CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 599

_id cf2003_m_006
id cf2003_m_006
authors ACHTEN, Henri and JESSURUN, Joran
year 2003
title Learning From Mah Jong - Towards a Multi-Agent System that can Recognize Graphic Units
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 115-124
summary Sketching is a major means of exploiting the first conceptual developments in architectural design. If we want to support the architect in the ideas-developing phase of design, then we need to understand the conventions of depiction and encoding in drawings. The theory of graphic units provides an extended list of such conventions that are widely used. We propose that a multi-agent system for recognition of graphic units in drawings is fruitful: agents can specialize in graphic units, a multi-agent system can deal with ambiguity through negotiation and conflict resolution, and multi-agent systems function in dynamically changing environments. We first make a multi-agent system that can do something simpler: playing Mah Jong solitary. The Mah Jong solitary system shares the following important features with a multi-agent system that can recognize graphic units: (1) specialized agents for moves; (2) negotiation between agents to establish the best move; (3) dynamically changing environment; and (4) search activity in more advanced strategies. The paper presents the theoretical basis of graphic units and multi-agents systems. The multi-agent framework and its implementation is presented. Various levels of game play are distinguished, and these are correlated to the multi-agent system. The paper shows how the findings form the basis for graphic unit recognition.
keywords artificial intelligence, games, graphic units, agents
series CAAD Futures
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/22 15:39

_id ecaade03_269_43_achten
id ecaade03_269_43_achten
authors Achten, Henri and Joosen, Gijs
year 2003
title The Digital Design Process - Reflections on a Single Design Case
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 269-274
summary CAD tools are increasing their expressive and geometric power to enable a design process in which the computer model can be used throughout the whole design process for realizing the design. Such a process, in which other media such as physical scale models or drawings are no longer required by necessity to facilitate the design process, can be considered a digital design process. Rather than proposing that such a process is ideal – drawings and scale models should not be discarded – we feel that when taken as a starting point, the digital design process raises a number of new challenges to architectural design that deserve attention. These challenges concern the basic activities in design: exploration of the problem space, creating preliminary solutions, understanding consequences of design decisions, and so forth. In this paper we take the concrete design case of a graduation project that was developed from the start solely in CAD. We identify a number of key issues in that process such as continuous modeling, the model as design, continuous pliability, localized focus, and postponed decision. These issues not only have a technical, CAD-related aspect, but also are connected to architectural design. Most of these aspects are subject of contemporary debate in architectural design. On this basis, we can indicate where CAD is making a potential difference in architectural design.
keywords Digital design, CAAD
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
more http://www.ds.arch.tue.nl/General/Staff/henri
last changed 2003/11/22 08:49

_id avocaad_2003_09
id avocaad_2003_09
authors Alexander Asanowicz
year 2003
title Form Follows Media - Experiences of Bialystok School of Architectural Composition
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary This paper considers transition from physical modelling to digital methods of the creation of architectural forms. Every type of creation has constructed the proper means of expression and its own methodology. The main thesis of this paper is that a specific character of the composition activity of an architect is determined by the modelling methods. As the research on architectural modelling, the two methods of creating spatial architectural forms (cardboard model and computer model) have been compared. Research has been done on the basis of the same exercise for both media. The process of creation proceeded in the same way, too. As the start point students have found the inspiration. Each student presented photos of existing architectural objects and a text, which explained the reasons of the choice. Next steps were sketches of the idea and realisation of the model. The achieved results of creative activity fully confirm the thesis of the research.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id sigradi2003_121
id sigradi2003_121
authors Alvarado, Rodrigo García, Castillo, Gino Alvarez
year 2003
title Técnicas Cinematográficas para las Animaciones Arquitectónicas (Film-making techniques for Architectural Animations)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary The paper presents film techniques for the expressive development of architectural animations, based on a graphic analysis of productions related to architecture (famous movies, documentaries of buildings and contemporary animations). This study is revealing some cinematographic concepts such as the dynamic composition of image, diversity of camera's positions, control of movements and rhythmic montage of shots that support a meaningful presentation of buildings. Also it suggests the geometric programming of movements and influences in the architectural design.
keywords Animation, Cinematography, Movement
series SIGRADI
email rgarcia@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia03_002
id acadia03_002
authors Anders, Peter
year 2003
title Four Degrees Of Freedom
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, p. 17
summary Letting go is hard to do. Remember back to when, after months of trying, you let go of the handlebars of your bicycle and sailed down the street, effortless and assured. It was a freedom born of mastery, balance and technique. You had let go, but were in control. Technique extends to other devices as well and we are here to discuss architectural computation. Here too, as we will see, mastery is shown by letting go. These papers explore new degrees of freedom in design computation. Each is on a separate aspect of architecture, whether it be aesthetics, process, or structure. Two papers inquire into the entities of design and the processes by which they are manifested. They pose important questions. If we can affect the course of design going forward, are we free to change its past? By defining the characteristics of objects at the outset, are we through automation free to choose from a refined spectrum of outcomes? From the evidence of these papers, the answer to both questions is yes. Through the agency of parametric design we can affect the future and past of architectural processes and their products. Rather than being locked into rigid, linear decisions we are temporally free to choose, tweak and modify. Choice and chance play an important role in aesthetics as well. This has become emblematic of design trends as we have seen in recent years. One of our papers addresses the indeterminacy of particle systems in the design of a monument to the victims of 9/11. By letting go of the handlebars of the computer, the author has been freed to new, poetic forms and processes. Another paper opens urban design to its client community by use of a sophisticated web site. In the tradition of populist innovators like Charles Moore and Lucien Kroll, the authors have extended the design process beyond the office walls to the city itself. The designers, by loosening their grip on the project have made the effort democratic and participatory. Intriguingly, at the end of the paper, they note that this use of cyberspace opens the door to a non-physical architecture. Could architecture, then, let go its materialist biases as well? We hope to engage this and other questions shortly.We are pleased then, to share with you these insights and projects. Wassim and I hope that these presentations will be as liberating for you as they were for us.
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/27 14:21

_id acadia03_037
id acadia03_037
authors Anders, Peter
year 2003
title Cynergies: Technologies that Hybridize Physical and Cyberspaces
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 289-297
summary This paper presents ways in which cybrids depend for their technology upon three existing models of architectural hybrid: display space, environmental computing, and augmented/mixed reality. Cybrids bring these techniques together into a synergistic whole that depends as much on the observer for its consistency as it does on its comprising technologies. This synergy is a product of corroborative behavior between different modes, which provide cybrid users with a coherent social/spatial experience. The paper notes cybrids’ similarity to theater, not only for their technological dependency, but also for the tacit yet vital role of the observer in their effect.
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/27 14:20

_id sigradi2003_070
id sigradi2003_070
authors Angulo, Antonieta H. and Vásquez de Velasco, Guillermo P.
year 2003
title El Uso de Scaners y Ploteadores Tridimensionales en Talleres de Diseño Iniciales (The Use of Three-dimensional Scanners and Plotters in Early Design Studios)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary The paper makes reference to the introduction of a new pedagogical strategy in the teaching of fundamental design in early design studios. The authors recognizes a relationship between the creative process and the media that supports the design process, and proposes the use of 3-dimensional scanners and plotters (rapid prototyping) for interfacing between the use of digital and analogue media. The paper suggests that in such learning environment the students will learn to design without the limitations that analogue or digital media will individually impose in the creative process. The paper ends with an outline for a relevant design exercise.
keywords Conceptual design, 3-d scanners, 3-d plotters
series SIGRADI
email angulo@archone.tamu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id avocaad_2003_17
id avocaad_2003_17
authors Anna Maria Chrabin, Jaroslaw Szewczyk and Herman Neuckermans
year 2003
title A Critical Evaluation of Early Stages Software in its Capacity of Coping with Contextual Issues
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary In this paper we analyse critically early design stages software in its capacity of coping with contextual data at large (i.e. representing cultural, aesthetical context, etc.). We identified 5 categories of early stages software: geometry based graphic editors, evaluation architectural software, generative and shape-grammar based systems, evolutionary systems and other systems. Calling the object under creation during of the early stages a CAD conceptual model, we will investigate to what extend this software allows the architect to experience and represent the context in which a design is situated. Especially we will focus on its capacity to allow interaction, playful interaction on our way to the design. Designers, and particularly architects, interact with the local context similarly to interacting in a game: the context influences the users’ decisions, surprises them and causes permanent changes to their ways of thinking. On the other hand, architects permanently shape and reshape the context, and reduce the context to a protean point of reference. Such behaviour characterises creative thinking that is crucial for the early stage of design. The investigation led us to the conclusions that the effective interactivity with the context needs simple rules, a plain interface and data reduced as simple as possible, especially when interaction with the context is performed during the early stages of a design process. The findings can be used in organising computer environments for early-stage design.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
email Herman.Neuckermans@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id sigradi2003_133
id sigradi2003_133
authors Armesto, T., Morín, A. and Premern, C.
year 2003
title Hacia una RV de Representación Hiperrealista (Towards a VR of Hyper-realistic Representation)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary The objetive of the proyect is the hiperrealistic simulation of scenarios on standard PCs. We use the same tools that are used by the entertainment industry (3d graphics engines) to get the highest level of realism possible in 3d worlds. By now, we are exploring only the audio and visual areas. The potencial of this 3d enviorments construction tools let us to create exploration enviorments for academic and professional implementation like commerce, tourism, education, communication, etc.
series SIGRADI
email trisar76@yahoo.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2003_075
id sigradi2003_075
authors Arroyo, Julio
year 2003
title Imagen del espacio público e imagen digital (Image of the public space and digital image)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary This paper refers to the concept, image and meaning of the public space in media size cities. The premise is the displacement of the social comprehension and valuation of the public due to economical, political and cultural features of contemporary. The concept of public understood as an adjective of urban space moves to the public as a substantive that refers to a general condition of life in city. Digital image and its informational manipulation are the main resources for processing the public. The research depends on images both from its methodological or epistemological point of view.
series SIGRADI
email jarroyo@fadu.unl.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id avocaad_2003_06
id avocaad_2003_06
authors Arturo F. Montagu and Juan Pablo Cieri
year 2003
title Urbamedia - Development of an urban database of fragments of some Argentinian and Latin-American cities using digital technology
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary The proposal of "Urbamedia" is to undertake the development of 3D virtual and interactive models of historical areas of Latin-American cities. The selected zone is the "Mayo Avenue" including the "Mayo Square", an historical place of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina; this project is financed by the National Agency of Scientific and Technological Development of Argentina and the University of Buenos Aires.We are presenting the first experimental model of the "Mayo Square" that has been developed at ABACUS, Department of Architecture & Building Aids Computer Unit, University of Strathclyde UK. combined with a system analysis of urban activities using the “Atlas.ti” CAQDAS software.This particular use of the “Atlas.ti” software is under experimental applications to this type of urban analysis procedures; allowed us the possibility to analysed a set of activities by means of graph theory as result of a series of interviews to the people working in the area. We are also looking to include historical areas of three cities: Mar del Plata, Rosario and Santa Fe (Argentina) and eventually other cities from Latin América as Rio de Janeiro and Habana.Due that ABACUS has a strong experience in city modelling plus the powerful software and hardware used there, we must develop a VRML customized menu to be adapted to our low cost PC equipment. The 3D model will be used mainly in urban design simulation procedures and the idea is to extend to other type of simulations of the environmental parameters.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
email amontagu@fadu.uba.ar
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id ecaade03_587_34_asanowicz
id ecaade03_587_34_asanowicz
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 2003
title Architectural Composition in Digital Space
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 587-590
summary In this paper the possibilities of using the computers at course of architectural compositions are considered. As the start point of the new teaching method of architectural composition we used the course of tradition architectural composition, elaborated at our Faculty. The course of Digital Architectural Composition was finished in 2002. The main goal of using the new digital media for modelling architectural forms was checking the new possibilities of form creation. Traditionally, searching of forms at the conceptual design stage is performed by using sketches, drawings and physical models. Our new method showed that is possible to do the same thing using the computerbased 3D modelling, experiencing no physical limitations of the 'real' substance. At the same time, at the early design stages, when formal value is sought, computer modelling can be done almost intuitively. In ours work we try to find a creative way of using computer - transforming the tool into medium. The attention was paid on exploring the possibilities characteristic for computers and not available with traditional methods of modelling. Architect’s tradition tools are effectively replaced by a computer, which create a new way of doing things.
keywords Architectural composition, computer modelling, method of teaching
series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/22 08:51

_id sigradi2003_047
id sigradi2003_047
authors Baccaglio, S., Brebbia, V. Bueno, R., Lagorio, L., Noya, A., Salgado, M., Rucq, M. and Pons, A.
year 2003
title Una Herramienta Alternativa Para La Comunicación Académica (An Alternative Tool for the Academic Communication)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary The aim of this report is to develop a digital pattern easy to use, which will be a suitable tool to display images and texts for academic purposes. The proposal is done through the configuration of a html code page. Besides the study proposes to carry out a digital catalog in order to make easy the files and communication of graphic and photographic documentation. The case of some urban transformations in Rosario's riverside sets an example of its use and verifies its potential condition.
series SIGRADI
email anoya@agatha.unr.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2003_039
id sigradi2003_039
authors Balmaceda, María Isabel and Malmod, Alicia Violeta
year 2003
title Multimedia ¡Alerta SISMO!: Prevención Sísmica en la Escuela (Multimedia "EARTHQUAKE Alert!": Sìsmic Prevention in the School)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary Alerta SISMO is a multimedia developed as a didactic tool in order to teach Seismic Prevention at the elementary school. It intends to improve the performance of traditional tools not only due to the digital support but also because of the didactic proposal. It has been designed to be used by qualified teachers who could guide pupils in their building knoledgement process. The value of this product lies in using computer resources, animation, video, images and sound, whith a didactic intention.
series SIGRADI
email marbalma@farqui.unsj.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2003_004
id sigradi2003_004
authors Barros, Diana Rodríguez
year 2003
title Hipermedios, metanodos y lógicas de cierre (Hypermedia, metanodes and logic of closure)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary The present work is a contribution for the construction of a theorical perspective on the presence of metanodes and closing strategies in hypermedia readings about architecture and design. It particularly aims at describing, explaining and predicting these phenomena in relation to the positive attitudes they generate in processess of meaning construction and cognitive overflow. The results obtained are expected to help in producing guidelines and implications to be considered when systematizing the analysis and design of hypermedia on architecture and the city. It is part of the studies being currently carried out at the CEAC Center about hypermedia readings of urban fragments by non-expert users. (Project 15/B1001)
keywords Hypermedia, design, metanodes, closing strategies
series SIGRADI
email dibarros@mdp.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 745f
id 745f
authors Bauni Hamid; Devin Defriza
year 2003
title A Preliminary Model of Community-based Integrated Information System for Urban Spatial Development
source Proceeding of the 3rd China Urban Housing Conference, July 3-5 2003, Center for Housing Innovations, Chinese University of Hong Kong, ISBN 962-8272-26-8, pp. 417-424
summary This paper describes a research on building Integrated Information System for Urban Spatial Development. The objective of the research phase discussed in this paper is to define a prototype of information system that basically facilitates information communication among involved participants in an urban spatial development planning. The system is designed by putting stress on local community. Their spatial perception and the availability of GIS technology in local context become constraints in building the system. Internet becomes the main alternative for information dissemination for this phase. This is also supported by the use of web-based GIS as framework of information system. Through few socialization sessions, the proposed model has indicated a prospected alternative to be seamless communication media among participants. To support an easy-access for local people in using this information system a mechanism of information access has been proposed in the form of local information center.
keywords information system, digital model, urban development, community, participation
series other
type paper session
email bauni@berkeley.edu
last changed 2007/02/04 05:15

_id c35c
authors Bender, Oliver
year 2003
title The Geographical Alpine Information System “Galpis” in the Raumalp Project. Outlay and Output
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary RAUMALP, an interdisciplinary research project of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, shall examine problem areas of spatial development on community level in the Austrian alpine region. The aim is the investigation of scientific basics for political decision finding, especially for the regional-specific realisation of the Alpine Convention. All ascertained information shall be included in “GALPIS”, a comprehensive Alpine Space Information System. GALPIS based on ESRI ArcGIS and MS Access software works with data from different sources, like ISIS, the electronic data base of Statistic Austria, and original data and maps gathered and elaborated by the working groups of RAUMALP. This also includes ecological raster data. Dealing with administrative units, „real“ space and raster space, RAUMALP will integrate the different space levels mostly to administrative spatial units representing the existing 1145 communities of the RAUMALP study area. This will be realised by overlay of grids, types of land use and communitypolygons. Major task of GALPIS is a conversion of former communal data (p. e. 1451 communities in 1951) that should represent the recent administrative boundaries. By this way it is possible to make thematic and time-integrative analyses of community data. GIS modelling of the six case studies is more complex. The conceptual model has to integrate several vector and raster layers such as land plots (“Digitale Katastralmappe”), types of land use (“Land Use and Land Cover Austria” by M. Seger) and biodiversity. P. e., the working group settlement is using a logical data model based on the entity “building” with the attributes “construction”,“function”, etc.
series other
email oliver.bender@oeaw.ac.at
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id sigradi2003_119
id sigradi2003_119
authors Bermudez, J., Foresti, S., Agutter, J., Westenskow, D., Syroid, N. Drews, F. Tashjian, E. and Adams, V.
year 2003
title Metodología Interdisciplinaria para Diseñar Nuevas Arquitecturas de Representación de Datos (Interdisciplinaria Methodologies for the Design of a New Architectures of Data Representation)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary Data representation architecture can be defined as the organizational, functional, experiential, formal, and media-technological order defining the interaction between data, representation, and user. This paper presents an interdisciplinary methodology to develop such architectures in order to significantly improve real time decision making in complex data environments. We have reported in some aspects of this work elsewhere. In this occasion, we will describe our working methodology based on complete interdisciplinarity, the design process and evaluation protocols. We will show work done for Finance and Network Monitoring. Our long-term goal is to design a new generation of data representation architectures that is applicable to diverse fields.
keywords Data representation; visualization; design, architecture, interdisciplinary
series SIGRADI
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia03_044
id acadia03_044
authors Bermúdez, Julio and Foresti, Stefano
year 2003
title Information Visualization
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, p. 346
summary Digital visualization addresses representational challenges from within and without architecture. ‘Disciplinary’ digital visualization is used to explore, understand and communicate architectural information associated with the production of buildings. 3D modeling, rendering, animation and VR as well as the power of digital media to permit the seamless integration of various data types are unleashing completely new ways to display architecture. As digital power continues to increase and get cheaper, portability and wi-fi networks take root, and visualization work becomes even more main stream, we can expect growing changes in the way the design process is conducted, buildings are presented and documented, and the public and 3rd party’s demands from professional services. This demands a more conscious research/pedagogies aimed at developing new representation conventions.
series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2003/11/27 14:22

_id acadia03_015
id acadia03_015
authors Bernhardt, Matthew and Blostein, Beth
year 2003
title APPROPRIATE LEVELS OF ACCESS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE AVAILABILITY OF COMPUTERS IN STUDIO
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 119-127
summary One of the most significant technological challenges facing architecture schools today is how to provide an appropriate level of access to computing resources. As the computer has become a significant tool in the study and practice of architecture, students need to have access to that tool in order to further their studies. But in facing this question of access, what is “appropriate”? Is there such a thing as too much access? Is 1:1 access—a computer for every student—the minimum level of access that schools and students should accept? Or is there a point beyond which more resources just means more waste; computers sitting idle and unused, or students using the computer for unproductive ends? These questions were the subject of an experimental series of studios in the spring of 2002, wherein three studios were given varying numbers of computers for a term. The use of these computers was then tracked, and compared with previous terms. In tandem, the quality of work produced by these three studios was compared. While additional experiments are most likely needed to draw firm conclusions, the results of this experiment seem to support defining “an appropriate level of access” at less than 1:1.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email bernhardt.7@osu.edu
last changed 2004/12/09 16:42

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