CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 504

_id 82ac
authors Caldas, Luisa Gama and Norford, Leslie K.
year 2002
title A design optimization tool based on a genetic algorithm
source Automation in Construction 11 (2) (2002) pp. 173-184
summary Much interest has been recently devoted to generative processes in design. Advances in computational tools for design applications, coupled with techniques from the field of artificial intelligence, have lead to new possibilities in the way computers can inform and actively interact with the design process. In this paper, we use the concepts of generative and goal-oriented design to propose a computer tool that can help the designer to generate and evaluate certain aspects of a solution towards an optimized behavior of the final configuration. This work focuses mostly on those aspects related to the environmental performance of buildings. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are applied as a generative and search procedure to look for optimized design solutions in terms of thermal and lighting performance in a building. The GA is first used to generate possible design solutions, which are then evaluated in terms of lighting and thermal behavior using a detailed thermal analysis program (DOE2.1E). The results from the simulations are subsequently used to further guide the GA search towards finding low-energy solutions to the problem under study. Solutions can be visualized using an AutoLisp routine. The specific problem addressed in this study is the placing and sizing of windows in an office building. The same method is applicable to a wide range of design problems like the choice of construction materials, design of shading elements, or sizing of lighting and mechanical systems for buildings.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 7992
id 7992
authors von Buelow, Peter
year 2002
title USING EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS TO AID DESIGNERS OF ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES
source Creative evolutionary systems, eds Bentley, Peter & Corne, David, Morgan Kaufmann, pp 315-336
summary This paper describes the application of an Intelligent Genetic Design Tool (IGDT) in the design of architectural, structural elements. As a computer design aid an IGDT is innovative in its intelligent interaction with the designer. By always submitting multiple solutions for review by the designer, it is less likely to cause design fixation than other optimization techniques, and allows the user greater range in exploring hard-to-code design criteria such as aesthetics. As an example, the design of a cantilever truss is briefly explored. Using the coded optimization criterion of weight, and the designer's non-coded criteria of visual aesthetics and performance, a series of possible designs are explored. The ability of an IGDT to intelligently respond to the designer's preferences in a way that promotes creative thinking on the part of the designer is demonstrated. A final truss design is selected based on the use of the tool. It is concluded that an IGDT offers a significantly different approach to computer aided structural design which has the potential to enhance the user's own creativity in determining a good solution.
keywords evolutionary form exploration genetic algorithm design
series book
type normal paper
email pvbuelow@umich.edu
last changed 2006/04/07 19:55

_id cf2011_p060
id cf2011_p060
authors Sheward, Hugo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Preliminary Concept Design (PCD) Tools for Laboratory Buildings, Automated Design Optimization and Assessment Embedded in Building Information Modeling (BIM) Tools.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 451-476.
summary The design of laboratory buildings entails the implementation of a variety of design constraints such as building codes; design guidelines and technical requirements. The application of these requires from designers the derivation of data not explicitly available at early stages of design, at the same time there is no precise methodology to control the consistency, and accuracy of their application. Many of these constraints deal with providing secure environmental conditions for the activities inside laboratories and their repercussions both for the building occupants and population in general, these constraints mandate a strict control over the building’s Mechanical Equipment (MEP), in particular the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Due to the importance of these laboratory designers are expected to assess their designs not only according spatial relationships, but also design variables such as HVAC efficiency, air pressure hierarchies, operational costs, and the possible implications of their design decisions in the biological safety of the facility. At this point in time, there are no practical methods for making these assessments, without having constant interaction with HVAC specialists. The assessment of laboratory design variables, particularly those technical in nature, such as dimensioning of ducts or energy consumption are usually performed at late stages of design. They are performed by domain experts using data manually extracted from design information, with the addition of domain specific knowledge, the evaluation is done mostly through manual calculations or building simulations. In traditional practices most expert evaluations are performed once the architectural design have been completed, the turn around of the evaluation might take hours or days depending on the methods used by the engineer, therefore reducing the possibility for design alternatives evaluation. The results of these evaluations will give clues about sizing of the HVAC equipment, and might generate the need for design reformulations, causing higher development costs and time delays. Several efforts in the development of computational tools for automated design evaluation such as wheel chair accessibility (Han, Law, Latombe, Kunz, 2002) security and circulation (Eastman, 2009), and construction codes (ww.Corenet.gov.sg) have demonstrated the capabilities of rule or parameter based building assessment; several computer applications capable of supporting HVAC engineers in system designing for late concept or design development exist, but little has been done to assess the capabilities of computer applications to support laboratory design during architectural Preliminary Concept Design(PCD) (Trcka, Hensen, 2010). Developments in CAD technologies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) have opened doors to formal explorations in generative design using rule based or parametric modeling [7]. BIM represents buildings as a collection of objects with their own geometry, attributes, and relations. BIM also allows for the definition of objects parametrically including their relation to other model objects. BIM has enabled the development of automated rule based building evaluation (Eastman, 2009). Most of contemporary BIM applications contemplate in their default user interfaces access to design constraints and object attribute manipulations. Some even allow for the application of rules over these. Such capabilities make BIM viable platforms for automation of design data derivation and for the implementation of generative based design assessment. In this paper we analyze the possibilities provided by contemporary BIM for implementing generative based design assessment in laboratory buildings. In this schema, domain specific knowledge is embedded in to the BIM system as to make explicit design metrics that can help designers and engineers to assess the performance of design alternatives. The implementation of generative design assessments during PCD can help designers and engineers to identify design issues early in the process, reducing the number of revisions and reconfigurations in later stages of design. And generally improving design performance.
keywords Heating ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Building Information Models (BIM), Generative Design Assessment
series CAAD Futures
email hshewardga3@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ga0226
id ga0226
authors Liu, X., Frazer, Jh. and Tang, M.X.
year 2002
title A generative design system based on evolutionary and mathematical functions
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Previous work by Professor John Frazer on Evolutionary Architecture provides a basis for the development of a system evolving architectural envelopes in a generic and abstract manner. Recent research by the authors has focused on the implementation of a virtual environment for the automatic generation and exploration of complex forms and architectural envelopes based on solid modelling techniques and the integration of evolutionary algorithms, enhanced computational and mathematical models. Abstract data types are introduced for genotypes in a genetic algorithm order to develop complex models using generative and evolutionary computing techniques. Multi-objective optimisation techniques are employed for defining the fitness function in the evaluation process.
series other
email sdxyliu@polyu.edu.hk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 7e02
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2002
title The Virtual Campus: A new place for (lifelong) learning?
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 472-477
summary 472 eCAADe 20 [design e-ducation] Modeling Real and Virtual Worlds Session 13 In the early spring of 2001 a collection of German universities founded a virtual faculty of architecture, which was named „Liquid Campus“. Current thinking about future forms of education in the field of architecture combined with over 4 years of experience with net-based design studios, led to questions about the future of existing universities, their buildings and their use. This problem was put to 43 students in the form of a design exercise to create a place for a virtual university. In the current situation, in which the administration of knowledge is more and more located on the internet, and even the so-called meeting places themselves can be virtualised through the help of video-conference-software, the exercise was to design a virtual campus in the framework and to carry out this design work in a simulation of distributed practice. Initial criticism of the project came from the students in that exemplary working methods were not described, but left for the students to discover on their own. The creation of a concept for the Liquid Campus meant that the participants had to imagine working in a world without the face to face contacts that form the basis (at present) of personal interaction. Additionally, the assignment to create or design possible links between the real and the virtual was not an easy task for students who normally design and plan real physical buildings. Even the tutors had difficulties in producing focused constructive criticism about a virtual campus; in effect the virtualisation of the university leads to a distinctive blurring of its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosophical approach to the design problem. The paper explores the implications of the student’s conclusions on the nature of the university in general and draws conclusions specific to architectural education and the role of architecture in this process.
series eCAADe
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id caadria2011_072
id caadria2011_072
authors Gallas, Mohamed-Anis; Didier Bur and Gilles Halin
year 2011
title Daylight and energy in the early phase of architectural design process: A design assistance method using designer’s intents
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 761-770
summary The integration of daylighting from the beginning of the design process can help designers to create buildings that respect their environment benefit from the solar gain thus giving an answer to illumination and energy needs (Bodart et al, 2002). This paper proposes a declarative assistance method/tool designed for the early design phase. This method assists the designer in integrating the daylight and its energetic impact from the beginning of the architectural design process by means of intents. The intents are related to the daylight, energy and spatial configuration aspects of the architectural project. The method translates the designer’s intents into potential solutions. They are the first formal representation of the architect’s intents that could be customized and altered during the next architectural design phases.
keywords Daylight; energy; early design phase; design support; intents
series CAADRIA
email gallas@crai.archi.fr
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id c839
authors Hwang, Jie-Eun
year 2002
title SpaceScope: Developing a Spatial Information Retrieval System - Focused on Apartment Unit Floor Plans -
source Yonsei University, Dept. of Housing & Interior Design
summary This research investigates the spatial information retrieval (IR) in architecture focused on constructing efficient metadata that is crucial for data retrieval. Generally speaking, metadata is ‘structured data about data’ to describe resources especially in a digital format. In this research, metadata is a sort of data object to be useful in searching spatial information. Metadata is also used to describe raw spatial data object as not only attribute data but also content structurally and semantic ally. There are two issues that motivate this research; 1) what is the spatial information – that materializes the intangible space as a data object, and 2) how we can search the information efficiently – the content-based information retrieval. Although knowledge of a building’s spatial content is most important in architecture, there has been no logical method to manage it.

From the viewpoint of content-based retrieval, the researcher analyzes spatial information of a floor plan, with a focus on the apartment unit floor plan common in Korea. Then the metadata items are extracted in a structured manner. To manage the items efficiently, the researcher develops a data model for spatial information according to the concept of the “Structured Floor Plan”. The main object of content to retrieve is a spatial network that consists of nodes of spaces and their linkages. There are two ways to organize the metadata: the traditional index files and the RDF (Resource Description Framework). While the index files are still efficient with computability, the RDF applies greater options to retrieve, such as fuzzy predicates, semantic predicates, and so on. To exploit the metadata, this research shows several possibilities of query operations that present a set of sample queries about L-DK(Living room – Dining room – Kitchen). Implementation of the prototype system is divided into three parts: 1) a modeling module using Vitruvius; 2) an indexing module using MS SQL Server? 2000 in conjunction XML; and 3) a browsing module using the SpaceScope browser.

The future works may consider XML-based databases and a knowledge based query language, such as RQL/XQL, working on such databases. The more specific domain knowledge is involved, the more practical systems would be. Even in architecture, there may be a diverse range of domain knowledge, such as design, building performance, facility management, energy management, post occupied evaluation, historical research, and so on. Also the issue of interface should be investigated in depth, so that it will be adequate to the needs of the architectural field.

keywords Content-based Information Retrieval; Metadata; RDF; XML; Spatial Information; Apartment Floor Plan; Semantics
series thesis:MSc
email curiozen@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2003/04/25 05:27

_id 1992
authors Russell, Peter
year 2002
title Using Higher Level Programming in Interdisciplinary teams as a means of training for Concurrent Engineering
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 14-19
summary The paper explains a didactical method for training students that has been run three times to date. The premise of the course is to combine students from different faculties into interdisciplinary teams. These teams then have a complex problem to resolve within an extremely short time span. In light of recent works from Joy and Kurzweil, the theme Robotics was chosen as an exercise that is timely, interesting and related, but not central to the studies of the various faculties. In groups of 3 to 5, students from faculties of architecture, computer science and mechanical engineering are entrusted to design, build and program a robot which must successfully execute a prescribed set of actions in a competitive atmosphere. The entire course lasts ten days and culminates with the competitive evaluation. The robots must navigate a labyrinth, communicate with on another and be able to cover longer distances with some speed. In order to simplify the resources available to the students, the Lego Mindstorms Robotic syshed backgrounds instaed of synthetic ones. The combination of digitally produced (scanned) sperical images together with the use of HDR open a wide range of new implementation in the field of architecture, especially in combining synthetic elements in existing buildings, e.g. new interior elements in an existing historical museum).ural presentations in the medium of computer animation. These new forms of expression of design thoughts and ideas go beyond mere model making, and move more towards scenemaking and storytelling. The latter represents new methods of expression within computational environments for architects and designers.its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosg and programming a winning robot. These differences became apparent early in the sessions and each group had to find ways to communicate their ideas and to collectively develop them by building on the strengths of each team member.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2013/02/04 06:17

_id 4219
authors Wang, Shengwei and Wang, Jin-Bo
year 2002
title Automatic sensor evaluation in BMS commissioning of building refrigeration systems
source Automation in Construction 11 (1) (2002) pp. 59-73
summary A strategy and software is developed to automatically diagnose and evaluate the Building Management Systems (BMS) sensors of building refrigeration systems during commissioning or periodical check (recommissioning). The strategy is based on the first law of thermodynamics (i.e., heat and mass balance of water networks). The strategy evaluates soft sensor faults (biases) by examining and minimizing the weighted sum of the squares of the concerned mass and/or steady state energy balance residuals represented by the corrected measurements over a period, on the basis of the measurements downloaded from BMS. A Genetic Algorithm is employed to determine the global minimal solution to the multimodal objective function, which can be difficult to achieve by traditional gradient-directed search methods. The sensor bias estimates, the confidence intervals of bias estimates and the comparisons of the balance residuals before and after the correction are generated by the software to provide a convenient and reliable means for the engineers to check and diagnose the measurement devices of BMS. The strategy, the software configuration and examples of application are presented in this paper.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id d65c
authors Glymph, J., Shelden, D., Ceccato, C., Mussel, J. and Schober, H.
year 2002
title A Parametric Strategy for Freeform Glass Structures Using Quadrilateral Planar Facets
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 303-321
summary The design and construction of freeform glass roofing structures is generally accomplished through theuse of either planar triangular glass facets or curved (formed) glass panes. This paper describesongoing research on the constructability of such structures using planar quadrilateral glass facets for theJerusalem Museum of Tolerance project by Gehry Partners, in collaboration with Schlaich Bergermann& Partners, engineers. The challenge here lies not only in the development of a geometric strategy forgenerating quadrilateral planar facet solutions, but also in the fact that said solutions must closely matchthe designs created initially in physical model form by the architects.We describe a simple but robust geometric method for achieving the structure by incorporating thenecessary geometric principles into a computational parametric framework using the CATIA Version 5system. This generative system consists of a hierarchical set of geometric ‘control elements’, that drivethe design toward constructible configurations. Optimization techniques for approximating the generatedstructural shape to the original created by the designers are also described. The paper presents theunderlying geometric principles to the strategy and the resulting computational approach.
series ACADIA
email cc@asyncc.com
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 9f9c
authors Hu, Xiaochun
year 2002
title An Information-based Framework for Composites Design
source Drexel University
summary The heterogeneity of composites determines that composite materials can be engineered to better satisfy a specific design requirement. The main problems that have hindered the application of composites are the need for the material and manufacturing design to be conducted simultaneously, the involvement of a large number of design factors, the difficulty in the characterization of composites, and the inherent repetition of the design process. Considering these problems, this thesis presents an information-based framework for composites design. This research consists of four main aspects: (1) The development of a heterogeneous CAD modeling algorithm and an integrated CAD/CAE method, and their application in a unit cell-based characterization of composite materials with a complex fiber form; (2)The development of a unit cell database for improving the material and manufacturing process design, which covers the design of its database model and the access strategies based on the logic architecture of unit cells and the relationships among elements of unit cells and with the environments; (3)The design of an Information-Based Design Support System (IBDSS) to support the composites design by using the unit cell database, in which the blackboard framework is adopted for the system to organize various computer techniques for different design stages, and to support the design iterating to satisfactory ones incrementally and efficiently, and the data structure of the blackboard, the algorithm to control design iterations, and design procedures for every stage are studied; and (4) The introduction of a ranking-based unit cell evaluation methodology and effective ranking factors for facilitating and improving the composite design process. The approach improves the efficiency of composites design by automating design iterations, supporting composite characterization, alleviating the cost of composite material and manufacturing method design, and assisting in tailored material selection. Case studies are presented to show how the IBDSS is applied to support composites design.
keywords Mechanical Engineering
series thesis:PhD
email xiaochun.hu@drexel.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id caadria2006_179
id caadria2006_179
authors KEATRUANGKAMALA K., NILKAEW P.
year 2006
title STRONG VALID INEQUALITY CONSTRAINTS FOR ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 179-185
summary In the past decades, many attempts have been made to solve the challenging architectural layout design problem such as non-linear programming and evolutionary algorithm (Michalek and Papalambros, 2002). The Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) (Kamol and Krung, 2005) was recently developed to find the global optimal solution. However, the problem can be shown to belong to the class of NP-hard problem (Michalek and Papalambros, 2002). Hence, only the small instances of the problem can be solved in a reasonable time. In order to deal with large problem sizes, this paper utilizes the strong valid inequalities (George and Laurence). It cut off the infeasible points in the integral search space by formulated the disconnected constraints involved with line configurations of three rooms. It is shown to significantly increase the computational speed to more than thirty percents. This exhibits the practical use of the MIP formulation to solve the medium size architectural layout design problems.
series CAADRIA
email kamolkeat@hotmail.com, tuan@mail.cmu.ac.th
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 204eaea2001
id 204eaea2001
authors Niemann, T., Schmidt, A. and Reiss, S.
year 2002
title The Use of New Media Tools in Environmental Simulation
source Environmental Simulation - New Impulses in Planning Processes [Proceedings of the 5th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-922602-85-1]
summary Urban design model simulations serve to let us envision the future environment. These models are important tools in planning processes and serve to democratize improve the comprehension of decision processes. Those affected and (often) laypeople help in the formulation of opinions. Not lastly, model simulations facilitate the evaluation of the quality of the future urban design spaces and allow for corrections in the optimization of designs. Model simulations can be created by the help of endoscopic techniques already well known to medicine. Nowadays, virtual simulations can, on the other hand, be entirely created on a computer through the use of suitable programs. At the present time a comparative investigation into the performance capabilities of analog and digital technologies is still pending. In a two-group comparative study, static analog and digital simulations were compared by using categorical scales to answer questions on urban design layout and living space quality. The results demonstrated that analog and digital simulations lead to similar value judgments. However, layout and living space quality in the analog simulations were given somewhat higher rankings, on average. A conclusive statement about the performance capabilities of analog or digital simulations in urban design processes is still premature. Future studies should take this context into consideration. Aside from the performance capabilities of a simulation, other aspects are also to be considered, such as the resource requirements for practical urban planning processes. At this time the use of analog simulations is often recommended. This is because the use of analog simulations brings similar results using fewer resources than digital simulations. To the observer, analog simulations retain a more natural quality. Now as before, models are often constructed during the performance of urban design projects, reducing even further the resource demands of an analog model, which in the end is reflected in the costs.
series EAEA
email alexander.schmidt@uni-essen.de
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 8461
authors Saunders, Rob
year 2002
title Curious Design Agents and Artificial Creativity - A Synthetic Approach to the Study of Creative Behaviour
source The University of Sydney, Faculty of Architecture
summary Creative products are generally recognised as satisfying two requirements: firstly they are useful, and secondly they are novel. Much effort in AI and design computing has been put into developing systems that can recognise the usefulness of the products that they generate. In contrast, the work presented in this thesis has concentrated on developing computational systems that are able to recognise the novelty of their work. The research has shown that when computational systems are given the ability to recognise both the novelty and the usefulness of their products they gain a level of autonomy that opens up new possibilities for the study of creative behaviour in single agents and the emergence of social creativity in multi-agent systems. The work presented in this thesis has developed a model of curiosity in design as the selection of design actions with the goal of generating novel artefacts. Agents that embody this model of curiosity are called “curious design agents”. The behaviour of curious design agents is demonstrated with a range of applications to visual and nonvisual design domains. Visual domains include rectilinear drawings, Spirograph patterns, and “genetic artworks” similar to the work of Karl Sims. Non-visual domains include an illustrative abstract design space useful for visualising the behaviour of curious agents and the design of doorways to accommodate the passage of large crowds. The design methods used in the different domains show that the model of curiosity is applicable to models of designing by direct manipulation, parametric configuration or by using a separate design tool that embodies the generative aspects of the design process. In addition, an approach to developing multi-agent systems with autonomous notions of creativity called artificial creativity is presented. The opportunities for studying social creativity in design are illustrated with an artificial creativity system used to study the emergence of social notions of whom and what are creative in a society of curious design agents. Developing similar artificial creativity systems promises to be a useful synthetic approach to the study of socially situated, creative design.
series thesis:PhD
email rob@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/06 09:33

_id ga0211
id ga0211
authors Gartland-Jones, Andrew
year 2002
title Can a Genetic Algorithm Think Like a Composer?
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary There has now been a substantial body of work utilising Genetic Algorithms (GA) for the purpose of musical composition. A common point of discussion is how far GA’s can simulate not just the musical output of human composers, but also the process of composing itself. This paper begins by discussing the suitability of using a GA for composition, and goes on to describe a generative music system (by the author), that utilises a domain specific, knowledge rich GA. The system acts on a supplied 2-bar musical phrase (up to 4 parts), and evolves musical fragments towards a supplied target. The aim is to provide interim points on the evolutionary path, which represents a ‘new’ musical ideas audibly based on the supplied fragments. The paper concludes that the system is able to model at least part of the creative process of composition, and is effective at producing musically successful results. (Audio download sources of its output are included to support this conclusion). The system was used to generate music included in an interactive installation work, exhibited at Brighton Arts Festival 2002, and other applications under developed that use the algorithm are discussed.
series other
email drew@atgj.org
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddssar0213
id ddssar0213
authors De Groot, Ellie and Paule, Bernard
year 2002
title DIAL-Europe: New Functionality’s for an Integrated Daylighting Design Tool
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary The European project DIAL-Europe started in April 2000 and intends to enhance and to enlarge the capabilities of the LesoDIAL software. The aim of this “Swiss” tool was to give architects relevant information regarding the use of daylight, at the very first stage of the design process. DIAL-Europe focuses on European standards and climatic data. Further, a Heating & Cooling evaluation module and an Artificial Lighting module will be added. The objective of the Heating & Cooling module is to indicate the implications of the user’s design on heating and cooling energy and on thermal comfort.The objective of Artificial Lighting module is to develop a tool that will give an estimation of illuminance values on the work plane and provide guidance on qualitative aspects and visual comfort as well as on switching control and integration with daylight based on generic light sources and luminaires. Furthermore, the scope of the examples of simulated rooms will be increased in order to allow the user to compare their design with more similar cases. This paper will present the state of achievement and give an overview of the first version of the DIAL-Europe software, which will beavailable at the beginning of 2002.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar0223
id ddssar0223
authors Mahdavi, A, Suter G. and Ries, R.
year 2002
title A Representation Scheme for Integrated Building Performance Analysis
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary This paper presents a representational scheme for integrated building performance analysis. The underlying research work was motivated by the need for seamless exchange of structured design information.A comprehensive and widely accepted industry standard suitable for exchanging design information among the various AEC (Architecture/Engineering/Construction) applications has yet to emerge. As a contribution to this on-going discussion, we present a specific approach to the integration problem in building product modeling. This approach can be viewed as pragmatic or bottom-up in the sense that itwas driven by the informational needs of related individual domains (particularly in the early stages of design) rather than by a quest for a universally applicable solution. In this paper, we describe a schemawhich emerged from the SEMPER effort, a multi-year project aimed at supporting detailed performance analysis for early design in the energy, life-cycle analysis, lighting, and thermal comfort domains. Thisschema relies on a representational division of labor between a shared building model, and various disciplinary (domain) models. Specifically, we present a documentation of the shared object model together with disciplinary models for the energy, light, acoustics, and life-cyle assessment domain.
keywords building product models, building performance, integration
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ddssup0212
id ddssup0212
authors Nascimento, M.A.P., Francisco, S.D., Souza, L.C.L. and Silva, A.N.R.
year 2002
title A Multimedia Application to Support Professionals in an EnvironmentallyResponsible Building Design Process
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary One of the problems faced by the design professionals in trying to incorporate thermal and acoustic concerns when designing a building is the quantity and diversity of building materials that can be applied to improve a poor indoor environment and, in many cases, to later reduce energy consumption. The large amount of information on building materials usually provided as documents makes it almost impossible to the designer to compare products. In the light of the stated facts, the objective of this work was the development of a multimedia application, which was thought as a module of a more comprehensive system able to support professionals in an environmentally responsible building design process. The application takes advantage of the ability of computers to handle texts, images, sounds and movies to introduce several building materials and their characteristics to the designers, in an interactive way. The conclusion of this stage shows that rather than being a module of a larger system, the developed application can work as a powerful standalone multimedia catalogue of building materials that have special interest on thermal, acoustic, and thermal-acoustic applications. It is an application that are notonly fundamental in a support system for effective building design, but also a powerful tool for training architecture students as part of an environmentally responsible building design process.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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