CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id fb56
id fb56
authors Kvan, Thomas; Thilakaratne, Ruffina
year 2003
source Editors: Clare Newton, Sandra Kaji-O'Grady and Simon Wollan ISSN: 1449 ­ 1737, Association of Architecture Schools of Australasia, 2003 Melbourne, Australia
summary Models are used in architectural design for several purposes. Early in a design cycle, sketch or study models will be created to examine particular aspects of a design idea. Such models are often assembled rapidly and crudely for it is the immediacy of the feedback that is sought. At later stages in a design cycle, more carefully assembled detailed models may be created to present ideas to colleagues, clients or decision-making bodies. Extending Schön’s observation that drawing is a process of conversation, we observe that models also participate in conversations. The introduction of digital media changes the nature of the conversation. This research revisits the role of models in the design conversation. It has been noted that models can be classified in two roles: ‘models of’ and ‘models for’. In architecture, we extend this by adding ‘models with’ as we employ three and two dimensional representations in the conversations of design. This paper presents experiences with students in the use of Rapid Prototyping technologies and manually made physical models in design tasks.

keywords Rapid prototyping; models
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/09/24 12:36

_id 6648
authors Issa, Rajaa
year 2003
title Cellular Texture Generator for Architectural Models
source University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Computer Science and Engineering
summary Cellular materials are used extensively in architectural settings. These materials usually have well defined geometry such as brick, stone and tiles. Patterns created with cellular materials are mostly the product of an intuitive design process that goes through cycles of synthesis and reflection until reaching final solution. Therefore interactivity is critical to intuitive designs. This paper presents a system that enables interactive creation of 3D cellular textures. It recognizes critical design areas that can have special design consideration such as edges. The system makes use of existing graphic engines and provides an intuitive interface to create patterns interactively. Rendering time is also considered through defining multiple levels of details for cells so it looks convincing in different scales. The paper presents results with an implementation of cellular texture generation system. It also shows some examples of brick walls generated with this implementation.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/04/25 05:20

_id acadia03_005
id acadia03_005
authors Maher, Andrew and Burry, Mark
year 2003
title The Parametric Bridge: Connecting Digital Design Techniques in Architecture And Engineering
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 39-47
summary New design opportunities that are facilitated by cross-disciplinary collaboration in both practice and research are available through the use of high level design software that simultaneously offers real time access to both analysis and design geometry in shared three-dimensional digital models. Here we present a collaborative research project between architects and structural engineers for the design of a pedestrian bridge, conceived to test current digital design processes in architectural and structural engineering practice with those in research through the use of models of parametrically defined associative geometry. In this project, the digital model’s architectural design geometry was constrained by the bridge’s fabrication methods and linked with its engineering analysis. Iterations of the design geometry were then optimised or ‘solved’ to produce variations according to the design parameters offered up for change. The shift of the professions from the plane to digital space exposes the possibilities of new design techniques with the exchange of design parameters potentially operating as a digital dialogue between the disciplines—a kind of digital version of Antoni Gaudi’s funicular hanging model—a metaphor of the digital space that has been developed for this project.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id ecaade03_229_40_monedero
id ecaade03_229_40_monedero
authors Monedero, Javier and Muñoz, Francisco
year 2003
title Data Organization in City Modeling
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 229-236
summary Working with big models requires a good balance between the technical requirements of the model and the technical requirements of the user. Although every virtual model, whether it is 2d, 3d or 4d, may be regarded as a particular form of a general data base, it is clear that is not, at the present time, a very flexible data base. It does not behave like a relational data base that can be inspected in a flexible way. On the contrary, it has a rigid structure, a hierarchical structure that is well suited for performance but is badly suited for navigating through the data and gathering derived information. These are well known disadvantages and advantages, related to the evolution of the data base software that has moved, in the last 30 years, from a hierarchical to a relational structure. These considerations are relevant for any kind of architectural or engineering model. But are particularly pertinent in the case of the model of a city where everything must have its place, and should relate properly with other parts of the model, be susceptible of further modifications and be able to receive new information. These and other related issues have been encountered and developed during the construction of several models at our Laboratory at the ETS Architecture of Barcelona. Our paper explains the main decisions we had to take during the course of these works with special emphasis on those aspects related with the organization of different kind of data in a unified whole that had to be sent to other professionals and had to be, for that reason, organized in a clear and comprehensible way for its further development.
keywords CAAD; City Modeling; Visual Simulation
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id cf2003_m_110
id cf2003_m_110
authors OXMAN, Rivka
year 2003
title Designing the Virtual Design University
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 291-300
summary Universities are currently providing learning opportunities to students and teachers exploiting information and communication technologies to deliver their programs and provide tuition support. However, since architectural design education is unique, general models of e-learning are not applicable. Regarding a potential virtual design university there is therefore a particular need for a theoretical pedagogical framework. The objective of this paper is to present a theoretical basis for the design and implementation of a unique e-learning environment suitable for design learning and design teaching in the architectural and engineering domains. The ideas and the concepts are currently being implemented in the WINDS project. Three theoretical and methodological aspects that provide unique consideration for the construction of a virtual learning environment for design are presented and discussed: 1) A unique structure of design knowledge as required in virtual education; 2) A requisite pedagogic framework for virtual design education; and 3) A particular technology designed and implemented to support these aspects in WINDS.
keywords design pedagogy, e-learning, virtual university
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/09/22 10:21

_id sigradi2003_088
id sigradi2003_088
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Fioravanti, Antonio
year 2003
title Needs Requirements Performances Vs Goals Constraints Values in Collaborative Architectural Design
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary The following is a report on an on-going research study aimed at defining a support system for Collaborative Design in architecture. This paper concisely shows the latest results. In the present report the emphasis is laid on the relations among the operators and their different goals. We studied the preliminary phase of the architectural design, for which we defined a model and implemented a software system. The validity of the software system does not decrease when it is extended to the remaining design phases. The goal of the research is to improve collaboration among operators.
keywords Collaborative Architectural Design, Knowledge Engineering, Design Goals, Constraints, Conflicts Reduction
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id ecaade03_269_43_achten
id ecaade03_269_43_achten
authors Achten, Henri and Joosen, Gijs
year 2003
title The Digital Design Process - Reflections on a Single Design Case
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 269-274
summary CAD tools are increasing their expressive and geometric power to enable a design process in which the computer model can be used throughout the whole design process for realizing the design. Such a process, in which other media such as physical scale models or drawings are no longer required by necessity to facilitate the design process, can be considered a digital design process. Rather than proposing that such a process is ideal – drawings and scale models should not be discarded – we feel that when taken as a starting point, the digital design process raises a number of new challenges to architectural design that deserve attention. These challenges concern the basic activities in design: exploration of the problem space, creating preliminary solutions, understanding consequences of design decisions, and so forth. In this paper we take the concrete design case of a graduation project that was developed from the start solely in CAD. We identify a number of key issues in that process such as continuous modeling, the model as design, continuous pliability, localized focus, and postponed decision. These issues not only have a technical, CAD-related aspect, but also are connected to architectural design. Most of these aspects are subject of contemporary debate in architectural design. On this basis, we can indicate where CAD is making a potential difference in architectural design.
keywords Digital design, CAAD
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/22 08:49

_id ecaade03_369_112_akgun
id ecaade03_369_112_akgun
authors Akgun, Yenal
year 2003
title An Interactive Database (HizmO) for Reconstructing Lost Modernist Izmir:
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 369-372
summary The research project in progress in the School of Architecture at the Izmir Institute of Technology includes documentation and reconstruction (by 3D modeling in electronic media) of damaged and lost early modern buildings in the Izmir region. The research aims to analyze the differences between Izmir modern buildings and Universal Modern Style, and preserve information on architectural heritage for future generations. The project is at the phase of developing an interactive web-based historical database (HizmO) that includes data (information, images, technical drawings, VRML models) and visualization of the findings. This database aims to be a pioneer in Mediterranean Region for exhibition of relations between traditional architecture (especially Mediterranean locality) and modernism, and organization of a network and off-campus learning activity for Mediterranean architecture that serve as a guide for students, researchers and architects. This paper aims at introducing this research and discussing the application of the database “HizmO,” its aims and potential effects on education in architectural history.
keywords E-learning, educational database, architectural history, VRML
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/22 08:50

_id acadia03_037
id acadia03_037
authors Anders, Peter
year 2003
title Cynergies: Technologies that Hybridize Physical and Cyberspaces
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 289-297
summary This paper presents ways in which cybrids depend for their technology upon three existing models of architectural hybrid: display space, environmental computing, and augmented/mixed reality. Cybrids bring these techniques together into a synergistic whole that depends as much on the observer for its consistency as it does on its comprising technologies. This synergy is a product of corroborative behavior between different modes, which provide cybrid users with a coherent social/spatial experience. The paper notes cybrids’ similarity to theater, not only for their technological dependency, but also for the tacit yet vital role of the observer in their effect.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/27 14:20

_id avocaad_2003_06
id avocaad_2003_06
authors Arturo F. Montagu and Juan Pablo Cieri
year 2003
title Urbamedia - Development of an urban database of fragments of some Argentinian and Latin-American cities using digital technology
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary The proposal of "Urbamedia" is to undertake the development of 3D virtual and interactive models of historical areas of Latin-American cities. The selected zone is the "Mayo Avenue" including the "Mayo Square", an historical place of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina; this project is financed by the National Agency of Scientific and Technological Development of Argentina and the University of Buenos Aires.We are presenting the first experimental model of the "Mayo Square" that has been developed at ABACUS, Department of Architecture & Building Aids Computer Unit, University of Strathclyde UK. combined with a system analysis of urban activities using the “Atlas.ti” CAQDAS software.This particular use of the “Atlas.ti” software is under experimental applications to this type of urban analysis procedures; allowed us the possibility to analysed a set of activities by means of graph theory as result of a series of interviews to the people working in the area. We are also looking to include historical areas of three cities: Mar del Plata, Rosario and Santa Fe (Argentina) and eventually other cities from Latin América as Rio de Janeiro and Habana.Due that ABACUS has a strong experience in city modelling plus the powerful software and hardware used there, we must develop a VRML customized menu to be adapted to our low cost PC equipment. The 3D model will be used mainly in urban design simulation procedures and the idea is to extend to other type of simulations of the environmental parameters.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id ecaade03_587_34_asanowicz
id ecaade03_587_34_asanowicz
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 2003
title Architectural Composition in Digital Space
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 587-590
summary In this paper the possibilities of using the computers at course of architectural compositions are considered. As the start point of the new teaching method of architectural composition we used the course of tradition architectural composition, elaborated at our Faculty. The course of Digital Architectural Composition was finished in 2002. The main goal of using the new digital media for modelling architectural forms was checking the new possibilities of form creation. Traditionally, searching of forms at the conceptual design stage is performed by using sketches, drawings and physical models. Our new method showed that is possible to do the same thing using the computerbased 3D modelling, experiencing no physical limitations of the 'real' substance. At the same time, at the early design stages, when formal value is sought, computer modelling can be done almost intuitively. In ours work we try to find a creative way of using computer - transforming the tool into medium. The attention was paid on exploring the possibilities characteristic for computers and not available with traditional methods of modelling. Architect’s tradition tools are effectively replaced by a computer, which create a new way of doing things.
keywords Architectural composition, computer modelling, method of teaching
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/22 08:51

_id sigradi2008_049
id sigradi2008_049
authors Benamy, Turkienicz ; Beck Mateus, Mayer Rosirene
year 2008
title Computing And Manipulation In Design - A Pedagogical Experience Using Symmetry
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The concept of symmetry has been usually restricted to bilateral symmetry, though in an extended sense it refers to any isometric transformation that maintains a certain shape invariant. Groups of operations such as translation, rotation, reflection and combinations of these originate patterns classified by modern mathematics as point groups, friezes and wallpapers (March and Steadman, 1974). This extended notion represents a tool for the recognition and reproduction of patterns, a primal aspect of the perception, comprehension and description of everything that we see. Another aspect of this process is the perception of shapes, primary and emergent. Primary shapes are the ones explicitly represented and emergent shapes are the ones implicit in the others (Gero and Yan, 1994). Some groups of shapes known as Semantic Shapes are especially meaningful in architecture, expressing visual features so as symmetry, rhythm, movement and balance. The extended understanding of the concept of symmetry might improve the development of cognitive abilities concerning the creation, recognition and meaning of forms and shapes, aspects of visual reasoning involved in the design process. This paper discusses the development of a pedagogical experience concerned with the application of the concept of symmetry in the creative generation of forms using computational tools and manipulation. The experience has been carried out since 1995 with 3rd year architectural design students. For the exploration of compositions based on symmetry operations with computational support we followed a method developed by Celani (2003) comprising the automatic generation and update of symmetry patterns using AutoCAD. The exercises with computational support were combined with other different exercises in each semester. The first approach combined the creation of two-dimensional patterns to their application and to their modeling into three-dimensions. The second approach combined the work with computational support with work with physical models and mirrors and the analysis of the created patterns. And the third approach combined the computational tasks with work with two-dimensional physical shapes and mirrors. The student’s work was analyzed under aspects such as Discretion/ Continuity –the creation of isolated groups of shapes or continuous overlapped patterns; Generation of Meta-Shapes –the emergence of new shapes from the geometrical relation between the generative shape and the structure of the symmetrical arrangement; Modes of Representation –the visual aspects of the generative shape such as color and shading; Visual Reasoning –the derivation of 3D compositions from 2D patterns by their progressive analysis and recognition; Conscious Interaction –the simultaneous creation and analysis of symmetry compositions, whether with computational support or with physical shapes and mirrors. The combined work with computational support and with physical models and mirrors enhanced the students understanding on the extended concept of symmetry. The conscious creation and analysis of the patterns also stimulated the student’s understanding over the different semantic possibilities involved in the exploration of forms and shapes in two or three dimensions. The method allowed the development of both syntactic and semantic aspects of visual reasoning, enhancing the students’ visual repertoire. This constitutes an important strategy in the building of the cognitive abilities used in the architectural design process.
keywords Symmetry, Cognition, Computing, Visual reasoning, Design teaching
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id caadria2003_a6-4
id caadria2003_a6-4
authors Bialas, Z.,Glinkowska, A., Kepczynska-Walczak, A. and Szrajber, R.
year 2003
title Architectural Heritage As A Force In Networked Caad Education
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 801-808
summary This paper aims to present a project being currently in progress. The task is to describe a concept for future access to information resources which cover the Polish (in wider international context) architectural and urban design, architectural heritage, applied arts in form of drawings, images, 3D models and VR along text explanations. In this way the database would enable access to huge resources and didactic packages. The proposed database would be primarily addressed to students of architecture, who in addition would be involved in creation of the collection, e.g. through building 3D models.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id ecaade03_187_11_brandy
id ecaade03_187_11_brandy
authors Brady, Darlene A.
year 2003
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 187-190
summary Metaphor in architecture involves two distinct paradigms of ideation and visualization: architecture as a virtual metaphor of an idea and virtual models of architecture as metaphors of an architectural intention or vision. Digital media is a powerful vehicle for the generation and expression of both paradigms. The dominant applications of digital media in architecture are drafting and computer simulations as virtual constructs of an architectural intention. This paper will focus on the us e of digital media and ideation, a design process which uses metaphor to link idea and form early in the design process.
keywords Design creativity, Design process, Generative design, Innovation, Precedents
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/22 08:54

_id sigradi2003_072
id sigradi2003_072
authors Braga, Gisele Pinna
year 2003
title O modelo digital auxilia a compreensão do desenho arquitetônico ou o desenho arquitetônico auxilia a compreensão do modelo digital (The digital model assists the understanding of the architectural design or the architectural design assists the understanding of the digital models)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary In order to design architecture projects, 1st grade architecture students have to understand the space and how to figure it out. To be succeeded in the design process it is necessary to develop their spatial abstraction capability. Each architectural representation tool can contribute for this development. This work shows the pedagogical experience applied to students of the first grade of architecture course at UNICENP, in Curitiba, Brazil, approaching the strategies of different subjects to increase the development of spatial skills using different architecture design tools.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id caadria2003_a1-1
id caadria2003_a1-1
authors Burrow, A., Burry, J., More, G., Tengono, Y. and Burry, M.
year 2003
title Visual and Sonic Communication Representations to Support Design Interaction
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 29-42
summary Interaction between collaborating parties exerts strong and surprising forces on the design process and thus its outcomes. Hence, there is much to be gained by investigating the nature of these communications. By definition, an organisation establishes clear protocols to realise effective communication, and does so in response to business needs. In contrast, creative endeavours must often harness loose teams of specialised individuals, working in different contexts, disciplines, and language bases, and relying on nonformalised yet highly selective exchanges of information. It is therefore a considerable challenge to comprehend and improve these processes. One approach is to exploit the discrete information contained within digital communications to produce models of these complex conditions. This paper reports preliminary work to identify the components of an email visualisation system. The goal is to apprehend developing structures, providing the collective with the capacity for reflection.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id sigradi2003_090
id sigradi2003_090
authors Espina, Jane
year 2003
title Ciudades Tradicionales Vs. Ciudades Digitales (Traditional Cities Vs Digital Cities)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary This work presents the creation of a Documentary City which has 3D models of buildings and actualized urban spaces, related to a systematic information and hypermediatical, through the use of a Data Base as a digital tool for the construction of a Data Bank, which will be part of the Digital City of Maracaibo and it could be requested on a physical approach or distance way using digital technologies. The virtual reconstruction and documented part of the history of the city and the records of buildings in different historical growing moments of Maracaibo City, since its foundation until now, will permit recover part of the lost memories of the city. This research will constitute a unpublished experience in Venezuela and belong to the Hypermediatical Model of Maracaibo City of the Institute of Architectonical Research of the Faculty of Architecture and Design in the Universidad del Zulia.
keywords Data base, tridimensional models, multimedia, digital city, urban spaces.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id ijac20031308
id ijac20031308
authors Garcia Alvarado, Rodrigo; Baesler Abufarde, Felipe; Moreno, Pedro Rodriguez; Bravo, Mauricio Pezo
year 2003
title Modeling of Activities: an approach to the virtual representation of human behaviors in architectural spaces tested in emergency units
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 1 - no. 3
summary Despite the increasing interest in the functionality and humanization of architecture, there are few studies covering the occupation of buildings and methods to represent activities in spaces. This article explores new software for simulating and virtual modeling in order to facilitate the analysis and visualization of events in buildings. Of particular importance is programming the behavior of 3D-characters according to the probabilistic evolution of activities, and producing animations and interactive models. This approach was tested in a study of three emergency units of hospitals in Chile. Although a full integration of software was not possible, the process developed (in particular the subjective tours) demonstrated that the technique can provide new information about the functioning and spatiality of the units. In addition, it suggested operative and architectural improvements supporting the management and design of facilities.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id caadria2003_b4-4
id caadria2003_b4-4
authors Gero, John S.
year 2003
title Situated Computing A New Paradigm for Design Computing
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 579-590
summary This paper introduces the concepts of situatedness and constructive memory as the foundations of situated computing. The difference is between encoding all knowledge prior to its use and allowing the knowledge to be developed and grounded in the interaction between the external world and the designer/tool. The paper elaborates these concepts and concludes with a discussion of the implication of situated computing on computational models of designing and on the development of adaptive design tools.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

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