CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 503

_id 12e3
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E., Che Zulkhairi, A. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2002
title Interactive Storytelling and Its Role in the Design Process
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 151-158
summary Projects of ever increasing complexity and size have incited the need for new and robust design methodologies and tools in an effort to manage complexity, lower costs, ascertain quality and reduce risk. Technology convergence through the growing availability of networked computers, rapid progress in Computer Aided Design (CAD) and information management have encouraged the undertaking of even more complex designs that demand high degrees of interaction, collaboration and the efficient sharing and dissemination of information. It is suggested that interactive storytelling and interactive design (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2001) techniques that use non-linear information mapping systems can be deployed to assist users as they navigate information that is structured to address localized needs as they arise. The design process is a collaborative effort that encompasses diverse knowledge disciplines and demands the management and utilization of available resources to satisfy the needs of a single or set of goals. It is thought that building industry specialists should work close together in an organised manner to solve design problems as they emerge and find alternatives when designs fall short. The design process involves the processing of dynamic and complex information, that can be anything from the amount of soil required to level lands - to the needs of specific lightings systems in operation theatres. Other important factors that affect the design process are related to costs and deadlines. This paper will demonstrate some of our early findings in several experiments to establish nonlinear storytelling. It will conclude with a recommendation for a plausible design of such a system based on experimental work that is currently being conducted and is reaching its final stages. The paper will lay the foundations of a possible path to implementation based on the concept of multi-path animation that is appropriate for structuring the design process as used in the building industry.
series CAADRIA
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ga0206
id ga0206
authors Biles, John A.
year 2002
title GenJam in Transition: from Genetic Jammer to Generative Jammer
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary GenJam, short for Genetic Jammer, is an evolutionary computation (EC) based software agent that models a jazz improviser. Recently GenJam has evolved away from its roots as an interactive genetic algorithm toward its current state as an autonomous generative system. GenJam has retained its chromosome-based representations and mappings, its intelligent selection, crossover and mutation operators, and its real-time interactive performance capabilities. However, it no longer needs any explicit representation of fitness, which arguably makes it no longer an EC system. This paper considers GenJam as a generative art system. Generative art produces “unique and non-repeatable events” that express a designer’s generating idea. The designer’s generating idea defines a species of events, represented in a genetic code. In music, these events could be individual notes, melodic phrases, even entire pieces. In GenJam the events are four-measure phrases, or “licks” in the jazz vernacular. The format for the genetic code, then, defines a species space from which unique individual events can be generated. Uniqueness is important in jazz because improvisation must be spontaneous and “new.” Hence, improvisation is tailor-made for the generative art paradigm, and in fact, one could argue that improvisation is, by definition, the purest example of generative art applied to music. In other words, generative music is improvisation, and GenJam is the Generative Jammer.
series other
email jab@it.rit.edu
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ga0214
id ga0214
authors De Felice, F,Abbattista, F. and Scagliola, F.
year 2002
title GenOrchestra: An Interactive Evolutionary Agent for Musical Composition
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary GenOrchestra is a project involving the Dipartimento d’Informatica and Conservatorio di Musica “N. Piccinni” in Bari. This project concern a Creative Evolutionary System, based on Evolutionary Computation (EC) techniques, applied to the field of western tonal music. With GenOrchestra a novel way to evaluate the produced tunes is presented: indeed we adopt a hybrid solution composed for two kinds of fitness functions. The first, called technique fitness, evaluates the consonance degree between melodic, harmonic and rhythmic sections, moreover, it defines how well the rhythmic paths is organized into a coherent musical event. The second fitness function called human fitness, determine how well the tunes are perceived from a human audience, like in a concert. This task is accomplished by presenting the tunes on the Internet and then gathering the surfers evaluations in a database from which the system take the final population scoring. This, coupled with a no limited musical primordial soup, makes GenOrchestra a promising eclectic artificial composer. The ultimate goal of this project, currently in progress, is the development of a very human-like composer, which can produce music in any musical genre, and which is able to show a “personal style”. Samples will be soon available at http://valis.di.uniba.it/GenOrchestra/samples.html
series other
email febo74@libero.it
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga0207
id ga0207
authors Fischer, T.
year 2002
title Computation-Universal Voxel Automata as Material for Generative Design Education
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper is a report on the educational application of a voxel automata system for massively parallel execution of computation-universal cellular units in the generative design field. The software, designed and co-developed by the author to enable developmental strategies in generative design - for example with respect to 3D design generation, semantic self-evaluation and self-replication - was applied in teaching at the School of Design at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University to achieve two goals: to teach programming as part of the School’s Interactive Systems Design stream and to teach generative concepts at a theoretical, yet hands-on and highly intensive level. An introduction to the software, its development and its functions as well as a discussion of the teaching/learning experience is given, highlighting design educational aspects and student design work. The paper concludes with an analysis of how student approaches to generative concepts have been affected by the tool and how ideas and feedback from students have supported the ongoing development of the voxel automata system and its documentation.
series other
email sdtom@polyu.edu.hk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ga0231
id ga0231
authors Sparacino, Flavia
year 2002
title Narrative Spaces: bridging architecture and entertainment via interactive technology
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Our society’s modalities of communication are rapidly changing. Large panel displays and screens are be ing installed in many public spaces, ranging from open plazas, to shopping malls, to private houses, to theater stages, classrooms, and museums. In parallel, wearable computers are transforming our technological landscape by reshaping the heavy, bulkydesktop computer into a lightweight, portable device that is accessible to people at any time. Computation and sensing are moving from computers and devices into the environment itself. The space around us is instrumented with sensors and displays, and it tends to reflect adiffused need to combine together the information space with our physical space. This combination of large public and miniature personal digital displays together with distributed computing and sensing intelligence offers unprecedented opportunities to merge the virtual and the real, the information landscape of the Internet with the urban landscape of the city, to transform digital animated media in storytellers, in public installations and through personal wearable technology. This paper describes technological platforms built at the MIT Media Lab, through 1994-2002, that contribute to defining new trends in architecture that mergevirtual and real spaces, and are reshaping the way we live and experience the museum, the house, the theater, and the modern city.
series other
email flavia@media.mit.edu
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email matti.arponen@hel.fi
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 898a
authors Bay, J.H.
year 2002
title Cognitive Biases and Precedent Knowledge in Human and Computer-Aided Design Thinking
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 213-220
summary Cognitive biases (illusions) and potential errors can occur when using precedent knowledge for analogical, pre-parametric and qualitative design thinking. This paper refers largely to part of a completed research (Bay 2001) on how heuristic biases, discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) in cognitive psychology, can affect judgement and learning of facts from precedents in architectural design, made explicit using a kernel of conceptual system (Tzonis et. al., 1978) and a framework of architectural representation (Tzonis 1992). These are used here to consider how such illusions and errors may be transferred to computer aided design thinking.
series CAADRIA
email akibayp@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 6d22
authors Bermudez, J., Agutter, J., Syroid, N., Lilly, B., Sharir, Y., Lopez, T., Westenskow, D. and Foresti, S.
year 2002
title Interfacing Virtual & Physical Spaces through the Body: The cyberPRINT Project
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 395-400
summary The cyberPRINT is a fully immersive, interactive virtual environment that is being generated in rea-timebased on physiological data readings of a human body. In other words, the cyberPRINT is based oncreating interfaces between physical and digital spaces and between biology and informationtechnologies. The cyberPRINT is also an event, wherein a performer is connected to the cyberPRINTgenerator to create a self-sustaining feedback mechanism. Although using the body to electronicallydrive music and media events is not new, most of these works have paid little or no attention to thepotential of interactive 3D virtual environments. Nor have they been so technologically advanced,interdisciplinary intensive (involving architecture, choreography, modern dance, music, bioengineering,medicine and computer science), or architecturally focused as the cyberPRINT.This project covers a wide and fertile territory that goes from the very technical and design oriented tothe very theoretical and interdisciplinary. This paper is intended to (1) expand what has been alreadypublished about this project (Bermudez et al 2000a) and (2) establish potential areas for discussionbefore and after the performance
series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 077a
authors Boucard, D., Huot, S., Colin, Ch., Hégron, G. and Siret, D.
year 2002
title An Image-based and Knowledge-based System for Efficient Architectural and Urban Modeling
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 229-238
summary In this paper, we present two user-centered systems aiming at making easier the modeling ofarchitectural and urban scenes by using two different but complementary approaches. The first oneMArINa, an image-based modeler, allows the user to reconstruct urban scenes from one or moregraphical documents. This method focuses more on reconstructing models and is more dedicated tothe production of 3D sketches. The second modeler, MArCo is a knowledge-based modelercontaining the know-from and know-how on classical architecture. It allows the user to modelclassical architectural scenes verifying automatically all the domain rules. Finally, we show howMArINa and MArCo can cooperate providing the user a tool combining efficiently their respectivecapabilities.
series ACADIA
email Didier.Boucard@emn.fr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7f0a
authors Chen, K.-Z.,Feng, X.-A. and Ding, L.
year 2002
title Intelligent approaches for generating assembly drawings from 3-D computer models of mechanical products
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 34 (5) (2002) pp. 347-355
summary In order to reduce the time of mechanical product design and ensure the high quality of their assembly drawings, this paper develops an intelligent approach for generatingassembly drawings automatically from three-dimensional (3-D) computer assembly models of mechanical products by simulating the experienced human designer's thinkingmode with the aid of computer graphics and knowledge-based expert system. The key issues include the strategies and methods for selecting the necessary views in anassembly drawing, determining necessary sectional views in each view, eliminating the unreasonable projective overlap of the components in each view, and minimizing thenumbers of both the views in an assembly drawing and the sectional views in each view. Based on the approach, corresponding software prototype was developed. Finally, itis demonstrated, from an example of the fixture in a modularized drilling machine, that its assembly drawing was generated successfully using this intelligent softwareprototype.
keywords CAD, Intelligent CAD, Expert System, Artificial Intelligence, Assembly, Drawing
series journal paper
email kzchen@hkucc.hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id caadria2006_597
id caadria2006_597
authors CHOR-KHENG LIM, CHING-SHUN TANG, WEI-YEN HSAO, JUNE-HAO HOU, YU-TUNG LIU
year 2006
title NEW MEDIA IN DIGITAL DESIGN PROCESS: Towards a standardize procedure of CAD/CAM fabrication
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 597-599
summary In 1990, due to the traditional architecture design and construction method difficult to build the complicated and non-geometry free-form Fish Structure in Barcelona, architect Frank Gehry started learn from the field of aerospace to utilize CAD/CAM technology in design and manufacture process. He created the free-form fish model in CAD system and exported the digital CAD model data to CAM machine (RP and CNC) to fabricate the design components, and finally assembled on the site. Gehry pioneered in the new digital design process in using CAD/CAM technology or so-called digital fabrication. It becomes an important issue recently as the CAD/CAM technology progressively act as the new digital design media in architectural design and construction process (Ryder et al., 2002; Kolarevic, 2003). Furthermore, in the field of architecture professional, some commercial computer systems had been developed on purpose of standardizes the digital design process in using CAD/CAM fabrication such as Gehry Technologies formed by Gehry Partners; SmartGeometry Group in Europe and Objectile proposed by Bernard Cache. Researchers in the research field like Mark Burry, Larry Sass, Branko Kolarevic, Schodek and others are enthusiastic about the exploration of the role of CAD/CAM fabrication as new design media in design process (Burry, 2002; Schodek et al., 2005; Lee, 2005).
series CAADRIA
email kheng@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id aef5
authors De Paoli, Giovanni and Léglise, Michel
year 2002
title Architectural Design Education and Digital Technologies: Toward a Multinational Research Observatory
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 56-63
summary New visions that do not confine the computer to strictly technical and representation functions have appeared in schools of architecture over the past few years. The use of new information and communication technologies (NICT), in the field of design education in particular, have allowed the creation of innovative teaching tools and teaching configurations that are operational in certain European and North American schools. Unfortunately, the comparison of experiences is rare, and it would be beneficial to facilitate educational exchanges on a scientific basis. It is clear, now, that the general use of NICT will have to promote educational programs that are evaluated scientifically, that are “efficient” and that are occasionally multinational, even if the cultural differences make the task difficult. These considerations have lead us to the proposal of recommendations for the creation of a multinational observatory for the teaching of design that could benefit from the presence of researchers from European countries and from North America already implicated in activities in our laboratories. This observatory is conceived as a depository of pedagogical works serving as observation material destined for scientific research. As such, it would act as an observation site for research in didactics of design. It would allow for a new understanding of the opportunities and limitations derived from the emerging globalisation of distributed design education and offer new challenges for architectural schools. This article describes the beginnings of this observation system and underscores its potential to produce results in the future.
series eCAADe
email michel.leglise@toulouse.archi.fr
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id ddssar0229
id ddssar0229
authors De Vries, B., Jessurun, A.J. and J. Dijkstra, J.
year 2002
title Conformance Checking by Capturing and Simulating Human Behaviour in the Built Environment
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In order to model natural human behaviour, it is necessary to capture this behaviour. First, we will start out by modelling behaviour for specific situations, such as taking a seat in a theatre. To capture humanbehaviour, the following experiment is performed: Given a virtual environment, a sufficient number of subjects (real humans) are asked to execute a human task in this virtual environment (e.g. take a seat inthe theatre). Whenever the subject deviates from the shortest path, the system will ask for a clue why this is done. The hypothesis is that the combination of the motion paths and the clues for making/changing decisions will provide decision rules to make reliable predictions about human behaviour under the same conditions when using virtual persons. To test the hypothesis, we propose to use the university’s main conference and presentation hall as a test case. A 3D model and a motion pathgraph are constructed that enables a virtual person to find its way to a selected chair. The clues from the experiment are implemented as decision rules that determine a virtual person’s behaviour. Running thesimulation will result in the following data: Time per person to find a chair, Deviation from the shortest path, Distance covered per person to find a chair, Distribution of seated persons over time and Relocation of persons. To validate the test case, the process of people entering the hall and finding a chair is recorded on videotape. The walking behaviour of the people observed on the video is analysed and compared with the data from the simulation.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup0205
id ddssup0205
authors Deguchi, A., Tabira, Y., Matsuura, H., Nakano, H. and Arima, T.
year 2002
title Integration System of Archaeological and Geographical Informationfor Planning in Historical Regions
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary This study aims to construct the GIS for supporting the planning process and archaeological analysis in the historical regions by integrating geographical data and archaeological data on the sites with ruinsand remains in various period from ancient through medieval which had been buried and was recently excavated in geologic layers and mounds. First, for understanding the trends of environmental condition the excavated sites, we analyze the relationship between the site location and the condition ofgeography and natural environment by using the constructed system.Secondary, we develop the system to make it possible to browse and operate the information on the GIS through the internet. This web GIS constructed by us supports sharing the information on planning for preservation of historical sites among city planners, archaeologists and citizens, and serve as a tool for the collaboration and the coordination of urban development and historical preservation. Finally, as the application with the GIS, we show the results of case studies and point out the merits and effects about usage of the GIS for archaeological analysis as well as learning the local history.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ga0201
id ga0201
authors Dehlinger, H. E.
year 2002
title Instance and System: a Figure and its 2.18 Variations
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary From the structural characteristics of an existing figure - a graphical logo – a plausible solution space of related figures is constructed, which contains all other figures, which may be generated by systematically exploiting the structural characteristics of the input figure. The constructed space of figures can be understood to represent the solution space for the design of the logo. A designer, proceeding systematically by following some generative set of rules would have to construct this solution space at least to the point of a decision, if not entirely. In the presented experiment, this “solution space” will be exhausted completely and the resulting images (there are 218 will be outputted graphically. Questions will be asked concerning the design process, the generative rules, and the selection of the one instance representing a solution. The presented results are to be seen as “work in progress”.
series other
email dehling@uni-kassel.de
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 71a0
authors Gasparski, Wojciech W.
year 2002
title Designer’s Responsibility: Methodological and Ethical Dimensions
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 10-011
summary A designer is anybody who designs, where ‘to design’ - from Latin designare - means ‘to mark out’. Those who design professionally are professional designers, i. e. who „see and seek value in new designs“. Seeing an seeking might be done in two ways: narrower or broader. According to the approach characteristic for design-methodological reductionism those things which are designed are considered the designed objects. In this approach the designer’s task is limited to narrowly understood artifacts like buildings, bridges, machines, devices etc. The relation between a designed object and the reminder of the world is of a secondary consideration or ignored even. The postponed consequences are of physical, social, psychological, and economical nature. Systemic design methodology is different. It describes that ‘what is designed’ in terms of an object of design, a system (a whole) separated from the ‘rest of the world’ to an extent that can minimise a negative ‘immunological effect’. The object of design is a spectem is used. An independently developed programming language entitled NQC (Not Quite C) is used to program the robots. The students are initially given three lectures dealing with robotics in general, methods of locomotion and state based programming principles. Small workshops and discussions about ways of tackling the assigned problem followed these lectures. The work of Rechtin is shown wherein the methodology of “architecting” combines heuristics, hierarchies and intuition to reach design solution spaces. The students are then allowed to form teams whereby they must include members from each faculty. The students are also responsible for forming committees to collectively make decisions about the competitions. The committees decide general attributes of the robots such as size (Constructors Committee) as well as the rules for the competition (Race Committee). The Communication Committee was entrusted to develop a communication protocol (using Infrared transmitters) and the Code Committee decided whuse. Once producing and teaching good science is the main tasks of scholars, those among the scholars who are involved in design science are responsible not only for producing good design science but also for educating designers as reflective practitioners conscious of what every designer should know about objects of design and ethics related to the profession.
series eCAADe
email wgaspars@ifispan.waw.pl
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 2acf
authors Gero, John
year 2002
title Situated Computing: A New Paradigm for Design Computing
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, p. 1
summary Computer usage in design has largely been in the areas of document production, 3D modelling and to a lesser extent in specialised design analysis and design synthesis tasks. This use of computers by designers has been based on well-defined practices that have their genesis in the scientific approach to knowledge. Just as knowledge is independent of its use and independent of its user, so computer programs are designed to be independent of their use and independent of their users. This talk presents a complementary paradigm based on the notions of situated cognition as the basis of the development of new kinds of computational design tools.Situated cognition holds that where are you and when you are there matters and that the state you are in affects what you do. The fundamental difference is between encoding all knowledge prior to its use to allowing the knowledge to be grounded in the interaction between the computational system and its environment. In addition to the concepts of situated cognition there is another important concept called constructive memory. Constructive memory changes our view of “memory” in acomputational system from being a thing in a place that can be accessed with the correct index to being a process that produces a “memory” when needed. Thus, memory is constructed as needed and becomes a function of both the question it is used to respond to and the situation within which it was asked. These concepts provide the foundation for the developmentof novel tools to support computer-aided designing. Examples of situated cognition and constructive memory will be presented. This will be followed by examples of situated design analysis and situated computational design creativity.
series SIGRADI
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

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