CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 7e02
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2002
title The Virtual Campus: A new place for (lifelong) learning?
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 472-477
summary 472 eCAADe 20 [design e-ducation] Modeling Real and Virtual Worlds Session 13 In the early spring of 2001 a collection of German universities founded a virtual faculty of architecture, which was named „Liquid Campus“. Current thinking about future forms of education in the field of architecture combined with over 4 years of experience with net-based design studios, led to questions about the future of existing universities, their buildings and their use. This problem was put to 43 students in the form of a design exercise to create a place for a virtual university. In the current situation, in which the administration of knowledge is more and more located on the internet, and even the so-called meeting places themselves can be virtualised through the help of video-conference-software, the exercise was to design a virtual campus in the framework and to carry out this design work in a simulation of distributed practice. Initial criticism of the project came from the students in that exemplary working methods were not described, but left for the students to discover on their own. The creation of a concept for the Liquid Campus meant that the participants had to imagine working in a world without the face to face contacts that form the basis (at present) of personal interaction. Additionally, the assignment to create or design possible links between the real and the virtual was not an easy task for students who normally design and plan real physical buildings. Even the tutors had difficulties in producing focused constructive criticism about a virtual campus; in effect the virtualisation of the university leads to a distinctive blurring of its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosophical approach to the design problem. The paper explores the implications of the student’s conclusions on the nature of the university in general and draws conclusions specific to architectural education and the role of architecture in this process.
series eCAADe
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 1992
authors Russell, Peter
year 2002
title Using Higher Level Programming in Interdisciplinary teams as a means of training for Concurrent Engineering
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 14-19
summary The paper explains a didactical method for training students that has been run three times to date. The premise of the course is to combine students from different faculties into interdisciplinary teams. These teams then have a complex problem to resolve within an extremely short time span. In light of recent works from Joy and Kurzweil, the theme Robotics was chosen as an exercise that is timely, interesting and related, but not central to the studies of the various faculties. In groups of 3 to 5, students from faculties of architecture, computer science and mechanical engineering are entrusted to design, build and program a robot which must successfully execute a prescribed set of actions in a competitive atmosphere. The entire course lasts ten days and culminates with the competitive evaluation. The robots must navigate a labyrinth, communicate with on another and be able to cover longer distances with some speed. In order to simplify the resources available to the students, the Lego Mindstorms Robotic syshed backgrounds instaed of synthetic ones. The combination of digitally produced (scanned) sperical images together with the use of HDR open a wide range of new implementation in the field of architecture, especially in combining synthetic elements in existing buildings, e.g. new interior elements in an existing historical museum).ural presentations in the medium of computer animation. These new forms of expression of design thoughts and ideas go beyond mere model making, and move more towards scenemaking and storytelling. The latter represents new methods of expression within computational environments for architects and designers.its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosg and programming a winning robot. These differences became apparent early in the sessions and each group had to find ways to communicate their ideas and to collectively develop them by building on the strengths of each team member.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2013/02/04 06:17

_id 12d9
authors Anumba, C.J., Ugwu, O.O., Newnham, L. and Thorpe, A.
year 2002
title Collaborative design of structures using intelligent agents
source Automation in Construction 11 (1) (2002) pp. 89-103
summary The construction industry has a long tradition of collaborative working between the members of a construction project team. At the design stage, this has traditionally been based on physical meetings between representatives of the principal design disciplines. To aid these meetings, the information and communications technologies that are currently available have been utilised. These have yielded some success but are hampered by the problems posed by the use of heterogeneous software tools and the lack of effective collaboration tools that are necessary to collapse the time and distance constraints, within which increasingly global design teams work. In particular, there are very few tools available to support distributed asynchronous collaboration. Distributed artificial intelligence, which is commonly implemented in the form of intelligent agents, offers considerable potential for the development of such tools. This paper examines some of the issues associated with the use of distributed artificial intelligence systems within the construction industry. It describes the potential for the use of agent technology in collaborative design and then goes on to present the key features of an agent-based system for the collaborative design of portal frame structures. An example is presented to demonstrate the working and benefits of the prototype system, which makes a significant contribution by allowing for peer to peer negotiation between the design agents.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id cf_2003_000
id cf_2003_000
authors Chiu, M.-L., Tsou, J.-Y., Kvan, Th., Morozumi, M. and Jeng, T.-S. (Eds.)
year 2003
title Digital Design - Research and Practice
source Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1 / Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, 464 p.
summary The use of computers in the design of the built environment has reached a watershed. From peripheral devices in the design process, they have in recent years come to take centre stage. An illustration is immediately at hand. Just as the entries to the competition for the Chicago Tribune Tower in 1922 defined the state-of-the-art at the beginning of the twentieth century, we have a similar marker at the end of the century, the competition in 2002 to replace the World Trade Centre towers in Lower Manhattan offered us a range of architectural solutions that exemplified the state-of-the-art eighty years later, setting forth not only architectural statements but also illustrating clearly the importance of computers in the design of the built environment. In these entries of 2002, we can see that computers have not only become essential to the communication of design but in the investigation and generation of structure, form and composition. The papers in this book are the current state-of-the-art in computer-aided design as it stands in 2003. It is the tenth in a series sponsored by the CAAD Futures Foundation, compiled from papers presented at the biennial CAAD Futures Conferences. As a series, the publications have charted the steady progress in developing the theoretical and practical foundations for applications in design practice. This volume continues in that tradition; thus, this book is entitled Digital Design: Research and Practice. The papers are grouped into three major categories, reflecting thrusts of research and practice, namely: Data and information: its organisation, handling and access, including agents; Virtual worlds: their creation, application and interfaces; and Analysis and creation of form and fabric. The editors received 121 abstracts after the initial call for contributions. From these, 61 abstracts were selected for development into complete papers for further review. From these submissions, 39 papers were chosen for inclusion in this publication. These papers show that the field has evolved from theoretical and development concerns to questions of practice in the decade during which this conference has showcased leading work. Questions of theoretical nature remain as the boundaries of our field expand. As design projects have grasped the potentials of computer-aided design, so have they challenged the capabilities of the tools. Papers here address questions in geometric representation and manipulation (Chiu and Chiu; Kocaturk, Veltkamp and Tuncer), topics that may have been considered to be solved. As design practice becomes increasingly knowledge based, better ways of managing, manipulating and accessing the complex wealth of design information becomes more pressing, demanding continuing research in issues such as modelling (Yang; Wang; Zreik et al), data retrieval and querying (Hwang and Choi; Stouffs and Cumming; Zreik, Stouffs, Tuncer, Ozsariyildiz and Beheshti), new modes of perceiving data (Segers; Tan). Tools are needed to manage, mine and create information for creative work, such as agents (Liew and Gero; Smith; Caneparo and Robiglio; Ding et al) or to support design processes (Smith; Chase). Systems for the support and development of designs continue (Gero; Achten and Jessurun). As progress is made on some fronts, such as user interfaces, attention is again turned to previously research areas such as lighting (Jung, Gross and Do; Ng et al; Wittkopf; Chevier; Glaser, Do and Tai) or services (Garcia; Chen and Lin). In recent years the growth of connectivity has led to a rapid growth in collaborative experience and understanding of the opportunities and issues continues to mature (Jabi; Dave; Zamenopoulos and Alexiou). Increasing interest is given to implications in practice and education (Dave; Oxman; Caneparo, Grassi and Giretti). Topics new to this conference are in the area of design to production or manufacture (Fischer, Burry and Frazer; Shih). Three additional invited papers (Rekimoto; Liu; Kalay) provide clear indication that there is still room to develop new spatial concepts and computer augmented environments for design. In conclusion, we note that these papers represent a good record of the current state of the evolving research in the field of digital design.
series CAAD Futures
email mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
more http://www.caadfutures.arch.tue.nl/
last changed 2003/09/22 10:21

_id fe60
authors Cumming, Michael
year 2002
title Flexible and distributed coordination models for collaborative design
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 268-275
summary Designers working in collaborative design situations, attempt to plan or anticipate their activities, such that their work progresses in an orderly manner, according to technical demands of their domain. Designers, and the organizations that employ them, often attempt to formally represent such plans using process representations, such critical path diagrams, or Petri nets. Such process articulation and formalization can have benefits for designers and organizations, such as standardization and improvement of work practices, and improved collaboration and coordination between design parties. In addition to plan making, designers also try to coordinate their actions with the actions of others on the design team. This coordination, which often takes place in real time, is a process that is necessarily social, interactive, and iterative. Here the formulation of suitable process representations is more difficult, due to the dynamic and complex nature of social interactions. How to represent and design such coordination processes, is a continuing research question in the process modeling community. It is possible there exists general coordination mechanisms that could be useful in a variety of domains. Possibilities for distributed methods of design process coordination are examined. A coordination method is proposed that involves the exchange of design process models, represented as Petri nets. Rather than concentrating on the specific content of these models - which is assumed to vary considerably between design domains - general coordinating mechanisms are proposed. One such mechanism involves the communication of social commitments to process models, in addition to communication of the content and authorship of these models.
series eCAADe
email m.cumming@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id ddssup0206
id ddssup0206
authors Dickey, J.W. and Jones, Dennis B.
year 2002
title CyberQuest Prospector (CQP):A Guide for the Evolutionary Discovery Process
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary CyberQuest Prospector (CQP) is a tool to guide an individual or team through the evolutionary process of finding better approaches to a particular problem, project, program, plan, or design. This prospectingprocess can involve, for example, new definitions, different data, altered evaluation techniques and new ideas and actions on many other topics. CQP involves a five step process. At step zero all the requisite historical background knowledge is entered. This knowledge is divided into topical areas or statements. In step one the team updates the various knowledge statements in the system and then assigns a "maturity" to them. The team then adds any new statements (step two). Next, (step three) the team makes decisions on actions to be undertaken and also on the external factors likely to be "in play" in the upcoming time period. After that period (step four) the team records the results and rates the "success" achieved. CQP subsequently changes the associated knowledge statement confidences. In the last step the clock is advanced. The ultimate result is a set of definitions, data, relationships, experimental techniques, issues,implications, and even personality traits in which some degree of confidence has evolved. The CQP process is demonstrated here with an urban transportation planning example involving such diverse topics asplanning/analysis techniques, data collection methods, and procedures for working with advocacy coalition networks.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 71a0
authors Gasparski, Wojciech W.
year 2002
title Designer’s Responsibility: Methodological and Ethical Dimensions
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 10-011
summary A designer is anybody who designs, where ‘to design’ - from Latin designare - means ‘to mark out’. Those who design professionally are professional designers, i. e. who „see and seek value in new designs“. Seeing an seeking might be done in two ways: narrower or broader. According to the approach characteristic for design-methodological reductionism those things which are designed are considered the designed objects. In this approach the designer’s task is limited to narrowly understood artifacts like buildings, bridges, machines, devices etc. The relation between a designed object and the reminder of the world is of a secondary consideration or ignored even. The postponed consequences are of physical, social, psychological, and economical nature. Systemic design methodology is different. It describes that ‘what is designed’ in terms of an object of design, a system (a whole) separated from the ‘rest of the world’ to an extent that can minimise a negative ‘immunological effect’. The object of design is a spectem is used. An independently developed programming language entitled NQC (Not Quite C) is used to program the robots. The students are initially given three lectures dealing with robotics in general, methods of locomotion and state based programming principles. Small workshops and discussions about ways of tackling the assigned problem followed these lectures. The work of Rechtin is shown wherein the methodology of “architecting” combines heuristics, hierarchies and intuition to reach design solution spaces. The students are then allowed to form teams whereby they must include members from each faculty. The students are also responsible for forming committees to collectively make decisions about the competitions. The committees decide general attributes of the robots such as size (Constructors Committee) as well as the rules for the competition (Race Committee). The Communication Committee was entrusted to develop a communication protocol (using Infrared transmitters) and the Code Committee decided whuse. Once producing and teaching good science is the main tasks of scholars, those among the scholars who are involved in design science are responsible not only for producing good design science but also for educating designers as reflective practitioners conscious of what every designer should know about objects of design and ethics related to the profession.
series eCAADe
email wgaspars@ifispan.waw.pl
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 3a23
authors Mullins, M., Zupancic-Strojan, T. and Juvancic, M.
year 2002
title Experts and Users Efficiency and Accuracy in the Presentation of Design Ideas Across Networks
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 430-439
summary This paper describes means to enhance projects where local communities collaborate in the design process through information and communication technologies (ICTs). Recent examples of neighbourhood-scale renewal projects illustrate experiences in the dialogue between ‘experts’ and ‘users’, and draw attention to the application of ICTs in that dialogue. The authors’ research is directed towards a quantitative and qualitative description of differences in how the general public and professionals perceive and understand architectural representations across a broad range of presentation types. Two initial studies by the authors are described. The first examines the accuracy and efficiency of architectural presentations. The second study investigates the relationship of physical to virtual environment with regard to the subjects’ prior knowledge of the physical. Analysis of the research work undertaken to date by the authors indicates an appropriate use and combination of experiential and conceptual means of presentation in communicating accurate information about spatial environments between expert and user. The analysis indicates that architectural intentions and user expectations coincide more closely through the means of experiential media, and confirms the hypothesis that there are principles that can be described to enhance their correlation.
series eCAADe
email tadeja.zupancic@arh.uni-lj.si
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id fd5a
authors Snizek, Bernhard
year 2003
title 3dkroner.dk – An interactive, web based 4D public participation tool
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary In an intensive workshop from November 11th to November 18th 2002, five teams consisting of members of architectural offices, artists, planners, developers, citizens & students came forward with a series of ideas & designs at urban & landscape level for Trekroner Øst, a new neighbourhood in Roskilde, Denmark.. 3dkroner.dk1, an interactive, web based 4D public participation tool (PPT) was created and used for communicating the workshop’s results to a broader public on the one hand, and to start a two way communication process between planners and citizens on the other hand. In this paper I will rather describe the tool’s development, its implementation in the workshop and the experiences the project team made from this process than discuss public participation tools in general.
series other
email mail@metascapes.dk
more http://www.metascapes.dk
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id ddssup0218
id ddssup0218
authors Stouffs, R., Tunçer, B. and Sariyildiz, V.
year 2002
title WoonWerf.nl Revisited: The Potential of Web-Based Design Communication with Future Clients
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary The web offers the means to reach out to potential customers and clients. It enables the establishment of a communication link that allows designers to probe the preferences of their customers, and potential clients to be heard in the design process. It can also serve as a communication platform for customers and other interested parties to share and express ideas and concerns. Opening up the design process to future stakeholders and other concerned parties is particularly accommodating in the aspiration to aconsensus model, as is the case in Dutch architecture. In this paper, we present an example of a Dutch residential development project in which the web served to reach out to potential clients. It involved visitors through a sequence of design “games” in the site planning process. Resulting data were analyzed and provided to the design team, and consequent design decisions found their way into subsequent games. By supporting additional communication among visitors and users, including the design team, visitors would be able to assess their own ideas against others, potentially improving the overall quality of contributions. Such support was envisioned though not implemented in the example. In this paper, we present the actual communication model adopted and consider its extension to support a virtual community for design communication with interested clients in a residential development project.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ga0208
id ga0208
authors Wang, Xu and Lau, Siu Yu
year 2002
title Pursuing New Urban Living Environment In The New Millennium: Projecting The Future Of High-Rise And High Density Living In Hong Kong
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary High-rise and high density living is a way of life for most of the 6.7 Million population of Hong Kong. The merits and demerits affiliated with Hong Kong’s compact urban form continues to attract academic deliberations and debates over the acceptability of such urban form as an alternative to urban sprawl for future city and urban life-style. This paper traces the development and causes for Hong Kong’s high-rise and high-density urban form over the past fifty years or so, and focuses its discussions on the pros and cons of high-rise living based on subjective user survey in late 2001 and early 2002. Because of an articulated land shortage, acute topography, escalating population growth, and shortage of time, Hong Kong government and planners have little options left but to adopt vertical development, resulted in a densely and mixed use urban habitat packed with closely built high-rise residences and commercial buildings. From the survey, it is clear that mixed and intensive land use, high quality of living and recreation infrastructure, efficient public transportation network, and segregation of pedestrian and traffic can facilitate the performance of compact urban form. In addition, most of Hong Kong families have been accustomed to high-rise living pattern and the disadvantages such living pattern might cause on its resident’s social communication and children education are readily ignored by most of the people. Based on the analysis of current living situation and development trends in Hong Kong, new pattern of future city form is conceived to be a likely applicable development way in a coastal city with such high density as Hong Kong in the next 50 years. Design countermeasures are presented in this paper to suggest ways of alleviating the pressure of the forever-increasing house requirements in Hong Kong. high-density, high-rise, compact city, social acceptance, life-style.
keywords high-density, high-rise, compact city, social acceptance, life-style
series other
email wangxc@hkusua.hku.hk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id eabb
authors Boeykens, St. Geebelen, B. and Neuckermans, H.
year 2002
title Design phase transitions in object-oriented modeling of architecture
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 310-313
summary The project IDEA+ aims to develop an “Integrated Design Environment for Architecture”. Its goal is providing a tool for the designer-architect that can be of assistance in the early-design phases. It should provide the possibility to perform tests (like heat or cost calculations) and simple simulations in the different (early) design phases, without the need for a fully detailed design or remodeling in a different application. The test for daylighting is already in development (Geebelen, to be published). The conceptual foundation for this design environment has been laid out in a scheme in which different design phases and scales are defined, together with appropriate tests at the different levels (Neuckermans, 1992). It is a translation of the “designerly” way of thinking of the architect (Cross, 1982). This conceptual model has been translated into a “Core Object Model” (Hendricx, 2000), which defines a structured object model to describe the necessary building model. These developments form the theoretical basis for the implementation of IDEA+ (both the data structure & prototype software), which is currently in progress. The research project addresses some issues, which are at the forefront of the architect’s interest while designing with CAAD. These are treated from the point of view of a practicing architect.
series eCAADe
email stefan.boeykens@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 9fde
authors Chen, S.C.
year 2002
title Aided Design Strategy Under the Professional Knowledge-Orientation
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 293-300
summary Professional knowledge is a key component of the decision making process, as well as a major part of the thinking process. This research uses a strategy oriented by professional knowledge to assist the analysis of strategies in the design process, and to incite different design thinking under the operation models of media; through the basis of the design process, analyse the utilization of professional knowledge by designers in the design process and the different knowledge understanding methods under different media utilizations.
series CAADRIA
email Phd222@iris.seed.net.tw
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id ddssar0210
id ddssar0210
authors Friedl, G., Trum, H.M.G.J. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 2002
title An Innovative Model of the Building Development ProcessDesign as a Process of Crystallisation
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In the past, models describing the development of artefacts, including buildings, usually were of a linear nature thereby suggesting a sequential path from conception of the artefact to its completion. This has consequences for the sequence of activities in the design and programming phase. However, designing is basically a thinking activity and is as such not bound to the same laws as e.g. the construction process. This must have repercussions for the way the design process is designed andmanaged. The proposed conceptual model of the artefact development process – in this case a building design process – is a kind of framework which is more in accordance with the nature of thinkingactivities. It should stimulate a non-sequential process. The development of a solution to a design problem thus should become a responsive search process driven by insights and creative leaps but guided by the framework the model provides. Furthermore, the model is meant to support the exploration and clarification of the problem as well as to extend the solution space by various means such as the development of scenarios and strategic values as a basis for the realisation of the building project’s goals. This model is an essential element in the development of an innovative approach towards the process design of the building design process. The creation of a building (conception, design and development) is not considered a sequential process but a process of crystallisation with the potential of developing in all directions, thus growing from a conceptual centre outwards.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c8df
authors Issa, Rajaa and Moloney, Jules
year 2002
title The Potential of Computer Modeling Software to Support a Consideration of Building Materials in Architectural Design Education
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 440-447
summary Most CAAD software in use for architectural education relies heavily on abstract geometry manipulation to create architectural form. Building materials are usually applied as finishing textures to complement the visual effect of the geometry. This paper attempts to investigate the limitations of commonly used CAAD software in terms of encouraging an intuitive thinking about the physical characteristics of building materials in the design studio environment. A case study involving 90 students is presented. The possibility of developing software that uses geometrical abstractions of different materials as the basis for modeling architectural form in the design studio is introduced.
series eCAADe
email rmi7372@omega.uta.edu
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id ga0215
id ga0215
authors Kabala, Joanna
year 2002
title The Side Effect of a Generative Experiment
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper discusses the issue expressed in the call for the Generative Art 2002 conference that says: "GA is identifiable as one of the most advanced approaches in creative and design world." In this paper the value of Generative Art for the art, science and design worlds is described in the reference to a generative experiment. The experiment has been conducted in industrial environment with the aim of defining possibilities for natural interaction of humans with machines. In specific, the experiment examined an option for visual adaptation in accordance to user feedback. In the context of the experiment's outcome the issue of recognizability of Generative Art values is discussed. Generative Art can be identified but is not widely recognized as "one of the most advanced approaches in creative and design world". What makes it difficult for designers to switch to generative thinking and accept immediately Generative Art as the possible way of advancing traditional design methods? And what makes it promising to keep searching for ways of application of Generative Art in contemporary design? Some possible answers, proposed in this paper, aim at contributing to the discussion about the changing role of artists and designers in the contemporary society.
series other
email joanna.kabala@planet.nl
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

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