval, the researcher analyzes spatial information of a floor plan, with a focus on the apartment unit floor plan common in Korea. Then the metadata items are extracted in a structured manner. To manage the items efficiently, the researcher develops a data model for spatial information according to the concept of the “Structured Floor Plan”. The main object of content to retrieve is a spatial network that consists of nodes of spaces and their linkages. There are two ways to organize the metadata: the traditional index files and the RDF (Resource Description Framework). While the index files are still efficient with computability, the RDF applies greater options to retrieve, such as fuzzy predicates, semantic predicates, and so on. To exploit the metadata, this research shows several possibilities of query operations that present a set of sample queries about L-DK(Living room – Dining room – Kitchen). Implementation of the prototype system is divided into three parts: 1) a modeling module using Vitruvius; 2) an indexing module using MS SQL Server? 2000 in conjunction XML; and 3) a browsing module using the SpaceScope browser.

The future works may consider XML-based databases and a knowledge based query language, such as RQL/XQL, working on such databases. The more specific domain knowledge is involved, the more practical systems would be. Even in architecture, there may be a diverse range of domain knowledge, such as design, building performance, facility management, energy management, post occupied evaluation, historical research, and so on. Also the issue of interface should be investigated in depth, so that it will be adequate to the needs of the architectural field.

keywords Content-based Information Retrieval; Metadata; RDF; XML; Spatial Information; Apartment Floor Plan; Semantics
series thesis:MSc
email curiozen@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2003/04/25 05:27

_id 12d9
authors Anumba, C.J., Ugwu, O.O., Newnham, L. and Thorpe, A.
year 2002
title Collaborative design of structures using intelligent agents
source Automation in Construction 11 (1) (2002) pp. 89-103
summary The construction industry has a long tradition of collaborative working between the members of a construction project team. At the design stage, this has traditionally been based on physical meetings between representatives of the principal design disciplines. To aid these meetings, the information and communications technologies that are currently available have been utilised. These have yielded some success but are hampered by the problems posed by the use of heterogeneous software tools and the lack of effective collaboration tools that are necessary to collapse the time and distance constraints, within which increasingly global design teams work. In particular, there are very few tools available to support distributed asynchronous collaboration. Distributed artificial intelligence, which is commonly implemented in the form of intelligent agents, offers considerable potential for the development of such tools. This paper examines some of the issues associated with the use of distributed artificial intelligence systems within the construction industry. It describes the potential for the use of agent technology in collaborative design and then goes on to present the key features of an agent-based system for the collaborative design of portal frame structures. An example is presented to demonstrate the working and benefits of the prototype system, which makes a significant contribution by allowing for peer to peer negotiation between the design agents.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 060b
authors Af Klercker, J.
year 1997
title A National Strategy for CAAD and IT-Implementation in the Construction Industry the Construction Industry
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The objective of this paper is to present a strategy for implementation of CAD and IT in the construction and building management#1 industry in Sweden. The interest is in how to make the best use of the limited resources in a small country or region, cooperating internationally and at the same time avoiding to be totally dominated by the great international actors in the market of information technology.

In Sweden representatives from the construction and building management industry have put forward a research and development program called: "IT-Bygg#2 2002 - Implementation". It aims at making IT the vehicle for decreasing the building costs and at the same time getting better quality and efficiency out of the industry.

The presented strategy is based on a seminar with some of the most experienced researchers, developers and practitioners of CAD in Sweden. The activities were recorded and annotated, analyzed and put together afterwards.

The proposal in brief is that object oriented distributed CAD is to be used in the long perspective. It will need to be based on international standards such as STEP and it will take at least another 5 years to get established.

Meanwhile something temporary has to be used. Pragmatically a "de facto standard" on formats has to be accepted and implemented. To support new users of IT all software in use in the country will be analyzed, described and published for a national platform for IT-communication within the construction industry.

Finally the question is discussed "How can architect schools then contribute to IT being implemented within the housing sector at a regional or national level?" Some ideas are presented: Creating the good example, better support for the customer, sharing the holistic concept of the project with all actors, taking part in an integrated education process and international collaboration like AVOCAAD and ECAADE.

 

keywords CAAD, IT, Implementation, Education, Collaboration
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/afklerck/afklerck.htm
last changed 2007/01/21 13:05

_id ddssar0214
id ddssar0214
authors Al Hassan, F., Trum, H.M.G.J. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 2002
title Strategic Briefing A Conceptual Process Model for Building Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Nowadays building design problems are divided in partial discipline related sub-problems. Through targeted and focused attention to sub problems however the awareness of the whole is lost. Each designparticipant gives his sub-problem first priority. In contrast in the past the master builder saw the whole problem as his problem first. Thus the process of seeing the design problem as a whole, as a result ofprioritizing, considering constraints, or strategizing, is lost in today’s practice, basically because this process is a mental and implicit process, that occurred in the brain of the multi-disciplinary master builder.In most cases it is the task of no one in a design team today. The aim of this paper is modeling this conceptual mental implicit process design using System Theory and Cognitive Psychology, trying to determine the structure of the design problem as it occurs intuitively in the brain. The result will provide us with a mechanism that enables us each time to refine a unique common design problem representation. This leads to more effective use of design team capabilities, and forms an essential basis for organizing efforts toward collaborative solutions. Also some kind of clarity is provided as to how proposed solutions are to be judged.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ddssar0203
id ddssar0203
authors Alkass, Sabah and Jrade, Ahmad
year 2002
title A Web-Based Virtual Reality Model for Preliminary Estimates of Hi-Rise Building Projects
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Cost estimating of a construction project at its early stage is considered to be very important task since it will be used as a base to commit or otherwise not to commit funds to that project. Preparation of a reliableand realistic preliminary estimate to aid the decision makers to commit funds for a specific project is a complicated assignment. Traditional methods and operations produced unsatisfactory aid due to lack ofaccuracy especially in the pre-design stage of a project. This participates in the increase of percentage of bankruptcy in the construction industry, which has dramatically climbed up and ranked as 15 percent of thewhole bankruptcies claimed in Canada (Statistic Canada 1998). This paper presents a methodology for developing and a Web-based model to automate preliminary cost estimates for hi-rise buildings. This is achieved by integrating a database with design drawings in a Virtual Reality (VR) environment. The model will automatically generate preliminary estimates after modifying a 3D CAD drawing. It provides the user the option to visualize and simulate the drawing and its cost data through VR environment. Having done that, it will allow owners, architects and cost engineers to view a constructed building project, change its geometric objects and shapes, and accordingly generate a new conceptual cost estimate.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id 1804
authors Chitchian, D. and Bekkering, H.
year 2002
title An Urbanistic Design Tool
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 339-344
summary The existing CAD and CAAD programs and design applications hardly support the urbanistic designactivities. Although those applications are useful means to be utilized generally in design tasks, they arenot suitable tools as urbanism community needs. Most existing CAD programs are based on thearchitectural design process and therefore not suitable for urbanistic design. The conceptual differencebetween architecture and urbanism necessitates developing new CAD software based on the urbanisticdesign process. We believe that our developed Urban-CAD system assists designers with urbanisticdesign activities and overcomes the limitations of the already existing CAD applications.
series ACADIA
email d.chitchian@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

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