CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 508

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 4a58
id 4a58
authors Giddings R, Horne M
year 2002
title Artists' Impressions in Architectural Design
source Spon Press, London, ISBN 0-419-26200 (hbk) ISBN 0-419-23600-7 (pbk)
summary This book analyses the ways in which architects have presented their designs for clients and the public, both historically and contemporarily. It spans a period from the 15th to the 21st century and places the technological developments of today in context with the rich heritage of the past.
keywords Architectural Design, Representation, Historical Perspective
series book
type normal paper
email m.horne@unn.ac.uk
last changed 2006/06/08 20:22

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id e997
authors Kós, J., Barki, J., Segre, R., Borde, A. and Vilas Boas, N.
year 2002
title Investigação digital dos projetos do MESP: a busca dos vestígios do modernismo brasileiro [Digital exploration of MESP projects: the search for the Brazilian Modernism footprints]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 75-78
summary This paper aims to demonstrate how the design process analysis of an important architectural icon of the city of Rio de Janeiro – the Ministry of Education and Public Health, MESP – allows the understanding of how the decisions taken during the design process synthesizes a way those involved in the project see the world, through an architectural artifact. This research presents, through 3D models, grouped in a hyperdocument, the project of that important Brazilian Modern Architecture icon. The 3D models were critical to the hypothesis development. They were a powerful tool to compare the different design versions while allowing projects with originally different forms of representation could be examined side by side from several equal point of views. Another important aspect of the investigation is the use of hyperdocument, through links of several document formats in an interactive way, to present the analysis.
series SIGRADI
email josekos@ufrj.br, zbki@ufrj.br, bobsegre@acd.ufrj.br, naylor@domain.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id bff9
authors Proctor, George (Ed.)
year 2002
title ACADIA 2002 [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X / Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, 446 p.
summary The 2002 ACADIA conference finds digital tec_nology ubiquitous as the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture moves into its third decade. The organization of ACADIA is on the threshold of restating its mission. After 20 years, many of the organization’s initial objectives have been achieved. ACADIA members have been instrumental in the development of design software, and in bringing computers and digital technology into architectural practice and design school curriculum. At first, ACADIAns faced the debate over the appropriateness and utility of digital technology in the disciplines of architecture, planning and building science. Today the use of computers and information technology is widely accepted by architects and CAAD and digital technology have brought profound change to design practice. The debate in ACADIA has long since moved from "should we use this technology" to "how", "for what" and "why". Now that many practitioners, learning institutions and professional organizations have taken up the call, ACADIA must restate its mission, if it wishes to remain “distinct”. This does not mean that the work of ACADIA is complete. Much remains to be done and much more needs to be improved. ACADIA’s Mission Statement places particular focus on “education and the software, hardware and pedagogy involved in education.” And “(t)he organization is also committed to the research and development of computer aides that enhance design creativity, and that aim at contributing to the construction of humane physical environments.” These are the areas that continue to evolve, grow and provide for ACADIA’s continued relevance. The ACADIA 2002 conference theme reflects the state of digital technology’s application to the discipline, as much as it refers to ACADIA’s future. With the general acceptance of digital technology and CAAD, we have arrived at a place where the work of great interest and relevance lies in the space between what is digital and what is analog. The environments of real space and cyberspace have in a very short time become so intertwined that the space between real and virtual (not to be confused with reality and fantasy) is becoming indistinguishable. You cannot eat, travel, use public utilities, bank, shop, vacation or recreate without at the very least coming into contact with or passing through information space. The landscape between these two environments has become a cultural phenomenon for those societies with access to the Internet and information networks. And while the computer and World Wide Web have empowered individuals, the collective impact of the technology holds all the potential and problems that similarly emerged in other technology induced landscapes. Consider this last point in the context of ACADIA’s stated mission to “enhance design creativity while contributing to the construction of humane physical environments.” And you can see why many of the 260 initial submissions to this conference were in the area of design artifacts and design methodology, providing evidence that ACADIA’s mission remains relevant and in accord with the trends of research and professional creative activity.
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id fd5a
authors Snizek, Bernhard
year 2003
title 3dkroner.dk – An interactive, web based 4D public participation tool
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary In an intensive workshop from November 11th to November 18th 2002, five teams consisting of members of architectural offices, artists, planners, developers, citizens & students came forward with a series of ideas & designs at urban & landscape level for Trekroner Øst, a new neighbourhood in Roskilde, Denmark.. 3dkroner.dk1, an interactive, web based 4D public participation tool (PPT) was created and used for communicating the workshop’s results to a broader public on the one hand, and to start a two way communication process between planners and citizens on the other hand. In this paper I will rather describe the tool’s development, its implementation in the workshop and the experiences the project team made from this process than discuss public participation tools in general.
series other
email mail@metascapes.dk
more http://www.metascapes.dk
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id ga0231
id ga0231
authors Sparacino, Flavia
year 2002
title Narrative Spaces: bridging architecture and entertainment via interactive technology
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Our society’s modalities of communication are rapidly changing. Large panel displays and screens are be ing installed in many public spaces, ranging from open plazas, to shopping malls, to private houses, to theater stages, classrooms, and museums. In parallel, wearable computers are transforming our technological landscape by reshaping the heavy, bulkydesktop computer into a lightweight, portable device that is accessible to people at any time. Computation and sensing are moving from computers and devices into the environment itself. The space around us is instrumented with sensors and displays, and it tends to reflect adiffused need to combine together the information space with our physical space. This combination of large public and miniature personal digital displays together with distributed computing and sensing intelligence offers unprecedented opportunities to merge the virtual and the real, the information landscape of the Internet with the urban landscape of the city, to transform digital animated media in storytellers, in public installations and through personal wearable technology. This paper describes technological platforms built at the MIT Media Lab, through 1994-2002, that contribute to defining new trends in architecture that mergevirtual and real spaces, and are reshaping the way we live and experience the museum, the house, the theater, and the modern city.
series other
email flavia@media.mit.edu
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 14fa
authors Van Casteren, James and Sneyers, Stijn
year 2002
title The use of digital information in a municipal spatial structure plan
source CORP 2002, Vienna, pp. 395-400
summary The benefit of linking digital data with geographical maps has always been underestimated in the spatial planning of Flanders.Today, the planning methods in Flanders have evolved from a static land-use planning to a dynamic, more flexible planning: spatialstructure planning. The general idea is to come to a consensus between the different fields that have a need for land occupation.Understanding ones needs, it should be easier to make decisions based upon a mutual insight of problems and opportunities regardingspatial planning. How does one examine spatial structure plans, problems and opportunities using digital information? All differentfields have their own methods of gathering spatial information and storing it digitally, what results into a large amount of data. Thispaper describes the use of these data in a spatial planning process: the conditions in which to use databases, how to link different datato spatial maps and how to work with overlays in order to formulate conclusions regarding spatial planning. Last but not least, wehave worked out a way to import GIS-data in non-GIS-programs in order to produce attractive charts that can ‘sell’ spatial planningideas to the public. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of using digital information in spatial planningand the necessity to have a constant dialogue between spatial planners and GIS-experts in order to make models that are suitable forspatial planning.
series other
more www.corp.at
last changed 2002/12/19 11:16

_id ga0208
id ga0208
authors Wang, Xu and Lau, Siu Yu
year 2002
title Pursuing New Urban Living Environment In The New Millennium: Projecting The Future Of High-Rise And High Density Living In Hong Kong
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary High-rise and high density living is a way of life for most of the 6.7 Million population of Hong Kong. The merits and demerits affiliated with Hong Kong’s compact urban form continues to attract academic deliberations and debates over the acceptability of such urban form as an alternative to urban sprawl for future city and urban life-style. This paper traces the development and causes for Hong Kong’s high-rise and high-density urban form over the past fifty years or so, and focuses its discussions on the pros and cons of high-rise living based on subjective user survey in late 2001 and early 2002. Because of an articulated land shortage, acute topography, escalating population growth, and shortage of time, Hong Kong government and planners have little options left but to adopt vertical development, resulted in a densely and mixed use urban habitat packed with closely built high-rise residences and commercial buildings. From the survey, it is clear that mixed and intensive land use, high quality of living and recreation infrastructure, efficient public transportation network, and segregation of pedestrian and traffic can facilitate the performance of compact urban form. In addition, most of Hong Kong families have been accustomed to high-rise living pattern and the disadvantages such living pattern might cause on its resident’s social communication and children education are readily ignored by most of the people. Based on the analysis of current living situation and development trends in Hong Kong, new pattern of future city form is conceived to be a likely applicable development way in a coastal city with such high density as Hong Kong in the next 50 years. Design countermeasures are presented in this paper to suggest ways of alleviating the pressure of the forever-increasing house requirements in Hong Kong. high-density, high-rise, compact city, social acceptance, life-style.
keywords high-density, high-rise, compact city, social acceptance, life-style
series other
email wangxc@hkusua.hku.hk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id f231
authors Hammond, T.,Gajos, K., Davis, R. and Shrobe, H.
year 2002
title An Agent-Based System for Capturing and Indexing Software Design Meetings
source Gero JS and Brazier FMT (eds) (2002) Agents in Design 2002. Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, pp. 203-218
summary We present an agent-based system for capturing and indexing software design meetings. During these meetings, designers design object-oriented software tools, including new agent-based technologies for the Intelligent Room, by sketching UML-type designs on a white-board. To capture the design meeting history, the Design Meeting Agent requests available audio, video, and screen capture services from the environment and uses them to capture the entire design meeting. However, finding a particular moment of the design history video and audio records can be cumbersome without a proper indexing scheme. To detect, index, and timestamp significant events in the design process, the Tahuti Agent, also started by the Design Meeting Agent, records, recognizes, and understands the UML-type sketches drawn during the meeting. These timestamps can be mapped to particular moments in the captured video and audio, aiding in the retrieval of the captured information. Metaglue, a multiagent system, provides the computational glue necessary to bind the distributed components of the system together. It also provides necessary tools for seamless multi-modal interaction between the varied agents and the users.
series other
email hammond@ai.mit.edu
last changed 2003/05/10 08:16

_id d5ac
authors Kalisperis, L.N., Otto, G., Muramoto, K., Gundrum, J.S., Masters, R. and Orland, B.
year 2002
title Virtual Reality/Space Visualization in Design Education: The VR-Desktop Initiative
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 64-71
summary Although virtual reality (VR) is a fast-growing field, utilization of its potential within an affordable environment in the early years of architectural education has been limited. Currently, we are in the process of exploring the educational potential of virtual reality in the creation and understanding of space as a set of dynamic volumes that can be experienced. The VR-Desktop initiative is an effort to bring the salient features of projection-based VR to second-year architecture students in a way that is more generally accessible than the many canonical, first-generation, projection-based VR systems. The VR-Desktop has been implemented in the teaching of the architectural design studio in the second year of a fiveyear curriculum, as part of the physical architectural studio. Through the VR-Desktop system in the studio, students immediately start working in an immersive environment. They create space by manipulating solids and voids while evaluating the anthropometric relations of the proposed solution. The students are able to study and test conceptual details in a virtual environment from the very beginning of their architectural design project. In order to assess student perception of the usefulness of various system attributes for diverse tasks, we have begun a usability study. Thirty-five surveys were collected from the students who had used the lab during the two semesters for which the two-screen system was available. Preliminary observations indicate that within the architectural context, virtual reality techniques involving depth perception can convey relevant information to students more efficiently and with less misrepresentation than traditional techniques. This paper suggests that full field of view, motion, stereoscopic vision, and interactivity are possible components of the 3D visualization techniques that are necessary to enhance architectural education
series eCAADe
email lnk@psu.edu
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 8c9c
authors Koszewski, Krzysztof and Wrona, Stefan (Eds.)
year 2002
title CONNECTING THE REAL AND THE VIRTUAL - DESIGN E-DUCATION
source 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, 632 p.
summary The 20th 2002 eCAADe Warsaw conference theme focuses on the wide sphere of two overlapping design worlds: the real and the virtual. As the sphere of CAAD continues to expand, the question of how these worlds can be effectively and creatively interrelated will be raised and explored. Network-based distributed environments produce new conditions for design and design education. Opportunities and limitations derived from the emerging globalization of distributed design education offer new challenges for architectural schools. A constantly important topic of eCAADe conferences throughout the years is architectural IT-education. How can CAD and modern IT-tools be adopted into architectural education and the practice?
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email xys@arch.pw.edu.pl, wrona@arch.pw.edu.pl
more www.ecaade2002.pl
last changed 2005/08/04 05:34

_id 18dd
authors Sjöström, Calle
year 2002
title Non-Visual Haptic Interaction Design - Guidelines and Applications
source Lund Institute of Technology, School of Architecture
summary This dissertation has three cornerstones: * Haptics * Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) * Blind Users Haptics deals with controlling human movements and getting feedback through the sense of touch. A haptic interface transmits forces to a person’s hand or fingers in a way that mimics the sensation of touching real objects. Virtual haptic touch can be particularly useful for people with visual impairments. It makes it possible for a blind person to touch virtual objects, corresponding to the way a sighted person can see objects on a computer screen. The goal of this research was to carry out an unbiased investigation of the potential of this technology for blind people. The more specific aims were to: * Investigate if and how blind people’s computer usage can be improved by virtual haptics. * Investigate the problems that arise with graphical user interfaces for blind people and how these problems can be managed with haptics. * Develop new applications and find new areas in which virtual haptics can be applied for blind people. The design process has been primarily influenced by theories of usability engineering and reflection in action/reflection on action, focusing on the role of the engineer-designer. A concerted effort is made to use technology as a language to communicate with the users. Several haptic interface devices have been involved. The Phantom from SensAble Technologies has been used the most. It is a small robot with a thimble or stylus attached to the tip which supplies force feedback to the user. The others are the FEELit Mouse from Immersion and the force feedback joysticks from Logitech and Microsoft. Eighteen test applications were developed over five years’ time. They included games, curves, textures, drawings, menus, floor plans, and geometrical objects. Formal and informal user tests were performed on blind, blind-deaf and sighted people. One of the key results presented are five guidelines for non-visual haptic interaction design for researchers, designers, testers, developers and users of such applications. The guidelines are: 1. Elaborate a virtual object design of its own 2. Facilitate navigation and overview 3. Provide contextual information 4. Utilize all available modalities 5. Support the user in learning the interaction method and the specific environments and programs These guidelines represent the filtered and condensed knowledge and experience that the Haptics Group at Certec has gained during the testing and development process. They are further delineated and are a complement to existing HCI guidelines. This work shows that there is great potential in using haptic technology in applications for blind people. It is viable to translate both 2D and 3D graphical information and make it comprehensible via haptics. It has been demonstrated that a blind person can orientate and navigate in a virtual haptic environment and that these tasks can be further supported by using complementary information such as sound and Braille. It is also possible for a blind person to use knowledge gained in the virtual world for real life orientation.
keywords Haptics; Human-Computer Interaction; Blind People; Design Guidelines; Computer Access
series thesis:PhD
email Calle@ruff.certec.lth.se
more http://www.certec.lth.se/doc/hapticinteraction/
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 156e
authors Tsou, J.-Y., Chow, B. and Lam, S.
year 2002
title Performance-Based Simulation for the Planning and Design of Hyper Dense Urban Habitation
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 249-256
summary The rapid development of the economy and urbanization create great pressure on population of Hong Kong, China and other developing countries. This not only brings great changes on the form and style of the urban sphere, but also, challenges to the natural environment and resources to support urban habitation. Regarding the process of urbanization, the development of the housing industry becomes the focus to resolve the need of materialization for urban living. For this reason, from time to time, technical and economical considerations are always prior to the significance of human settlement environment, humanity, and sustainable development. Considering the deficiency in urban human settlements environment, especially in responsiveness to the natural environment. Information technology (IT) undoubtedly can help to promote and assess the design and planning quality in both environmental and regional microenvironment aspects. A research project-Environmental Responsible Architecture and Urban Design (ERAU)-is established to support urban scale planning, information processing, and computer-aided performance evaluation on both micro and macro building design and planning efficiency.
series CAADRIA
email jinyeutsou@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id 132eaea2001
id 132eaea2001
authors Borg, Manuela and Walz, Manfred
year 2002
title Orientation Strategies within Public Spaces as the Rudiments of Space Usage and Layout” – A Workshop Contribution
source Environmental Simulation - New Impulses in Planning Processes [Proceedings of the 5th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-922602-85-1]
summary Our guiding questions in research are: - how does one orient oneself in an unknown urban space, - are there typical strategies in orientation, which become visible during the search process and finally:- do men and women orientate in the same unknown urban space in the same way or are there hints that they are following different strategies?Our long-term theme in research is to find out the regularity and the rules of the processes of moving and using public spaces. In the first step we are trying to find out in which way the individual perception of urban spaces in moving depends on the design of urban spaces. Therefore in our research design we try to explore the qualities of urban spaces which become visible in moving processes. It is one of the oldest questions of urban design and – by the way – nearly every architect or planner pretends to know everything on this subject. But nobody is yet able to predict real moving or using processes while designing. On the other side: the parameters of the material frame work are well known while moving and using processes are still nearly unknown.
series EAEA
email borg@fh-dortmund.de
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 63c3
authors Burdi, Luciana
year 2002
title Evaluating the Use of a Web-Based Collaborative Interactive Digital Model (CollABITA) in Supporting the Urban Design Approval Process1
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, III.1-III.15
summary This research, after analyzing the Urban Development Approval Process in its functionalities and methodologies, is showing the key points at which the process might be supported by new computer technologies, and it establishes a web-based Collaborative Interactive Digital Model (CollABITA Model) that relates and facilitates the graphical representation of the urban design process with some elements of the methodological approach. The CollABITA Model will dramatically facilitate the idea of broadening public participation, and indirectly by this, also collaboration. This new web-based support tool, is focusing on how new Informative Computer Technologies can be used in order to have a more co-operative design process. By utilizing the enormous potential of Internet for informing the process, and software for visualizing its products, the Model will provide an effective support, which will be able to deliver information in various forms to the Designers, Developers, Decision Makers, Agencies and the final user (the Citizens). The Model is concerned with the big challenge of supporting the urban design approval process itself, by exploring different kind of visualizations and communication tools, rather than producing a guide for carrying out the design. CollABITA Model is based on the existent framework structure of the extranet tool already available. Then, more then those, CollABITA Model will try to solve, by adding technical and collaborative functionalities, those issues that are characteristics in the urban design process and that are not jet solved by using one of the software .
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email lburdi@gsd.harvard.edu
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/03/29 09:43

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6440
authors Chang, Y.L., Lee, Y.Z. and Liu, Y.T.
year 2002
title Construction of Digital City in Physical City: Cyberspatial Cognition Approach to the Project of Hsin-Chu Digital City in Taiwan
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 109-116
summary The cyberspace upon physical space forms a new spatial structure to increase the influence on the urban fabric and the concept of space in architecture. Today, digital cities are being developed all over the world. By using a city metaphor, digital cities integrate urban information and create public spaces. How do digital cities directly connect to physical cities and become an imaginable city? Therefore, we argue that a new spatial analysis theory must be established for digital city, comparing with theories of disciplines, to find the explicitly spatial structures and relations in digital city upon physical city.
series CAADRIA
email jecho@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id f6d6
authors El Araby, Mostafa
year 2002
title Possibilities and Constraints of using Virtual Reality in Urban Design
source CORP 2002, Vienna, pp. 457-463
summary This study aims at exploring the rapid growth of the use of Virtual Reality techniques in the field of Urban Design. Currently, VirtualReality —the ultimate representation— and Virtual Environments are the most growing fields of information technology and have agreat media attention. This research discusses the possibilities and limitations of applying Virtual Reality (VR) technology inenvironmental simulations for urban design practice. There is evidence to suggest that the use of such technology will enhanceconceivable image of any proposed project at any urban setting for users, designers and clients. Therefore, city officials andadministrators (clients) and the public (users) can reach better decisions regarding proposed projects within their towns and cities.Specifically, this research structured in several interdependent parts: the first part is concerned with the definition of VR as well as abackground of its history and current achievements. Types and components of VR systems are described and traditional simulationtechniques are reviewd. In addition, a discussion of current attempts in incorporating VR in urban design disciplines are presented.This discussion raises the question of appropriateness of the VR techniques in urban design projects. An assesment of both potentialsand limitations of aplying this technique, i.e. VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language), are discussed. This study definespotentialities, constraints and problems of using this technique, and recommends future research efforts in the field of using theVirtual Reality as a medium for delivering real content for those interested in the design of the built environment.
series other
email melaraby@aueu.ac.ae
more www.corp.at
last changed 2002/12/19 11:19

_id 29b8
authors Hanzl, Malgorzata
year 2002
title The Role of Virtual City Models in Urban Tissue Evaluation
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 396-399
summary The shape of town is the main issue which planners deal with. The function of some buildings and urban facilities is flexible, it changes in time. The appearance of city public areas and, what follows, the life conditions of its inhabitants, depends on elements of the town structure - the surrounding buildings, their density, state and form. All lasting elements of the city form its shape which reflects urban processes which have been taking place over ages. The aim of this paper is to define how latest computer technology can be used as an aid in the evaluation of the town landscape.
series eCAADe
email mhanzl@p.lodz.pl
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

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