CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 507

_id c7e0
id c7e0
authors Maria Gabriela Caffarena Celani
year 2002
title BEYOND ANALYSIS AND REPRESENTATION IN CAD: A NEW COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH TO DESIGN EDUCATION
source Submitted to the Department of Architecture in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the field of Architecture: Design & Computation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
summary This thesis aims at changing students' attitude towards the use of computer-aided design (CAD) in architecture. It starts from the premise that CAD is used mostly for analysis and representation, and not as a real design aide, and that architecture students have a bias against learning computer programming. For this purpose, a prototypical instruction system that mixes computer-aided design and computational design theory was developed, based on a series of fundamental concepts that are common to both fields. This system was influenced by Mitchell's (1987) The Art of Computer Graphics Programming and Stiny's (1976) shape grammars. Despite being based on solid theoretical foundations, CAD has progressively become an exclusively practical tool, since its origins in the 50's and 60's, while computational design theories have been mostly restricted to the academic circles. This thesis proposes an inversion in the present situation: the study of CAD theory, and the application of computational design into practice. The system proposed provides a conceptual framework that can be adapted to different circumstances, including course formats and resources, as well as students' background and technical training. It is based on seven fundamental concepts from computational design theories that are also important to the study of shape grammars: symmetry, recursion, rule-based compositions, parameterization of shapes, generative systems, algorithmization of design procedures, and shape emergence. These concepts are introduced within a CAD context, where their practical implementation and experimentation are possible, focusing the understanding of the computational nature of design. During this research, the proposed system was tested in two case studies with students from schools that had contrary orientations in terms of the importance of CAD in the architectural curriculum. In these experimental courses, students' activities evolved from using a commercial CAD tool in an innovative way, to the use of programming techniques for creating meaningful tools. Despite not having a statistical reach, the fieldwork allowed drawing preliminary conclusions about the proposed system's efficacy, since virtually all the students reported changing their understanding of the role of CAD in architecture, while some also acknowledged a conceptual influence in other subjects and in the way they see architecture.
keywords Symmetry
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email celani@fec.unicamp.br
more http://www.fec.unicamp.br/~celani/
last changed 2004/11/17 19:51

_id 1992
authors Russell, Peter
year 2002
title Using Higher Level Programming in Interdisciplinary teams as a means of training for Concurrent Engineering
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 14-19
summary The paper explains a didactical method for training students that has been run three times to date. The premise of the course is to combine students from different faculties into interdisciplinary teams. These teams then have a complex problem to resolve within an extremely short time span. In light of recent works from Joy and Kurzweil, the theme Robotics was chosen as an exercise that is timely, interesting and related, but not central to the studies of the various faculties. In groups of 3 to 5, students from faculties of architecture, computer science and mechanical engineering are entrusted to design, build and program a robot which must successfully execute a prescribed set of actions in a competitive atmosphere. The entire course lasts ten days and culminates with the competitive evaluation. The robots must navigate a labyrinth, communicate with on another and be able to cover longer distances with some speed. In order to simplify the resources available to the students, the Lego Mindstorms Robotic syshed backgrounds instaed of synthetic ones. The combination of digitally produced (scanned) sperical images together with the use of HDR open a wide range of new implementation in the field of architecture, especially in combining synthetic elements in existing buildings, e.g. new interior elements in an existing historical museum).ural presentations in the medium of computer animation. These new forms of expression of design thoughts and ideas go beyond mere model making, and move more towards scenemaking and storytelling. The latter represents new methods of expression within computational environments for architects and designers.its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosg and programming a winning robot. These differences became apparent early in the sessions and each group had to find ways to communicate their ideas and to collectively develop them by building on the strengths of each team member.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2013/02/04 06:17

_id e999
authors Voigt A., Schmidinger E., Walchhofer, H.-P. and Linzer, H.
year 2002
title Space-related Content-Management
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 400-403
summary Establishing virtual city models (“digital cities“) has become an important planning tool for configuring the future of our cities and vital spaces. The present contribution discusses the concept of “Space-related Content-Management” and its interlaceable possibilities of implementation in the planning and configuration process. The activities of those acting in space and their impacts on space, e.g. leading to new, additional and renovation of buildings, to the demolition of buildings, to alterations regarding vegetation stock, traffic infrastructure, etc., do not result from a static conception of physical space, but exclusively suggest a dynamic one. Real space is subject to continuous changes. The constant changing of physical space thus represents a considerable factor concerning the conception of the virtual image (virtual city model). The dynamics of space suggests the development of “data-pipelines“ as core elements of virtual city models. Only this pipeline-concept can account for the dynamics of space. It is suggested to embed “datapipelines“ in “Content-Management-Systems (CMS)“ thus promoting the concept of “Space-related Content-Management“ including all kinds of space-related information enriched with metainformation that might be useful during the planning- and configuration process. “Space-related Content-Management-Systems (SCMS)“ are considered as navigation systems through complex space-related data sets supporting a broad range of questions during the planning- and configuration process. The application fields of “Space-related Content Management-Systems“ are supposed to integrate the complete planning process starting with the space-related analysis and model generation via characterization of space and winds up at the development of space-related concepts to be passed on to those involved in the space under consideration.
series eCAADe
email voigt@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id ddssup0204
id ddssup0204
authors Caratù, G., Concilio, G. and Monno, V.
year 2002
title Structuring Lay Knowledge in a GI Perspective: Problems and Pitfall
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary The present contribution, starting from some considerations developed in environmental planning domain, discusses the representation of lay knowledge in a GIS environment. Two paths of exploration in dealing with representational problems are sketched. The first is concerned with the structuring of an acquired cognitive base and, the other is about the implementation of cognitive routines. In particular the structuring process of a lay cognitive base is discussed starting from recent developments in GIS technologies and information theories. Difficulties and pitfalls, which arouse during a case study related to an environmental planning experience being carried on for a national natural park, are presented. The experimentation work is discussed also in relation with a preliminary attempt of outputs validation carried out with people who, in a preliminary stage, were interviewed in order to acquire lay knowledge.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id sigradi2003_092
id sigradi2003_092
authors Castañé, D., Tessier, C. and Deho, C.
year 2003
title Prácticas educativas: su impacto y riesgo en las tecnologías digitales (Educational Practices: Their impact and risk in digital technologies)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary Based on the latest didactic teaching theories, this project presents a critical analysis of dynamic educational practices, which have been actively utilized through the last decade by the department of research and instruction in the School of Architecture at the University of Buenos Aires. This work proposes a journey through the landmarks that recognize the impact of technology on teaching best practices, mainly contained in a technical course. It presents the didactic theories of Bruner (90), Perkins, Gardner (93), Burbules (2001), E. Litwin (2002) and others. Crucial representative work developed by students has been taken to introduce criteria and construct practical reflections to arrive at an enriching proposition.
series SIGRADI
email dcastane@elsitio.net
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id ecaade03_595_49_delic
id ecaade03_595_49_delic
authors Delic, Davor and Turk, Ziga
year 2003
title HYCE – Hyperlearning in Civil Engineering Curricula A Pilot Course in Implementation of Information Technology Course - a Case Study at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 595-600
summary Outline of development of a revised base ITC course at the Faculty is shown here. The course, called Introduction To Information Technology Implementation is aimed for 2nd year students (3rd semester) of the study. For the first time it was held in the winter semester of 2002/03 as a pilot course replacing the old way of course delivery. This implementation was carried out through a “pathfinder” project WORMES from February 2002 till March 2003 and would be used as a template for future Hyperlearning implementation on other courses through other Faculty education programes. The objective was to establish continuous students teamwork around a problem – a project completely accomplished in IT surround. A slightly adapted methodology known as Hyperlearning – a version of Problem Based Learning, was chosen as a based learning methodology for a new way of course delivery. The gained results were really impressive. Not only efficiency of delivery was increased in many ways (less hours spent on exercises, better knowledge detaining...) but also huge enthusiasm among students was constantly maintained and their creativity was emphasized surprisingly. A lot of data were collected, analyzed and some of the results are published here.
keywords Hyperlearning, Problem based learning, IT course development
series eCAADe
email dd@grad.hr
more http://www.grad.hr
last changed 2003/09/18 07:16

_id 3ad9
authors Dierckx, T., Stellingwerff, M. and Verbeke, J.
year 2002
title Relating to the ‘real’ Theories for and Experiences with Educational Database Systems
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 80-87
summary One of the most ubiquitous computer applications is the database. Common databases are capable of handling massive amounts of data, which allow users to instantly find the factual data they seek. In most cases the assistance of a database is straightforward and objective. However, when people work with databases with a rich and diverse content, this can lead to unexpected findings, surprises and possibly a revolution in their understanding of a design problem. Furthermore multimedia databases and the systems with a more enhanced set of interactive features provide more appealing results. Databases become most interesting when the creators and the users can rise the data to a level that touches knowledge, wisdom and creativity. This paper goes into questions about the application of databases in architectural education. What can be the role of databases in the education of next generation architects? What should educators offer the students through database content, or what should be left open for creative initiatives? We present a broad overview of possible database content, various modes of interaction with the databases and several ways of representation of the database content. The overview shows areas where educational database technology is still underdeveloped and areas where a lot of concurrent databases exist. The theoretical overview enabled us to set out a further strategy for database applications in our school of Architecture. Besides the theory, we present our recent experiences with a database for architectural realizations. The database of buildings can be used in different educational exercises.
series eCAADe
email dynamo@archb.sintlucas.wenk.be
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 7e02
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2002
title The Virtual Campus: A new place for (lifelong) learning?
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 472-477
summary 472 eCAADe 20 [design e-ducation] Modeling Real and Virtual Worlds Session 13 In the early spring of 2001 a collection of German universities founded a virtual faculty of architecture, which was named „Liquid Campus“. Current thinking about future forms of education in the field of architecture combined with over 4 years of experience with net-based design studios, led to questions about the future of existing universities, their buildings and their use. This problem was put to 43 students in the form of a design exercise to create a place for a virtual university. In the current situation, in which the administration of knowledge is more and more located on the internet, and even the so-called meeting places themselves can be virtualised through the help of video-conference-software, the exercise was to design a virtual campus in the framework and to carry out this design work in a simulation of distributed practice. Initial criticism of the project came from the students in that exemplary working methods were not described, but left for the students to discover on their own. The creation of a concept for the Liquid Campus meant that the participants had to imagine working in a world without the face to face contacts that form the basis (at present) of personal interaction. Additionally, the assignment to create or design possible links between the real and the virtual was not an easy task for students who normally design and plan real physical buildings. Even the tutors had difficulties in producing focused constructive criticism about a virtual campus; in effect the virtualisation of the university leads to a distinctive blurring of its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosophical approach to the design problem. The paper explores the implications of the student’s conclusions on the nature of the university in general and draws conclusions specific to architectural education and the role of architecture in this process.
series eCAADe
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 10eaea2001
id 10eaea2001
authors Gorczyca, Adam and Wrona, Stefan
year 2002
title Evaluation in 3D Endoscopic Simulation – Application in Architectural Studios
source Environmental Simulation - New Impulses in Planning Processes [Proceedings of the 5th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-922602-85-1]
summary Simulation techniques are nowadays commonly spread in CAAD applications. They are so popular, that even notion of SAAD (Simulation Aided Architectural Design) is used. Practical implementation of simulation techniques is present almost everywhere in our lives. All of us had a possibility of watching on TV, how Russians are going to pick up their atomic submarine “Kursk” from a sea-bottom. It is very tragic but significant example. People convinced themselves, that it is much cheaper to analyze any “virtual environment”, than to experiment with reality. Especially, when cost this “tampering” is extremely expensive. That is why some light and scenography simulation are prepared by computers. From the same reasons filmic special effects are produced (sink of Titanic…). There are also obvious medical applications, where endoscopic surgery replaced invading methods, while simulation of human body help students to learn anatomy. Forensic medicine try to identify faces of murders or body remains.
series EAEA
email skwrona@astercity.net
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id c839
authors Hwang, Jie-Eun
year 2002
title SpaceScope: Developing a Spatial Information Retrieval System - Focused on Apartment Unit Floor Plans -
source Yonsei University, Dept. of Housing & Interior Design
summary This research investigates the spatial information retrieval (IR) in architecture focused on constructing efficient metadata that is crucial for data retrieval. Generally speaking, metadata is ‘structured data about data’ to describe resources especially in a digital format. In this research, metadata is a sort of data object to be useful in searching spatial information. Metadata is also used to describe raw spatial data object as not only attribute data but also content structurally and semantic ally. There are two issues that motivate this research; 1) what is the spatial information – that materializes the intangible space as a data object, and 2) how we can search the information efficiently – the content-based information retrieval. Although knowledge of a building’s spatial content is most important in architecture, there has been no logical method to manage it.

From the viewpoint of content-based retrieval, the researcher analyzes spatial information of a floor plan, with a focus on the apartment unit floor plan common in Korea. Then the metadata items are extracted in a structured manner. To manage the items efficiently, the researcher develops a data model for spatial information according to the concept of the “Structured Floor Plan”. The main object of content to retrieve is a spatial network that consists of nodes of spaces and their linkages. There are two ways to organize the metadata: the traditional index files and the RDF (Resource Description Framework). While the index files are still efficient with computability, the RDF applies greater options to retrieve, such as fuzzy predicates, semantic predicates, and so on. To exploit the metadata, this research shows several possibilities of query operations that present a set of sample queries about L-DK(Living room – Dining room – Kitchen). Implementation of the prototype system is divided into three parts: 1) a modeling module using Vitruvius; 2) an indexing module using MS SQL Server? 2000 in conjunction XML; and 3) a browsing module using the SpaceScope browser.

The future works may consider XML-based databases and a knowledge based query language, such as RQL/XQL, working on such databases. The more specific domain knowledge is involved, the more practical systems would be. Even in architecture, there may be a diverse range of domain knowledge, such as design, building performance, facility management, energy management, post occupied evaluation, historical research, and so on. Also the issue of interface should be investigated in depth, so that it will be adequate to the needs of the architectural field.

keywords Content-based Information Retrieval; Metadata; RDF; XML; Spatial Information; Apartment Floor Plan; Semantics
series thesis:MSc
email curiozen@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2003/04/25 05:27

_id ga0229
id ga0229
authors Liou, S.-R.
year 2002
title Design from Known to New -Issues of Generative Architecture under Digital Environment
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Given the power of digital design media, architects are confronting a new territory of architectural morphology. This paper attempts to explore the issues of generative architecture under digital environment. It is concerned with architectural precedents, their morphological attributes, and morphological analysis as the point of departure for generating new designs. Three design experiments are employed for the exploration. The first experiment addresses the issue of a single building. The second experiment focuses on the problem of urban architecture. The third design experiment places emphasis on the issue of urban landform. In addition to the exciting novel forms and spaces generated from the afore-mentioned design experiments, a number of critical issues on generative architecture are raised and discussed in the paper. Among them are: (1) the concept and logic underlying the methodology of the design experiments; (2) the formulation of the generative design systems utilizing the existing morphological structures; (3) the employment of the digital design media (e.g. image processing, 3D abstraction and extrusion) for various purposes during the process of analysis and generation.
series other
email shuenn@mail.thu.edu.tw
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id da49
authors Maher, Mary Lou and Gero, John S.
year 2002
title Agent Models of 3D Virtual Worlds
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 125-135
summary Architectural design has relevance to the design of virtual worlds that create a sense of place throughthe metaphor of buildings, rooms, and inhabitable spaces. The design and implementation of virtualworlds has focused on the design of 3D form for fast rendering to allow real time exploration of theworld. Using platforms that were originally designed for computer games, some virtual worlds nowcontain preprogrammed interactive behaviors. We present an agent model of virtual worlds in which theobjects in the world have agency, that is, the objects can sense their environment, reason about theirgoals, and make changes to the environment. This agent model is presented and illustrated using a wallagent. Following from the wall agent, we generalize how agency can be attached to any 3D model in avirtual world.
series ACADIA
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 7400
authors Rizal, H. and Ahmad Rafi, M.E.
year 2002
title The Impact of Internet Enabled Computer Aided Design (iCAD) in Construction Industry
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 085-92
summary The advent of the Internet has opened up and given, particularly, the developing countries and the world in general, a transformation into collective intelligence (Levy, 1998) societies linked to digital communication (Rafi, 2001). Apart from large corporations, the rapid evolution of border-less communication has also synergise between the art and science expertise to form low-cost internet-based networks that have become multi-million dollar companies within a short period of time (e.g. Linux) (Rafi, 2001). In the context of architectural designs and construction industries, the birth of Internet-based CAD (iCAD) solutions has offered a new dimension to architectural practice. The function of CAD has expanded as a tool to communicate and collaborate as well as to better control all phases of the architectural practices. This paper will review the current available iCAD tools and explore the possible utilisation of iCAD in architectural practices. The opportunities for modifying current professional practice standards to best use iCAD will be rationalised as well as the elements in ensuring the effectiveness of iCAD implementation. The final component of the paper will be an evaluation framework to measure the value of iCAD in an architectural practice. The framework will become an early platform for an architectural practice to decide and plan their future in utilising and applying iCAD in the most efficient way.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
email rizalhusin@hotmail.com
last changed 2006/09/29 05:18

_id ascaad2007_026
id ascaad2007_026
authors Sarji, E.A.; A. Rafi and R. Mat Rani
year 2007
title Preparing a multimedia-based gallery for institute of higher learning: A case study of Malaysian experience
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 305-316
summary While the majority of medium and small sized institutions still rely on their physical or traditional content, it has been observed a pre-disposition usually by major, recently founded or contemporary art institutions to display net-based projects (Buiani, 2001) and to some extent established as a permanent display. This changing of exhibitions has penetrated in many Asian galleries and as a result many schools trying to re-position and present in such a way that it can be easily changed and adapted to host multimedia, Internet, interactive and computer-based content. This funded research project investigates the functions of gallery in IHL in Malaysia. A triangulated study was conducted to understand the potentials and issues faced by galleries in public and private universities focusing on design schools that include art and design, and architecture. This research starts with the understanding of gallery design theories. It is then followed by a qualitative method survey to all galleries in the IHL. This research continues with an in depth study and a survey on Electronic Gallery (e-Gallery), Faculty of Creative Multimedia (FCM), Multimedia University (MMU) to understand between the theories and design ideas. A set of questionnaires was developed based on Mathews (1991) and Stewart’s (2002) principles and guidelines on research methods and distributed to visitors throughout a period of time consisting of open-ended, close-ended, Likert Summated Rating Scale and Multiple-choice. This involved a controlled group of visitors comprises students and staff of the faculty. The results of these studies will be used as a reference to further conduct a wider scope of galleries worldwide towards designing a multimedia-based gallery framework for Institute of Higher Learning.
series ASCAAD
email elyna.amir@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id ga0219
id ga0219
authors Schadewitz, Nicole and Jachna, Timothy
year 2002
title Using Social Interaction in Generative Design of Shared Virtual Spaces
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The proposed paper outlines research findings in the field of generative design of visual virtual chat spaces. It discusses social interaction as a central determining factor in the generation of virtual spaces through and for chat communication on the World Wide Web. Social interaction in a chat room is based on communication using written text. The research and design results of this project involve the translation of chat statements into three-dimensional virtual objects according to - criteria derived from theories of virtual and social space, - the production of space through action and interaction of the users of the interface and - the translation of the components of written text (words and characters) into three-dimensional virtual forms. The generation of a dynamic, virtual, social structure is based on criteria deduced from systems of interaction within social space. The visual social structure, reflected in the shape and spatial relation of the three-dimensional objects, evolves as source for feedback processes and therefore as “re-generation” of social interaction. This paper documents the design, implementation and evaluation of the described system. It represents an outset and a first manifestation of a new project in cultural-differentiated user-interaction-centred generative approaches in interface design of chat room applications.
series other
email sd.nic@polyu.edu.hk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id cf2011_p060
id cf2011_p060
authors Sheward, Hugo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Preliminary Concept Design (PCD) Tools for Laboratory Buildings, Automated Design Optimization and Assessment Embedded in Building Information Modeling (BIM) Tools.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 451-476.
summary The design of laboratory buildings entails the implementation of a variety of design constraints such as building codes; design guidelines and technical requirements. The application of these requires from designers the derivation of data not explicitly available at early stages of design, at the same time there is no precise methodology to control the consistency, and accuracy of their application. Many of these constraints deal with providing secure environmental conditions for the activities inside laboratories and their repercussions both for the building occupants and population in general, these constraints mandate a strict control over the building’s Mechanical Equipment (MEP), in particular the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Due to the importance of these laboratory designers are expected to assess their designs not only according spatial relationships, but also design variables such as HVAC efficiency, air pressure hierarchies, operational costs, and the possible implications of their design decisions in the biological safety of the facility. At this point in time, there are no practical methods for making these assessments, without having constant interaction with HVAC specialists. The assessment of laboratory design variables, particularly those technical in nature, such as dimensioning of ducts or energy consumption are usually performed at late stages of design. They are performed by domain experts using data manually extracted from design information, with the addition of domain specific knowledge, the evaluation is done mostly through manual calculations or building simulations. In traditional practices most expert evaluations are performed once the architectural design have been completed, the turn around of the evaluation might take hours or days depending on the methods used by the engineer, therefore reducing the possibility for design alternatives evaluation. The results of these evaluations will give clues about sizing of the HVAC equipment, and might generate the need for design reformulations, causing higher development costs and time delays. Several efforts in the development of computational tools for automated design evaluation such as wheel chair accessibility (Han, Law, Latombe, Kunz, 2002) security and circulation (Eastman, 2009), and construction codes (ww.Corenet.gov.sg) have demonstrated the capabilities of rule or parameter based building assessment; several computer applications capable of supporting HVAC engineers in system designing for late concept or design development exist, but little has been done to assess the capabilities of computer applications to support laboratory design during architectural Preliminary Concept Design(PCD) (Trcka, Hensen, 2010). Developments in CAD technologies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) have opened doors to formal explorations in generative design using rule based or parametric modeling [7]. BIM represents buildings as a collection of objects with their own geometry, attributes, and relations. BIM also allows for the definition of objects parametrically including their relation to other model objects. BIM has enabled the development of automated rule based building evaluation (Eastman, 2009). Most of contemporary BIM applications contemplate in their default user interfaces access to design constraints and object attribute manipulations. Some even allow for the application of rules over these. Such capabilities make BIM viable platforms for automation of design data derivation and for the implementation of generative based design assessment. In this paper we analyze the possibilities provided by contemporary BIM for implementing generative based design assessment in laboratory buildings. In this schema, domain specific knowledge is embedded in to the BIM system as to make explicit design metrics that can help designers and engineers to assess the performance of design alternatives. The implementation of generative design assessments during PCD can help designers and engineers to identify design issues early in the process, reducing the number of revisions and reconfigurations in later stages of design. And generally improving design performance.
keywords Heating ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Building Information Models (BIM), Generative Design Assessment
series CAAD Futures
email hshewardga3@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ddssar0228
id ddssar0228
authors Tunçer, B. and Stouffs, R.
year 2002
title Modeling Cooperative Design Analyses
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary The study of precedents plays an important role in design and design education. Architecture students prepare analyses of prominent precedents with respect to various criteria. Such design analyses arerepresented and communicated through abstractions. Collections of these abstractions are stored, related, managed, and presented in digital environments. Such web-based environments can serve as anextensible library of design precedent analyses. The use of an extensive library by a collection of students requires a flexible and extensible information model for relating and integrating the various contributions. We propose a methodology that establishes an information model for digital architectural analysis environments. This model facilitates a rich information structure of abstraction entities and their relationships, both structural and semantic, offering increased value for accessing and browsing this information. Specifically, a rich information structure allows one to access the information from alternative views to those that are expressed by the individual abstractions. In this paper, we start bydiscussing precedent-based learning, and describe the abstraction model currently used for precedent documentation and analysis. We then present our methodology for achieving a rich information structure. We end the paper with a description of an implementation of this methodology as anarchitectural analysis construction and presentation environment for a second year design studio.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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