CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 508

_id ddssar0205
id ddssar0205
authors Batara, A., Dave, B. and Bishop, I.
year 2002
title Design Decision Support through Translation between Multiple Representations of Spatial Data
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Urban planning and urban design involve collaboration of diverse participants with multiple agendas and multiple criteria. The participants typically use multiple representations of spatial data to derive inferences and insights about the planning problems, leading to a shared decision-making process. To support such multidisciplinary work, this paper proposes a new computational approach and technique for translation between multiple representations of spatial data. This approach is designed to supportdesign decision-making in the interrelated interests of design participants. Prototype implementation and evaluation are conducted to test and validate the proposals.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ddssup0213
id ddssup0213
authors Osaragi, Toshihiro
year 2002
title Classification Methods for Spatial Data Representation
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In the process of representing quantitative spatial data on a map, it is necessary to classify attribute values into some class divisions. When a number of classes are employed, the characteristics of spatial distribution of original data can be expressed faithfully. However, its legends might become rather complicated and the delicate color differences in the represented map would be difficult to distinguish. On the other hand, when employing a few classes, the information such as small vibrating factors or local peaks might be ignored; namely, much information of original data will be lost. Hence, we should discuss how many classes are necessary to represent spatial data. Furthermore, even if the same spatial data are represented using the same number of classes, we might obtain the quite different maps according to the choice of classification methods incorporated in existing geographic information systems. Namely, the characteristics of the original data might be overlooked, or there might be a risk of mistaking judgment, if we do not have enough knowledge about classification methods as well as the nature of original data. Hence, we should also discuss how the boundary value between each class should be set. In this paper, a new classification method using an evaluation function based on Akaike’s Information Criterion is proposed, and is applied to actual spatial data. Next, based on the consideration about its result, another classification method minimizing information loss of original data is proposed. Furthermore, numerical examples of its applications are achieved through the comparison with existing classification methods.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup0215
id ddssup0215
authors Ruiz, M., Fornés, A., Ramon, J., Alorda, J. Goula, M. and Pié, R.
year 2002
title GIS Tools for Landscape Impact Assessment
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary This paper present the main results obtained by the development of the Artemis Project ”Design and Evaluation of Residential Patterns in the Mediterranan Region appropiate to sustainable development of environmentally deteriorated rural areas” 4th European Framework Program. Call ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE . ENV4-CT97-0656.) As results of the project an Integrated Landscape Assessment Model (AIAM) was created. AIAM is a resource modelling system focusing on the generation of a decision support system application oriented to provide criteria in order to evaluate effects and to optimise location of low density residential settlements. The Model includes a Landscape multicriteria analysis merged with spatial analysis tools set in a GIS Environment. The A.I.A.M. provides data structures, user interface components, and output mechanism witch allows the user to apply the knowledge acquired for Artemis Project. One of the main goals of the A.I.A.M is to give a landscape view of the territory including variables that are usually not considered in planning and environmental impact assessment processes. Also the models gives a sustainable support both to planner and designers projects. A.I.A.M. gives the data structure to define a residential patterns, the parameters through which a pattern is adequately described. This pattern definition allows comparison between the one’s of the reference area and so, extract conclusions about divergence between them.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id ddssar0209
id ddssar0209
authors Datta, Sambit
year 2002
title Managing Design Knowledge with Mixed-Initiative Dialogue
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary This paper is based on ongoing work in developing interactive interfaces to formal methods for encoding design knowledge. It reports on the development of a shared graphical notation to support user interaction with design knowledge based on mixed-initiative. Mixed-initiativeprovides a model of interaction where both the designer and the knowledge formalism may share responsibility over decisions. The paper discusses how a formal visual notation can support the mixed-initiative mode for developing and managing formal design knowledge. The notation addresses on the dialogue problem between the user and a knowledge basedformalism and illustrates a model of interaction in which the user and the formalism can share and input data through a common shared resource, on a common shared task. The paper demonstrates the use of this notation in common decision tasks and the implications for seamless interaction with design support systems.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup0205
id ddssup0205
authors Deguchi, A., Tabira, Y., Matsuura, H., Nakano, H. and Arima, T.
year 2002
title Integration System of Archaeological and Geographical Informationfor Planning in Historical Regions
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary This study aims to construct the GIS for supporting the planning process and archaeological analysis in the historical regions by integrating geographical data and archaeological data on the sites with ruinsand remains in various period from ancient through medieval which had been buried and was recently excavated in geologic layers and mounds. First, for understanding the trends of environmental condition the excavated sites, we analyze the relationship between the site location and the condition ofgeography and natural environment by using the constructed system.Secondary, we develop the system to make it possible to browse and operate the information on the GIS through the internet. This web GIS constructed by us supports sharing the information on planning for preservation of historical sites among city planners, archaeologists and citizens, and serve as a tool for the collaboration and the coordination of urban development and historical preservation. Finally, as the application with the GIS, we show the results of case studies and point out the merits and effects about usage of the GIS for archaeological analysis as well as learning the local history.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id koshak_phd_dissertation
id koshak_phd_dissertation
authors Koshak, N.
year 2002
title OBJECT-ORIENTED DATA MODELING AND WAREHOUSING TO SUPPORT URBAN DESIGN
source Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University
summary All over the world, local authorities are moving towards managing and storing urban data in digital form. But the data storage devices used are heterogeneous and typically include relational database management systems (DBMS), GIS and CAD files. As a result, data are present in different locations on different platforms and under different schemas. This poses a problem for software applications meant to support decision-making in urban design that require input from more than one data source. This dissertation demonstrates how data warehousing—combined with object-oriented data modeling—is able to provide a general solution for this problem. Data warehousing is a technique initially developed for business applications, but is equally useful for urban design: The data warehouse constitutes a communication layer between the urban design applications and data sources. It makes the data available through a unified interface that hides the sources themselves and represents that data in terms of a general-purpose, preferably object-oriented, model. The dissertation also describes an implementation prototype of the data model and the data warehouse. The test case of this research is the city of Makkah in Saudi Arabia, which faces significant urban design and planning issues in connection with the pilgrimage (Hajj) that brings millions of visitors to the city every year.
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email n@cad-gis.com
last changed 2005/09/09 11:10

_id ddssup0209
id ddssup0209
authors Koshak, Nabeel and Flemming, Ulrich
year 2002
title Object-Oriented Data Modeling and Warehousing to Support Urban Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary All over the world, local authorities are moving towards managing and storing urban data in digital form. But the data storage devices used are heterogeneous and typically include relational database managementsystems (DBMS), GIS and CAD files. As a result, data are present in different locations on different platforms and under different schemas. This poses a problem for software applications meant to supportdecision-making in urban design that require input from more than one data source. We demonstrate in our paper how data warehousing—combined with object-oriented data modeling—is able to provide a general solution for this problem. Data warehousing is a technique initially developed for businessapplications, but is equally useful for urban design: The data warehouse constitutes a communication layer between the urban design applications and data sources. It makes the data available through a unified interface that hides the sources themselves and represents that data in terms of a general-purpose, preferably object-oriented, model. We also describe an implementation prototype that supports different applications. The City of Makkah in Saudi Arabia provides us with real-world data and a context to test our prototype.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup0210
id ddssup0210
authors Krempi, A.P., Brondino, N.C.M. and Silva, A.N.R.
year 2002
title Evaluating Transportation Accessibility with Spatial Statistics Toolsin a GIS Environment
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In several developing countries it is often assumed that low-income segments of the population living at the periphery of the cities are those affected the most by poor conditions of transportation accessibility. Inorder to gain a better understanding of the way transportation accessibility is distributed across different regions of an urban area, the main aim of this work is to analyze, making use of Spatial Statistics tools ina GIS (Geographical Information System) environment, the relationship between accessibility and geographical locations in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Data of an origin-destination (O-D) survey carried out in the city of Bauru, which brings information about four different transportation modes, were used in this study. Such data, grouped following the census tracts, were carefully examined in a Geographic Information System in order to look for spatial patterns of accessibility that are not visible inthe traditional approaches. One of the interesting outcomes of the application was the identification of regions with particular dynamics, which go against the pattern found in the overall urban area. This andother results of the case study clearly indicate that Spatial Statistics analyses in a GIS environment create a powerful tool to extend conventional transportation accessibility analysis.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar0227
id ddssar0227
authors Tomlinson, James D. and Holmes, Michael V.
year 2002
title Digital Representational Tools Impact on the Design Decision Process
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary This paper presents two pilot studies that explore the impact of virtual reality representations on the evaluative judgements of trained designers and design students. These projects are intended to explore several aspects of spatial perception as impacted by the representational media in an attempt to identify the potential impact of this media on the development of design solutions. The participants were exposed todifferent representational media and modes of representation or simulation: traditional “physical media” (plan, elevations, and model), physical place and projected computer generated media including flat screen animation and hemispherical corrected animation for display on the VisionDome. The 4-meter VisionDome is an immersive, multi-user, single projection virtual reality environment. The results of theseefforts potentially indicate that when trained designers view a simulation of a space their perception of the space is, to some degree, affected by the representational media. The walk-through mode emphasized theperceptual differences between traditional and computer generated representations. A low level of detail in a computer-generated “walk-through” simulation provides perceptual elements, which allow the viewer todevelop an understanding of the spatial relationships of the design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar0202
id ddssar0202
authors Akin, Ömer and Özkaya, Ipek
year 2002
title Models of Design Requirement
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Case studies show that significant proportions of design errors and failures are linked to poor requirement specification during both early stages of design and as changes occur. Computational requirements engineering as a front-end to design iterations is a promising area addressing theseproblems. In other design disciplines, such as in software engineering, requirement engineering has given significant product improvements. In this paper, we present a state-space representation of requirement models for architectural design. The purpose of requirement modeling in design is tocreate a process by which requirements can be converted into working design solutions through frontend validation. We suggest three models of requirement specification, co-evolutionary [CoM], multiple domain [MDM] and single domain [SDM] models, that can facilitate this effort. Taken together all three models provide a full set of logical permutations of requirement-solution “worlds” and “operations.” We compare each model against the others in terms of facilitating change management and computability.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ddssar0203
id ddssar0203
authors Alkass, Sabah and Jrade, Ahmad
year 2002
title A Web-Based Virtual Reality Model for Preliminary Estimates of Hi-Rise Building Projects
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Cost estimating of a construction project at its early stage is considered to be very important task since it will be used as a base to commit or otherwise not to commit funds to that project. Preparation of a reliableand realistic preliminary estimate to aid the decision makers to commit funds for a specific project is a complicated assignment. Traditional methods and operations produced unsatisfactory aid due to lack ofaccuracy especially in the pre-design stage of a project. This participates in the increase of percentage of bankruptcy in the construction industry, which has dramatically climbed up and ranked as 15 percent of thewhole bankruptcies claimed in Canada (Statistic Canada 1998). This paper presents a methodology for developing and a Web-based model to automate preliminary cost estimates for hi-rise buildings. This is achieved by integrating a database with design drawings in a Virtual Reality (VR) environment. The model will automatically generate preliminary estimates after modifying a 3D CAD drawing. It provides the user the option to visualize and simulate the drawing and its cost data through VR environment. Having done that, it will allow owners, architects and cost engineers to view a constructed building project, change its geometric objects and shapes, and accordingly generate a new conceptual cost estimate.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ddssup0202
id ddssup0202
authors Antoni, J.P.
year 2002
title Urban Sprawl Modelling: Combining Models to Make Decision
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Urban sprawl is frequently associated with the idea of an unsuitable development, leading to increasing economic, social and environmental problems. Moreover, its control is difficult because multiple patterns (concerning numerous traditional urban planning fields) overlap. In order to understand the sprawl process and to manage its consequences, it must be simplified. The construction of a decision making tool appears then interesting. The GIS-based tool presented here is being developed incollaboration between the urban planning agency of Belfort and the laboratory of geography of Strasbourg. It requires three steps: 1. quantification of the sprawl (how much areas are involved in theurban sprawl process?); 2. location of the sprawl (where are the areas defined in the first step?); 3. differentiation of the sprawl (what are the areas located in the second step?). Of course, the successionof the three stages makes the use of the complete model more complex. So, a global ergonomic user interface is being developed within the GIS, allowing to modify each parameter and to play easily numerous simulations.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id acadia07_174
id acadia07_174
authors Bontemps, Arnaud; Potvin, André; Demers, Claude
year 2007
title The Dynamics of Physical Ambiences
source Expanding Bodies: Art • Cities• Environment [Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 978-0-9780978-6-8] Halifax (Nova Scotia) 1-7 October 2007, 174-181
summary This research proposes to support the reading of physical ambiences by the development of a representational technique which compiles, in a numerical interface, two types of data: sensory and filmic. These data are recorded through the use of a portable array equipped with sensors (Potvin 1997, 2002, 2004) as well as the acquisition of Video information of the moving environment. The compilation of information is carried out through a multi-media approach, by means of a program converting the environmental data into dynamic diagrams, as well as the creation of an interactive interface allowing a possible diffusion on the Web. This technique, named APMAP/Video, makes it possible to read out simultaneously spatial and environmental diversity. It is demonstrated through surveys taken at various seasons and time of the day at the new Caisse de dépôt et de placement headquarters in Montreal which is also the corpus for a SSHRC (Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council) research grant on Environmental Adaptability in Architecture (Potvin et al. 2003-2007). This case study shows that the technique can prove of great relevance for POEs (Post Occupancy Evaluation) as well as for assistance in a new design project.
series ACADIA
email arnaudbontemps@hotmail.com
last changed 2007/10/02 06:11

_id c82f
authors Chang, Yu-Li
year 2002
title Exploring syntax and semantics of spatial structure - A study on Traditional Taiwanese City form in Chi’i’ng Dynasty
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 412-416
summary Abstract. In this paper, we want to figure out the relations of complex semantics and syntax on five traditional Taiwanese cities in Chi’i’ng Dynasty by using a language approach. The issues of traditional Taiwanese central city in Chi’ing Dynasty had been interpreting by historical, social, and cultural research but had lacked the explicit construction of spatial structure on semantics-syntax. Therefore, we use a data modeling on knowledge level to describe the relationship between syntax and semantics. Through the research of Chi’ing Dynasty‘s history, we find out the spatial relations of Taiwanese traditional city to establish the functional categories of spatial structures. Then the language of semantics components and the meaning’s attributes are coded as logical statements to map the elements of syntax on architectural form, political vocabularies, spatial layout, and spatial myth. We argue that using this approach several social and spatial structures of cities can be clearly defined and understood.
series eCAADe
email jecho@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id acadia17_202
id acadia17_202
authors Cupkova, Dana; Promoppatum, Patcharapit
year 2017
title Modulating Thermal Mass Behavior Through Surface Figuration
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 202-211
summary This research builds upon a previous body of work focused on the relationship between surface geometry and heat transfer coefficients in thermal mass passive systems. It argues for the design of passive systems with higher fidelity to multivariable space between performance and perception. Rooted in the combination of form and matter, the intention is to instrumentalize design principles for the choreography of thermal gradients between buildings and their environment from experiential, spatial and topological perspectives (Figure 1). Our work is built upon the premise that complex geometries can be used to improve both the aesthetic and thermodynamic performance of passive building systems (Cupkova and Azel 2015) by actuating thermal performance through geometric parameters primarily due to convection. Currently, the engineering-oriented approach to the design of thermal mass relies on averaged thermal calculations (Holman 2002), which do not adequately describe the nuanced differences that can be produced by complex three-dimensional geometries of passive thermal mass systems. Using a combination of computational fluid dynamic simulations with physically measured data, we investigate the relationship of heat transfer coefficients related to parameters of surface geometry. Our measured results suggest that we can deliberately and significantly delay heat absorption re-radiation purely by changing the geometric surface pattern over the same thermal mass. The goal of this work is to offer designers a more robust rule set for understanding approximate thermal lag behaviors of complex geometric systems, with a focus on the design of geometric properties rather than complex thermal calculations.
keywords design methods; information processing; physics; smart materials
series ACADIA
email danacupkova@gmail.com
last changed 2017/10/17 09:12

_id ddssup0206
id ddssup0206
authors Dickey, J.W. and Jones, Dennis B.
year 2002
title CyberQuest Prospector (CQP):A Guide for the Evolutionary Discovery Process
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary CyberQuest Prospector (CQP) is a tool to guide an individual or team through the evolutionary process of finding better approaches to a particular problem, project, program, plan, or design. This prospectingprocess can involve, for example, new definitions, different data, altered evaluation techniques and new ideas and actions on many other topics. CQP involves a five step process. At step zero all the requisite historical background knowledge is entered. This knowledge is divided into topical areas or statements. In step one the team updates the various knowledge statements in the system and then assigns a "maturity" to them. The team then adds any new statements (step two). Next, (step three) the team makes decisions on actions to be undertaken and also on the external factors likely to be "in play" in the upcoming time period. After that period (step four) the team records the results and rates the "success" achieved. CQP subsequently changes the associated knowledge statement confidences. In the last step the clock is advanced. The ultimate result is a set of definitions, data, relationships, experimental techniques, issues,implications, and even personality traits in which some degree of confidence has evolved. The CQP process is demonstrated here with an urban transportation planning example involving such diverse topics asplanning/analysis techniques, data collection methods, and procedures for working with advocacy coalition networks.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar0211
id ddssar0211
authors Fröst, Peter
year 2002
title Interactive Tools for Collaborative Architectural Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Today’s rapidly changing society is continuously developing towards an increased demand for multistakeholder knowledge and influence in the architectural planning and design process. Accordingly, we are working with developing and setting up a partner engaged collaborative design process. It includes active collaboration between users, external partners and designers, and visualizations in conceptual design and scenario building. My research is focusing on integrating visualization technology in theseprocesses by application of digital tools. We have developed a working prototype for an interactive design tool. The prototype is an extremely “easy to use” digital modeling tool called “ForeSite Designer.” With this tool one builds one’s own spatial environment with elements on a 2D surface.With one command the 2D layout is exported to a lit-up 3D/Virtual Reality world in the computer game “Half-Life”. ForeSite Designer has lately been used in a series of workshops together with external users. In these processes ForeSite Designer has played a crucial role as an arena of building spatially arranged concepts of future environments. The results show that it works, and, importantly, promotes a collaborative engagement among the users.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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