CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf_2003_000
id cf_2003_000
authors Chiu, M.-L., Tsou, J.-Y., Kvan, Th., Morozumi, M. and Jeng, T.-S. (Eds.)
year 2003
title Digital Design - Research and Practice
source Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1 / Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, 464 p.
summary The use of computers in the design of the built environment has reached a watershed. From peripheral devices in the design process, they have in recent years come to take centre stage. An illustration is immediately at hand. Just as the entries to the competition for the Chicago Tribune Tower in 1922 defined the state-of-the-art at the beginning of the twentieth century, we have a similar marker at the end of the century, the competition in 2002 to replace the World Trade Centre towers in Lower Manhattan offered us a range of architectural solutions that exemplified the state-of-the-art eighty years later, setting forth not only architectural statements but also illustrating clearly the importance of computers in the design of the built environment. In these entries of 2002, we can see that computers have not only become essential to the communication of design but in the investigation and generation of structure, form and composition. The papers in this book are the current state-of-the-art in computer-aided design as it stands in 2003. It is the tenth in a series sponsored by the CAAD Futures Foundation, compiled from papers presented at the biennial CAAD Futures Conferences. As a series, the publications have charted the steady progress in developing the theoretical and practical foundations for applications in design practice. This volume continues in that tradition; thus, this book is entitled Digital Design: Research and Practice. The papers are grouped into three major categories, reflecting thrusts of research and practice, namely: Data and information: its organisation, handling and access, including agents; Virtual worlds: their creation, application and interfaces; and Analysis and creation of form and fabric. The editors received 121 abstracts after the initial call for contributions. From these, 61 abstracts were selected for development into complete papers for further review. From these submissions, 39 papers were chosen for inclusion in this publication. These papers show that the field has evolved from theoretical and development concerns to questions of practice in the decade during which this conference has showcased leading work. Questions of theoretical nature remain as the boundaries of our field expand. As design projects have grasped the potentials of computer-aided design, so have they challenged the capabilities of the tools. Papers here address questions in geometric representation and manipulation (Chiu and Chiu; Kocaturk, Veltkamp and Tuncer), topics that may have been considered to be solved. As design practice becomes increasingly knowledge based, better ways of managing, manipulating and accessing the complex wealth of design information becomes more pressing, demanding continuing research in issues such as modelling (Yang; Wang; Zreik et al), data retrieval and querying (Hwang and Choi; Stouffs and Cumming; Zreik, Stouffs, Tuncer, Ozsariyildiz and Beheshti), new modes of perceiving data (Segers; Tan). Tools are needed to manage, mine and create information for creative work, such as agents (Liew and Gero; Smith; Caneparo and Robiglio; Ding et al) or to support design processes (Smith; Chase). Systems for the support and development of designs continue (Gero; Achten and Jessurun). As progress is made on some fronts, such as user interfaces, attention is again turned to previously research areas such as lighting (Jung, Gross and Do; Ng et al; Wittkopf; Chevier; Glaser, Do and Tai) or services (Garcia; Chen and Lin). In recent years the growth of connectivity has led to a rapid growth in collaborative experience and understanding of the opportunities and issues continues to mature (Jabi; Dave; Zamenopoulos and Alexiou). Increasing interest is given to implications in practice and education (Dave; Oxman; Caneparo, Grassi and Giretti). Topics new to this conference are in the area of design to production or manufacture (Fischer, Burry and Frazer; Shih). Three additional invited papers (Rekimoto; Liu; Kalay) provide clear indication that there is still room to develop new spatial concepts and computer augmented environments for design. In conclusion, we note that these papers represent a good record of the current state of the evolving research in the field of digital design.
series CAAD Futures
email mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
more http://www.caadfutures.arch.tue.nl/
last changed 2003/09/22 10:21

_id 255e
authors Sarawgi, Tina and Paranandi, Murali
year 2002
title Daylight Simulation: Examining its place during Conceptual Stages in a CAAD Studio
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 263-270
summary This paper reports on our experiences using computer graphic visual simulations to encouragearchitecture students to examine daylighting aspects of their design solutions during conceptual stagesin undergraduate design studios. Using computers for conceptual design was the major thrust of theinvestigation of these studios where daylight was one of the issues students examined for a four-weekperiod. We present our experiences and student work with traditional CGI-based and physics-basedradiosity rendering techniques. Our experiences show that although radiosity based visual simulation iscapable of producing more realistic images, in the design process its success was limited to studyingclearly defined interior spaces. CGI-based visualization, particularly when used in conjunction withtraditional physical models, was more useful and effective in the design process, being closer to thefluid nature of the design process. Further work needs to be done to make the currently availableradiosity-based software suitable for use in the design decision-making process.
series ACADIA
email t_sarawg@uncg.edu
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 077a
authors Boucard, D., Huot, S., Colin, Ch., Hégron, G. and Siret, D.
year 2002
title An Image-based and Knowledge-based System for Efficient Architectural and Urban Modeling
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 229-238
summary In this paper, we present two user-centered systems aiming at making easier the modeling ofarchitectural and urban scenes by using two different but complementary approaches. The first oneMArINa, an image-based modeler, allows the user to reconstruct urban scenes from one or moregraphical documents. This method focuses more on reconstructing models and is more dedicated tothe production of 3D sketches. The second modeler, MArCo is a knowledge-based modelercontaining the know-from and know-how on classical architecture. It allows the user to modelclassical architectural scenes verifying automatically all the domain rules. Finally, we show howMArINa and MArCo can cooperate providing the user a tool combining efficiently their respectivecapabilities.
series ACADIA
email Didier.Boucard@emn.fr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email matti.arponen@hel.fi
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7798
authors Barrow, Larry
year 2002
title Elitism, IT and the Modern Architect Opportunity or Dilemma
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 97-109
summary Information Technology (IT) is impacting architecture dramatically in process and form. Often thecurrent transformation of architecture is difficult to analyze and frequently we see confusion and anxietyregarding uncertainties for the future of the architect as designer and project leader. The currentpotentiality for new exotic form (i.e. product) is mesmerizing; however, in the current context, lessobvious issues and pertinent questions are emerging for the profession. What is the mission of theprofession? What will keep us relevant in the mist of the new global society?In this paper, we will take an evolutionary perspective of technology in architecture and draw parallelsbetween the Renaissance, which is the genesis of the modern architect, and the contemporary state ofarchitecture. The modern architect was birthed during the Renaissance where we see the retraction ofthe architect from the building site and separation from direct involvement in the building process.Communications technology (i.e. representation in the form of free-hand drawings, mechanical 2Dorthographic drawings and 3D perspectives) enabled the decomposition of the master builder into threecomponents (i.e. artist-designer, practicing_architect, and builder). Thus, we see technology enable thedenigration and ultimate dissolution of the centuries old craftsman guilds and the master builder. Thetechnology evolution of “drawings” enabled monumental change in the process of architecture over thepast five hundred years. The fission of the master builder, enabled by “drawings”, resulted in disparatefactions which are the forerunners of the modern day litigious design-bid-build project delivery. We nowincreasingly see a return to the fusion of design and building where often the architect is not the projectmanager or leader. Thus, the question looms, will the 21st century architect lead or be led, and whatare the ramifications for the profession?The historical Master Builder is re-emerging as a dynamically networked team of design andconstruction knowledge specialists. Bi-lateral knowledge exchange, enhanced with emerging IT, isoccurring between owners, managers, architects, design specialists, engineers, builders and machines.Technology is disrupting architecture, resulting in increasing specialization and compressed timeframes, and may require reevaluation of the role of the architect as project-leader "integrativegeneralist"or "design-specialist".Conclusively, the concept of ‘cybernetic architecture’ is proposed as an IT reference framework. Failureto appropriately respond to societal evolution, driven by technology, could result in the loss ofprofessional status for the modern architect. Herein lies our dilemma, or opportunity, depending on therole choice of the modern architect.
series ACADIA
email lbarrow@msstate.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id acadia03_015
id acadia03_015
authors Bernhardt, Matthew and Blostein, Beth
year 2003
title APPROPRIATE LEVELS OF ACCESS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE AVAILABILITY OF COMPUTERS IN STUDIO
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 119-127
summary One of the most significant technological challenges facing architecture schools today is how to provide an appropriate level of access to computing resources. As the computer has become a significant tool in the study and practice of architecture, students need to have access to that tool in order to further their studies. But in facing this question of access, what is “appropriate”? Is there such a thing as too much access? Is 1:1 access—a computer for every student—the minimum level of access that schools and students should accept? Or is there a point beyond which more resources just means more waste; computers sitting idle and unused, or students using the computer for unproductive ends? These questions were the subject of an experimental series of studios in the spring of 2002, wherein three studios were given varying numbers of computers for a term. The use of these computers was then tracked, and compared with previous terms. In tandem, the quality of work produced by these three studios was compared. While additional experiments are most likely needed to draw firm conclusions, the results of this experiment seem to support defining “an appropriate level of access” at less than 1:1.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email bernhardt.7@osu.edu
last changed 2004/12/09 16:42

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 2d03
authors Head, J., Hoag, R. and Brooks, K.
year 2002
title An Evaluation of Urban Simulation Processes for the Elumens Vision Dome
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 55-63
summary This paper reports an evaluation of the potential use and value of three digital urban simulationstechniques presented on a hemispheric display system made by Elumens®. The utility of this system toengage students and decision-makers in a process of envisioning alternative futures for a communitycollege campus in a Midwestern U.S. city is discussed. Visualization of alternative environments is acritical part of planning and design. The ability of designers, planners and their students to use media toengage and communicate proposals is essential to effective participatory design processes.
series ACADIA
email jeffhead@ksu.edu
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id ga0213
id ga0213
authors Herr, Christiane M.
year 2002
title Generative Architectural Design and Complexity Theory
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary During the past decades, complexity theory has evolved as a new discipline that provides a broad scientific perspective towards dynamic real-life phenomena, challenging the classical linear worldview as well as simple cause-and-effect-style Newtonian physics. For architects, the advent of this new science offers the challenge as well as the chance to reconsider common design approaches and to invent new strategies based on the new paradigms. The actual application of complexity theory to architectural design, however, results in a fundamental dilemma: How can a reflective, ultimately retrospective body of thought (complexity theory) be applied to prospective design challenges (architecture)? Being part of a current MArch thesis project, the proposed paper focuses on this general dilemma between architectural design and complexity theory and discusses actual as well as potential future generative architectural design approaches involving complexity theory. Generative design strategies commonly apply algorithmic methods and formalisms, which can conveniently produce and deal with high levels of complexity. Complexity describes general properties of a system and can be further dissected into several modes: epistemic, ontological and functional complexity. This taxonomy offers insights into generative design applications, which have mostly focused on a limited set of complexity modes. Besides complexity generated by sheer numbers, aspects like functional or hierarchical complexity offer further perspectives on generative systems, processes and output. Considering these aspects of complexity theory, future challenges to generative architectural design can be predicted.
series other
email candyhk@hkusua.hku.hk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 9f7b
authors Heylighen, Ann and Segers, Nicole M.
year 2002
title Crossing Two Thresholds with one Stepping Stone – Scenario for a More Comfortable Design Environment
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 145-153
summary In architecture, design ideas are developed as much through interaction as by individuals in isolation.This awareness inspired the development of a dynamic architectural memory online, an interactiveplatform to share ideas, knowledge and insights among architects/designers in different contexts and atdifferent levels of expertise. User interaction revealed this platform to suffer from at least two thresholds:First of all, consultation during design is impeded by a physical threshold that separates the platformfrom the designer’s working environment. Secondly, designers tend to sense a psychological thresholdto share their ideas and insights with others. This paper proposes to cross both thresholds byconnecting the collective platform to a private design space, where designers can feel free to jot downand reflect on their ideas without fear for criticism, compromise or copying. This connection should allowthem to access the platform during the very act of designing, and to regulate to what extent they ‘giveaway’ their own ideas. The latter regulation is literally meant as a stepping stone that if not primes, thenat least paves the way for a sincere shift in mentality.
series ACADIA
email ann_heylighen@yahoo.com
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 9dc7
authors Hwang, Jie-Eun and Choi, Jin-Won
year 2002
title SpaceCore: Metadata for Retrieving Spatial Information in Architecture
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 197-215
summary This research investigates the spatial information retrieval in architecture focused on constructingefficient metadata that is crucial for data retrieval. Generally speaking, metadata is ‘structured dataabout data’ to describe the resources especially in a digital method. In this research, metadata is a sortof data object to be used in searching spatial information, such as describing a raw spatial data objectnot only as attribute data but also as content, structurally and semantically. There are two issues thatmotivate this research; 1) the materialization of the intangible space as a data object, and 2) thecontent-based information retrieval. In the viewpoint of content-based retrieval, we analyze spatialinformation on the apartment unit floor plan common in Korea. Then we extract the metadata items in astructured manner. To manage the items efficiently, we develop a data model for spatial informationaccording to the concept of “Structured Floor Plan”. For exploiting the metadata, this research showsseveral possibilities of query operations to present a set of sample queries about L-D-K(Living room -Dining room – Kitchen). Implementation of the prototype system is divided into three parts: 1) amodeling module, Vitruvis; 2) an indexing module, SpaceCore; and 3) a browsing module.
series ACADIA
email curiozen@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id caadria2006_179
id caadria2006_179
authors KEATRUANGKAMALA K., NILKAEW P.
year 2006
title STRONG VALID INEQUALITY CONSTRAINTS FOR ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 179-185
summary In the past decades, many attempts have been made to solve the challenging architectural layout design problem such as non-linear programming and evolutionary algorithm (Michalek and Papalambros, 2002). The Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) (Kamol and Krung, 2005) was recently developed to find the global optimal solution. However, the problem can be shown to belong to the class of NP-hard problem (Michalek and Papalambros, 2002). Hence, only the small instances of the problem can be solved in a reasonable time. In order to deal with large problem sizes, this paper utilizes the strong valid inequalities (George and Laurence). It cut off the infeasible points in the integral search space by formulated the disconnected constraints involved with line configurations of three rooms. It is shown to significantly increase the computational speed to more than thirty percents. This exhibits the practical use of the MIP formulation to solve the medium size architectural layout design problems.
series CAADRIA
email kamolkeat@hotmail.com, tuan@mail.cmu.ac.th
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id ed3c
authors Kuenstle, Michael W.
year 2002
title Escarpment Study in a Virtual Flow Environment: A Comparative Analysis of a Single Building Type Modeled in Varying Topological Situations
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 239-247
summary This paper documents the progress of research to investigate the integration of 3-dimensionalcomputational modeling techniques into wind mitigation analysis and design for building structureslocated in high wind prone areas. Some of the basic mechanics and theoretical concepts of fluid flowand wind pressure as well as their translation into design criteria for structural analysis and design arereviewed, followed by a discussion of a detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application casestudy for a simulated "3-second gust" hurricane force wind flow over a low rectangular building locatedin a coastal region of south Florida. The case study project models the wind flow behavior and pressuredistribution over the building structure when situated in three varying conditions within a single terrainexposure category. The simulations include three-dimensional modeling of the building type constructed(1) on-grade in a flat coastal area, (2) above grade with the building elevated on structural columns, and(3) on-grade downwind of an escarpment. The techniques and parameters for development of thesimulations are discussed and some preliminary interpretations of the results are evaluated bycomparing their predictions to existing experimental and analytical data, with special attention paid tothe numerical methods outlined in the American Society of Civil Engineers, Minimum Design Loads forBuildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7-98.
series ACADIA
email kuenstle@ufl.edu
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 6cde
authors Liapi, Katherine A.
year 2002
title Transformable Architecture Inspired by the Origami Art: Computer Visualization as a Tool for Form Exploration
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 381-388
summary Membrane packaging has been the main feature of the earliest prototypes of transformablearchitecture. Similar concepts of spatial transformation are encountered in the origami art where aplanar paper surface, after folding, transforms to a 3-dimentional object. The geometric configuration ofcreases on a sheet of paper before folding, as well as the topological properties of 3D origami papermodels, have been recently addressed, and can be used as a guide for the design of new forms.Because membranes in general can be considered surfaces of minimal thickness, principles of theorigami art and math can find applications in the conception and design of transformable membranestructures for architecture. This paper discusses how computer visualization can be used to explorethe potential application of ideas borrowed from the origami art in the conceptual design oftransformable structures. A two-case study that shows how origami math is integrated in the computervisualization of a potential architectural application is included. The same study also shows thatanimated simulations of the transformation process during folding can identify problems in the initialgeometric conception of an origami type structure, and can be used for further morphologicalexplorations.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id b255
authors Liew, Haldane
year 2002
title Descriptive Conventions for Shape Grammars
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 365-378
summary This paper introduces a new set of descriptive conventions for shape grammars, and illustrates howthey can be used to address problems with user experience. The shape grammar formalism has beenshown to be capable of generating designs such as Palladian villas, Prairie houses and Queen Annehouses. The formalism can describe the process to develop a design through the use of rules, symbols,and lines.The user’s experience in applying the rules is often neglected in the design of the grammars. Thiscreates four problems: 1) the user is unaware of the implicit sequencing of rules, 2) the user cangenerate invalid design states, 3) the user is forced to apply technical rules that do not change theoverall design, and 4) the user is only given a restricted set of design choices.To address these problems, a new set of descriptive conventions has been developed that provides alayer of abstraction built on top of the formalism. These conventions are currently being implementedusing the Visual LISP programming environment in AutoCAD. The program applies rules, whichincorporate the use of the new conventions, to produce a design.The conventions are based on two techniques. The first technique is an explicit control mechanism thatdetermines the sequencing of rules based on the success or failure of a rule application. Becausesome design changes require more than one rule, this allows the grammar to chain a sequence of rulesto create macros since. The second technique is a mechanism that demarcates an area of the drawingfor query. With this technique, a rule is able to recognize void spaces in a drawing.A comparison of the rules to construct a bi-laterally symmetrical grid in three grammars--Palladian,Yingzao Fashi, and Grid--will be used to demonstrate the advantages of the new conventions.
series ACADIA
email haldane@mit.edu
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id c7e0
id c7e0
authors Maria Gabriela Caffarena Celani
year 2002
title BEYOND ANALYSIS AND REPRESENTATION IN CAD: A NEW COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH TO DESIGN EDUCATION
source Submitted to the Department of Architecture in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the field of Architecture: Design & Computation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
summary This thesis aims at changing students' attitude towards the use of computer-aided design (CAD) in architecture. It starts from the premise that CAD is used mostly for analysis and representation, and not as a real design aide, and that architecture students have a bias against learning computer programming. For this purpose, a prototypical instruction system that mixes computer-aided design and computational design theory was developed, based on a series of fundamental concepts that are common to both fields. This system was influenced by Mitchell's (1987) The Art of Computer Graphics Programming and Stiny's (1976) shape grammars. Despite being based on solid theoretical foundations, CAD has progressively become an exclusively practical tool, since its origins in the 50's and 60's, while computational design theories have been mostly restricted to the academic circles. This thesis proposes an inversion in the present situation: the study of CAD theory, and the application of computational design into practice. The system proposed provides a conceptual framework that can be adapted to different circumstances, including course formats and resources, as well as students' background and technical training. It is based on seven fundamental concepts from computational design theories that are also important to the study of shape grammars: symmetry, recursion, rule-based compositions, parameterization of shapes, generative systems, algorithmization of design procedures, and shape emergence. These concepts are introduced within a CAD context, where their practical implementation and experimentation are possible, focusing the understanding of the computational nature of design. During this research, the proposed system was tested in two case studies with students from schools that had contrary orientations in terms of the importance of CAD in the architectural curriculum. In these experimental courses, students' activities evolved from using a commercial CAD tool in an innovative way, to the use of programming techniques for creating meaningful tools. Despite not having a statistical reach, the fieldwork allowed drawing preliminary conclusions about the proposed system's efficacy, since virtually all the students reported changing their understanding of the role of CAD in architecture, while some also acknowledged a conceptual influence in other subjects and in the way they see architecture.
keywords Symmetry
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email celani@fec.unicamp.br
more http://www.fec.unicamp.br/~celani/
last changed 2004/11/17 19:51

_id f299
authors Martens, Bob and Peter, Herbert
year 2002
title Developing Systematics Regarding Virtual Reconstruction of Synagogues
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 349-356
summary Computer-assisted reconstruction of no-longer existent (architectural) objects and their surroundingsamounts to a “virtual comeback”. Irreversible destruction having removed identity-establishing buildingsfrom the urban surface forever is the principal reason for re-creating them by imagination. Following thedestruction during the so-called “Reichskristall-Night” of November 1938, the synagogues of the Jewishcommunity in Vienna will only survive by means of virtual reconstruction. Sixty years later, in the commemorativeyear of 1998, the first synagogue reconstruction was initiated. The medium-range goal,however, aims at the reconstruction of at least ten additional synagogues as a project to be carried outin stages over a period of several years. Changes in personnel also call for a structure to be trackeddown later on. This paper deals with handling of modeling in a systematic manner, taking intoconsideration personnel changes,aiming at a traceable data structure for subsequent use and follow-upwork.
series ACADIA
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id bb35
authors Paranandi, Murali
year 2002
title An Inquiry Into Computers in Design: When Cardboard Met Computer
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 329-337
summary This paper reflects on the experiences of teaching undergraduate design studios for past 4 years and presents a systematic investigation conducted in a classroom setting to further understand the role of computer in conceptual stages of design. A case study project inquiring the implications of using two different forms of media, namely cardboard and computer, for design development during conceptual stages is presented. Twelve novice designers were challenged to learn and use computers in a five-week design project. A conceptual framework for understanding the discovery and usefulness of computer in their design process was developed and tested. An analysis of the outcome indicated that computers played a positive role in student innovation, improving possibilities for discovery. It further revealed that the employing cardboard was useful in turning the abstract discoveries made by the computers into productive and useful design solutions. It also supported the notion that the novice designer’s use of photorealistic possibilities offered by computer visualization (rendering, animation) during conceptual stages of design had an effect of distraction rather than a design aid.
series CAADRIA
email paranam@muohio.edu
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id bff9
authors Proctor, George (Ed.)
year 2002
title ACADIA 2002 [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X / Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, 446 p.
summary The 2002 ACADIA conference finds digital tec_nology ubiquitous as the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture moves into its third decade. The organization of ACADIA is on the threshold of restating its mission. After 20 years, many of the organization’s initial objectives have been achieved. ACADIA members have been instrumental in the development of design software, and in bringing computers and digital technology into architectural practice and design school curriculum. At first, ACADIAns faced the debate over the appropriateness and utility of digital technology in the disciplines of architecture, planning and building science. Today the use of computers and information technology is widely accepted by architects and CAAD and digital technology have brought profound change to design practice. The debate in ACADIA has long since moved from "should we use this technology" to "how", "for what" and "why". Now that many practitioners, learning institutions and professional organizations have taken up the call, ACADIA must restate its mission, if it wishes to remain “distinct”. This does not mean that the work of ACADIA is complete. Much remains to be done and much more needs to be improved. ACADIA’s Mission Statement places particular focus on “education and the software, hardware and pedagogy involved in education.” And “(t)he organization is also committed to the research and development of computer aides that enhance design creativity, and that aim at contributing to the construction of humane physical environments.” These are the areas that continue to evolve, grow and provide for ACADIA’s continued relevance. The ACADIA 2002 conference theme reflects the state of digital technology’s application to the discipline, as much as it refers to ACADIA’s future. With the general acceptance of digital technology and CAAD, we have arrived at a place where the work of great interest and relevance lies in the space between what is digital and what is analog. The environments of real space and cyberspace have in a very short time become so intertwined that the space between real and virtual (not to be confused with reality and fantasy) is becoming indistinguishable. You cannot eat, travel, use public utilities, bank, shop, vacation or recreate without at the very least coming into contact with or passing through information space. The landscape between these two environments has become a cultural phenomenon for those societies with access to the Internet and information networks. And while the computer and World Wide Web have empowered individuals, the collective impact of the technology holds all the potential and problems that similarly emerged in other technology induced landscapes. Consider this last point in the context of ACADIA’s stated mission to “enhance design creativity while contributing to the construction of humane physical environments.” And you can see why many of the 260 initial submissions to this conference were in the area of design artifacts and design methodology, providing evidence that ACADIA’s mission remains relevant and in accord with the trends of research and professional creative activity.
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id ca2e
authors Samareh, Behnam and Terzidis, Kostas
year 2002
title Extreme Spatial Experience: Altering the Perception of Space
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 137-144
summary This paper focuses on the development of a method for promoting alternative perceptions ofarchitectural space by exploring different ways of introducing computers in the space/occupant dynamic.
series ACADIA
email kostas@ucla.edu
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

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