CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 4c01
authors Laranjeira, Teresa
year 2003
title The S. Pedro da Cova Community Knowledge Centre, a local example of empowerment through technology
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary S. Pedro da Cova (Gondomar), located ten kilometres from the city centre of Porto (Portugal), is considerate a depressed territory, with a large spectrum of social, economic and urban problems, but also with local positive aspects capable to reach the different development opportunities.In the ambit of the regeneration process for this area, the local authority draw a strategy based in the empowerment of the citizens, where the Information Communication Technologies (ICT’s) assumed a major role. With this purpose, it was intended to build a Community Technology Centre for the disfavoured children. From the building construction till the first activities, it is our conviction that to break the differences between the have and the have not’s it will be very important to conciliate the new technologies and the local characteristics. The children will be the active agents in the dissemination of the project through the development of the different activities, sensitising the families to adopt a healthy life and announce situations of risk, for example. To validate the project will be created an permanent observatory that propose a moment of reflection and auto-valuation about the evolution of the different activities, thechanges to do, and the identification of new problems and the redefinition of new methodologies. The aim of the article is not only to show the positive aspects, indeed significant, but also to bring into discussion some questions; in order to understand the possibility of defining an empowerment strategy based in the ICT’s. How to conciliate the individualperspectives of the future into a common objective? How to show to all community that information and knowledge are fundamentalto build a more liveable and equity neighbourhood? How to transfer the results to a larger strategy for the entire city? And, at theend, how to explain that people is the most important "infrastructure" to build a better future?
keywords Social Exclusion; Informal Urban Structure; Empowerment; Spaces of Knowledge
series other
email laranjeira10@sapo.pt
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id acadia03_035
id acadia03_035
authors Mahalingam, Ganapathy
year 2003
title Representing Architectural Design Using a Connections-Based Paradigm
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 269-277
summary Any making, including a work of architecture, is synthetic in nature and is made by making connections. To base the core of a computational representation of architectural design on connections is to base it on the very core of making. The articulation of the core of architecture, its architectonics, should be based on articulating its connections. This paper probes how connections can serve to represent architectural design. A paradigm consists of a core cluster of concepts that, for a time period, provides a framework to articulate the issues and problems facing a field and to generate solutions. This paper offers a connections-based paradigm to represent architectural design computationally. A number of connections-based strategies for the representation of architectural design have emerged. Modeling frameworks that have been identified include dendograms, bipartite graphs, adjacency graphs, plan graphs, planar graphs, Hasse diagrams, Boolean lattices, and Bayesian networks. These modeling frameworks have enabled the representation of many aspects of architectural design. Is it possible to extract a uniform modeling framework from all these frameworks that enables the computation of architectural design in all its aspects? Using biological analogies, will an integration of these modeling frameworks provide the ‘molecular’ structure of a ‘DNA’ that makes up the architectural ‘genome’? This paper will attempt to answer these questions.
series ACADIA
email ganapathy.mahalingam@ndsu.nodak.edu
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id acadia05_254
id acadia05_254
authors Sheil, Bob and Leung, Chris
year 2005
title ‘Kielder Probes’ – bespoke tools for an indeterminate design process
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 254-259
summary Sixteen (makers) are a group of practicing architects, academics, designers and makers who assemble when key questions surrounding design, fabrication, use and adaptability in architecture emerge. Initially, the group was formed out of a motivation to engage as designers with the physical and tactile aspects of production without a dependency upon drawing. Now, in the post digital age, the age of digital fabrication, boundaries between drawing and making, between the designer and the maker, have dissolved. Consequently sixteen*(makers) work is now engaged with questions of knowledge transfer, expertise, and innovation where modes of investigation are equally embedded within in the analogue and the digital world. This article relates to our latest ongoing work which is due for completion in 2005/06. The work has been developed as a specific response to the award of an architectural residency by the Art and Architecture Partnership at Kielder Park, Northumbria, England. From the outset, it has not been a requirement of the residency that an outcome is identified early on. In fact, as I write, the outcome remains open. Presented with an extraordinary site and coinciding with a time of rapid change the work has begun by exploring a design process that is adaptable, indeterminate, and informed by site conditions. In October 2003, sixteen*(makers) were awarded an architecture residency by The Art and Architecture Programme at Kielder (AAPK) of Northumbria, UK. This organization is well known for commissioning works such as the ‘Belvedere’ by Softroom and the ‘Skyspace’ by James Turrell. Coordinated by Peter Sharp, AAPK consists of a number of large public bodies, including The Forestry Commission, Northumbrian Water and Tyndale District Council. Together they manage a land area of 62,000 ha’s centred on the UK’s largest reservoir and surrounded on all sides by one of Europe’s largest managed forests.
series ACADIA
email r.sheil@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id diss_anders
id diss_anders
authors Anders, P.
year 2003
title A Procedural Model for Integrating Physical and Cyberspaces in Architecture
source Doctoral dissertation, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, U.K
summary This dissertation articulates opportunities offered by architectural computation, in particular the digital simulation of space known as virtual reality (VR) and its networked, social variant cyberspace. Research suggests that environments that hybridize technologies call for a conception of space as information, i.e. space is both a product of and tool for cognition. The thesis proposes a model whereby architecture can employ this concept of space in creating hybrids that integrate physical and cyberspaces.The dissertation presents important developments in architectural computation that disclose concepts and values that contrast with orthodox practice. Virtual reality and cyberspace, the foci of this inquiry, are seen to embody the more problematic aspects of these developments. They also raise a question of redundancy: If a simulation is good enough, do we still need to build? This question, raised early in the 1990's, is explored through a thought experiment - the Library Paradox - which is assessed and critiqued for its idealistic premises. Still, as technology matures and simulations become more realistic the challenge posed by VR/cyberspace to architecture only becomes more pressing. If the case for virtual idealism seems only to be strengthened by technological and cultural trends, it would seem that a virtual architecture should have been well established in the decade since its introduction.Yet a history of the virtual idealist argument discloses the many difficulties faced by virtual architects. These include differences between idealist and professional practitioners, the failure of technology to achieve its proponents' claims, and confusion over the meaning of virtual architecture among both architects and clients. However, the dissertation also cites the success of virtual architecture in other fields - Human Computer Interface design, digital games, and Computer Supported Collaborative Work - and notes that their adoption of space derives from practice within each discipline. It then proposes that the matter of VR/cyberspace be addressed from within the practice of architecture, a strategy meant to balance the theoretical/academic inclination of previous efforts in this field.The dissertation pursues an assessment that reveals latent, accepted virtualities in design methodologies, instrumentation, and the notations of architectural practices. Of special importance is a spatial database that now pervades the design and construction processes. The unity of this database, effectively a project's cyberspace, and its material counterpart is the subject of the remainder of the dissertation. Such compositions of physical and cyberspaces are herein called cybrids. The dissertation examines current technologies that cybridize architecture and information technology, and proposes their integration within cybrid wholes. The concept of cybrids is articulated in seven principles that are applied in a case study for the design for the Planetary Collegium. The project is presented and critiqued on the basis of these seven principles. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of possible effects of cybrids upon architecture and contemporary culture.
series thesis:PhD
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id acadia03_037
id acadia03_037
authors Anders, Peter
year 2003
title Cynergies: Technologies that Hybridize Physical and Cyberspaces
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 289-297
summary This paper presents ways in which cybrids depend for their technology upon three existing models of architectural hybrid: display space, environmental computing, and augmented/mixed reality. Cybrids bring these techniques together into a synergistic whole that depends as much on the observer for its consistency as it does on its comprising technologies. This synergy is a product of corroborative behavior between different modes, which provide cybrid users with a coherent social/spatial experience. The paper notes cybrids’ similarity to theater, not only for their technological dependency, but also for the tacit yet vital role of the observer in their effect.
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/27 14:20

_id avocaad_2003_17
id avocaad_2003_17
authors Anna Maria Chrabin, Jaroslaw Szewczyk and Herman Neuckermans
year 2003
title A Critical Evaluation of Early Stages Software in its Capacity of Coping with Contextual Issues
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary In this paper we analyse critically early design stages software in its capacity of coping with contextual data at large (i.e. representing cultural, aesthetical context, etc.). We identified 5 categories of early stages software: geometry based graphic editors, evaluation architectural software, generative and shape-grammar based systems, evolutionary systems and other systems. Calling the object under creation during of the early stages a CAD conceptual model, we will investigate to what extend this software allows the architect to experience and represent the context in which a design is situated. Especially we will focus on its capacity to allow interaction, playful interaction on our way to the design. Designers, and particularly architects, interact with the local context similarly to interacting in a game: the context influences the users’ decisions, surprises them and causes permanent changes to their ways of thinking. On the other hand, architects permanently shape and reshape the context, and reduce the context to a protean point of reference. Such behaviour characterises creative thinking that is crucial for the early stage of design. The investigation led us to the conclusions that the effective interactivity with the context needs simple rules, a plain interface and data reduced as simple as possible, especially when interaction with the context is performed during the early stages of a design process. The findings can be used in organising computer environments for early-stage design.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
email Herman.Neuckermans@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id sigradi2008_049
id sigradi2008_049
authors Benamy, Turkienicz ; Beck Mateus, Mayer Rosirene
year 2008
title Computing And Manipulation In Design - A Pedagogical Experience Using Symmetry
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The concept of symmetry has been usually restricted to bilateral symmetry, though in an extended sense it refers to any isometric transformation that maintains a certain shape invariant. Groups of operations such as translation, rotation, reflection and combinations of these originate patterns classified by modern mathematics as point groups, friezes and wallpapers (March and Steadman, 1974). This extended notion represents a tool for the recognition and reproduction of patterns, a primal aspect of the perception, comprehension and description of everything that we see. Another aspect of this process is the perception of shapes, primary and emergent. Primary shapes are the ones explicitly represented and emergent shapes are the ones implicit in the others (Gero and Yan, 1994). Some groups of shapes known as Semantic Shapes are especially meaningful in architecture, expressing visual features so as symmetry, rhythm, movement and balance. The extended understanding of the concept of symmetry might improve the development of cognitive abilities concerning the creation, recognition and meaning of forms and shapes, aspects of visual reasoning involved in the design process. This paper discusses the development of a pedagogical experience concerned with the application of the concept of symmetry in the creative generation of forms using computational tools and manipulation. The experience has been carried out since 1995 with 3rd year architectural design students. For the exploration of compositions based on symmetry operations with computational support we followed a method developed by Celani (2003) comprising the automatic generation and update of symmetry patterns using AutoCAD. The exercises with computational support were combined with other different exercises in each semester. The first approach combined the creation of two-dimensional patterns to their application and to their modeling into three-dimensions. The second approach combined the work with computational support with work with physical models and mirrors and the analysis of the created patterns. And the third approach combined the computational tasks with work with two-dimensional physical shapes and mirrors. The student’s work was analyzed under aspects such as Discretion/ Continuity –the creation of isolated groups of shapes or continuous overlapped patterns; Generation of Meta-Shapes –the emergence of new shapes from the geometrical relation between the generative shape and the structure of the symmetrical arrangement; Modes of Representation –the visual aspects of the generative shape such as color and shading; Visual Reasoning –the derivation of 3D compositions from 2D patterns by their progressive analysis and recognition; Conscious Interaction –the simultaneous creation and analysis of symmetry compositions, whether with computational support or with physical shapes and mirrors. The combined work with computational support and with physical models and mirrors enhanced the students understanding on the extended concept of symmetry. The conscious creation and analysis of the patterns also stimulated the student’s understanding over the different semantic possibilities involved in the exploration of forms and shapes in two or three dimensions. The method allowed the development of both syntactic and semantic aspects of visual reasoning, enhancing the students’ visual repertoire. This constitutes an important strategy in the building of the cognitive abilities used in the architectural design process.
keywords Symmetry, Cognition, Computing, Visual reasoning, Design teaching
series SIGRADI
email mateusbeck@pop.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
email conrad.boton@tudor.lu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 6915
authors Dorninger, Peter
year 2003
title XML Technologies and Geodata
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing are very important methods for acquisition of geodata. During the previous decade, severalrevolutionary changes occurred in this area. Until the appearance of automated image analysis tools, it was necessary to measureselected points in the images given. At that time, it was much faster and even cheaper to get images of real world objects compared tothe time and money consuming process of manual analyses. So one tried to minimize this effort by measuring only characteristicpoints such as edges, break-lines, peaks and valleys and, for sure, a grid with a given grid step which was selected to meet the efforts.Lots of information in the images was neglected.Digital point matching algorithms and airborne laser scanning provide many new possibilities. The only restriction on spatialresolution is the one of the used sensors. Given a more precise image sensor, the matching algorithm will be able to match moresurface points; given a higher frequency laser scanner, more points can be measured of the same area. And those sensors get moreand more precise every day. Besides, those techniques allow for fast repetition which is necessary to create time series as a basis for4D modeling! However, this fact is accompanied by several problems concerning the capability of available computers. Some years ago, as the first ideas of 3D city models arose, it was very difficult to acquire the necessary data. Today the new sensors and methods have thenecessary capability, but we are not able to handle the available datasets efficiently, because of shortcomings in the past. In a time ofworld wide data exchange through the internet and global datasets, it is necessary to have efficient methods and algorithms tomanage the available data. There is a need for international, vendor independent data exchange and management standards that haveto be accepted and supported by the industry. This article is going to present several methods of data encoding using standardized data formats based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). After an introduction to this kind of data encoding, two derived applications for management, storage and presentation of geodata are described. As XML data is written in text format, the datasets have the ability to become rather long.Therefore some promising methods to reduce the amount of data are introduced afterwards. XML documents are mainly used fordata exchange between databases. Therefore the capabilities of commonly used database systems for storage of geodata are describedin the end and current implementation results of the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (I.P.F.) are presented.
series other
email pdo@ipf.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id ea0f
authors El Araby, Mostafa and Okiel, Ahmed
year 2003
title The Use of Virtual Reality in Urban Design: Enhancing the Image of Al-Ain City, UAE
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary This study aims at exploring the rapid growth of the use of Virtual Reality techniques in the field of Urban Design with application to the Al-Ain City. Currently, Virtual Reality and Virtual Environments are the most growing fields of information technology and have a great media attention. There is evidence to suggest that the use of such technology will enhance conceivable image of any proposed project at any urban setting for users, designers and clients. Therefore, city officials and administrators (clients) and the public (users) can reach better decisions regarding proposed projects within their towns and cities. Because of the limited time and resources, this study examines the visual quality of Downtown Al Ain, UAE, specifically, the Khalifa street (major shopping street). A basic VRmodel to the street was constructed. Modifications to the basic model were made to examine how changes in buildings’ heights and street vegetation affect the visual quality of the street. Results of this study showed that urban visualization is proving to be a valuable tool for designers and planners. Increasing the heights of buildings in the mid-street and on the edges, along with enforcing distinctive architectural styles for the proposed buildings will enhance the overall quality of the street. Furthermore, decreasing the intensity of current vegetation and tree heights will increase the imaginable quality of the street. Nevertheless, the built of a comprehend VR model needs more time, resources and facilities that were not available to this study. This model, if completed, tothe whole downtown area can be used both to identify existing problems and to quickly evaluate alternative solutions to those problems.
series other
email melaraby@uaeu.ac.ae
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ecaadesigradi2019_471
id ecaadesigradi2019_471
authors Güzelci, Orkan Zeynel, Alaçam, Sema and Güzelci, Handan
year 2019
title Trend Topics and Changing Concepts of Computational Design in the Last 16 Years - A content analysis
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 1, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 423-430
summary This study argues that analysis of written content might be helpful to provide clues at a certain extent on the future directions of current research areas and the emergence of new study areas. In the scope of the study, the International Journal of Architectural Computing (IJAC) which has been a scientific platform covering many pioneer publications on education research in computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) field was selected as source content. Although the size of the source domain is limited, the analysis of abstracts and titles of 439 articles published in IJAC between 2003 and 2018 revealed promising results which can be examined under four characteristics: "constant", "emerging", "fading" and "solidifying" concepts. The tokens in the analysis process are words, phrases, topic nodes and links between topic nodes. The outcomes of this study might contribute to tracking the evolution of concepts their emergence or disusage in different time and contexts, and interrelations between different concepts.
keywords content analysis; computational design concepts; IJAC
series eCAADeSIGraDi
email orkanguzelci@gmail.com
last changed 2019/08/26 20:25

_id heyligheneaae2003
id HeylighenEAAE2003
authors Heylighen, Ann
year 2003
title A maintenance contract for the architect's degree - Concept, materialisation and post-occupancy
source Ebbe Harder (ed.), Writings in Architectural Education, Transactions on architectural education No 15, EAAE/AEEA, pp.134-147
summary Today, architecture is confronted with changing concepts of time, space and place. These changes are largely induced by the advent of the information society and in turn induce the need for entirely new ways of conceiving architectural education. It is obvious, however, that architectural education does not hold absolute sway over the need for renewal, as other domains and disciplines too are confronted with the inevitable learning society: a society in which individuals, groups and companies are learning on a permanent basis. What architectural education does hold absolute sway over – or at least should be granted a patent for – is the unique way in which it used to prepare (and still prepares) its students for practice in the design studio. Therefore, instead of throwing out the design studio with the bathwater, we consider it as an outstanding lead for pursuing the learning society within the context of architecture. Furthermore, we see ICT not only as a cause of, but at the same time as an ally in this pursuit, as it allows reinforcing the studio as “espace transitoire”. To this end, we propose to literally connect the studio with the world of practice through an on-line platform constructed of concrete cases.
keywords Architectural education, ICT
series journal paper
email Ann.Heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2004/03/25 16:54

_id acadia03_023
id acadia03_023
authors Ibrahim, Magdy and Krawczyk, Robert
year 2003
title The Level of Knowledge of CAD Objects within the Building Information Model
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 173-177
summary The first generation of CAD software depended on entity objects that were manipulated and interpreted by the user as meaningful graphics symbols. These entities only represented the geometrical properties of the architectural elements. With the present emerging generation of CAD systems, a new concept shifts a drawing-based model into a Building Information Model with the potential of modeling true architectural objects. Theoretically, these CAD objects will provide all related data to the designer describing the geometry, as well as any related data associated with how the object is actually used. The knowledge required to support an object should have structure to it. Different levels of knowledge need to be included, such as the geometrical information, which should be flexible enough to accommodate any type of shape and modification while keeping the object’s integrity as a unit and maintaining its relations to other objects. The CAD object concept, as remarkable as it is, might also have potential problems. It has some implications over the design process, as well as the architectural profession itself.
series ACADIA
email ibramag@iit.edu
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id acadia03_001
id acadia03_001
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2003
title Digital Design
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, p. 16
summary Describing design as a sequence of steps cannot convey the complexity of social interactions that it embodies. Design is not merely a process, but a co-evolution of efforts and events in various places and times—both synchronous and asynchronous. Designers share their values, effort and expertise within design settings via artifacts that further the design process. Increasingly, these design settings in academia, research, and professional practice combine physical and virtual modalities such as immersion, projection, and a range of interaction technologies. Peter Anders has described such spaces as cybrids: hybrids that integrate virtual and physical space. In these settings, designers use overlapping physical and virtual artifacts and tools to arrive at a co-operative design resolution. Within collaborative design, these artifacts take on an additional role. As embodiments of design ideas and actions, they become media for communication. Donald Schon asserts that design should be considered a form of making, rather than primarily a form of problem solving, information processing or research. Indeed the line separating creation from design is becoming increasingly blurred. For the design artifact itself may become a part of the design proposal—its virtual presence incorporated within a cybrid structure or object. We may in the future see a proliferation of cybrid settings that support collaborative, digital design. The technologies for this already exist in collaborative tools, networked computing, scanning and immersive media. However, it will take a creative vision to see how these disparate tools and devices can integrate within the ideal design setting.
series ACADIA
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id caadria2003_c5-3
id caadria2003_c5-3
authors Kalay, Yehuda E. and Jeong, Yongwook
year 2003
title Collaborative Design Simulation Game
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 745-758
summary Collaboration is an is an important aspect of the architect's education. However, it is not amenable to the traditional project-based learning pedagogy that works so well for developing form-making skills, because it can only be revealed when the number of participants exceed a certain threshold, and when actions made by others affect the individual's design decisions. The advent of on-line, multi-player games provides an opportunity to explore interactive collaborative design pedagogies. Their abstraction helps focus attention on the core issues of the simulated phenomenon, while the playful nature of a game, as opposed to 'work,' encourages immersion and role playing that contribute to the learning process. This paper describes an on-line game for simulating design collaboration. It espouses to simulate, exercise, and provide a feel for the social dimension of collaboration, by embedding mutual dependencies that encourage players to engage each other-in adversarial or collaborative manner-to accomplish their goals. Specifically, it is intended to help students understand what is collaboration, why it is necessary, and how it is done. The game is modeled after popular board games like Scrabble and Monopoly: players build 'houses' made of colored cubes on a site shared with other players.' A carefully constructed set of rules awards or deducts points for every action taken by a player or by his/her neighbors. The rules were constructed in such a manner that players who collaborate (in a variety of ways) stand to gain more points than those who do not. The player with the most points 'wins.'
series CAADRIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id acadia03_018
id acadia03_018
authors Kalay, Yehuda E. and Jeong, Yongwook
year 2003
title Collaborative Design Process Simulation Game
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 133-141
summary Collaboration is an important aspect of the architect’s education. However, it is not amenable to the traditional project-based learning pedagogy that works so well for developing form-making skills. Being a process, rather than a product, it cannot be revealed by judging the results alone, which is often how form-making skills are taught and judged. Rather, the process of collaboration is only evident when the number of the participants exceeds a certain threshold, and when actions taken by other participants affect an individual’s on-going design decisions. The advent of on-line, multi-player simulation games provides an analogy and an opportunity to explore interactive collaborative design pedagogies. Their abstract nature helps focus attention on the core issues of the simulated phenomenon, while the playful nature of a game, as opposed to “work,” encourages immersion and role playing that contribute to the learning process. This paper describes an on-line game for simulating the design collaboration process. It espouses to simulate, exercise, and provide a feel for the social dimension of collaboration, by embedding mutual dependencies that encourage players to engage each other—in adversarial or collaborative manners—to accomplish their goals. Specifically, it is intended to help students understand what collaboration is, why it is necessary, and how it is done. The game is modeled after popular board games like Scrabble and Monopoly: players build “houses” made of colored cubes on a site shared with other players. Actions taken by one player immediately affect his/her neighbors. A carefully constructed set of rules awards or deducts points for every action taken by a player and by his/her neighbors. The rules were constructed in such a manner that players who collaborate (in a variety of ways) stand to gain more points than those who do not. The player with the most points “wins.”
series ACADIA
email ywjeong@uclink.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id ijac20031407
id ijac20031407
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.; Jeong, Yongwook
year 2003
title A Collaborative Design Simulation Game
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 1 - no. 4
summary Collaboration is an is an important aspect of the architect's education. However, it is not amenable to the traditional project-based learning pedagogy that works so well for developing form-making skills, because it can only be revealed when the number of participants exceed a certain threshold, and when actions made by others affect the individual's design decisions. The advent of on-line, multi-player games provides an opportunity to explore interactive collaborative design pedagogies. Their abstraction helps focus attention on the core issues of the simulated phenomenon, while the playful nature of a game, as opposed to 'work,' encourages immersion and role playing that contribute to the learning process. This paper describes an on-line game for simulating design collaboration. It espouses to simulate, exercise, and provide a feel for the social dimension of collaboration, by embedding mutual dependencies that encourage players to engage each other - in adversarial or collaborative manner - to accomplish their goals. Specifically, it is intended to help students understand what is collaboration, why it is necessary, and how it is done. The game is modeled after popular board games like Scrabble and Monopoly: players build 'houses' made of colored cubes on a site shared with other players.' A carefully constructed set of rules awards or deducts points for every action taken by a player or by his/her neighbors. The rules were constructed in such a manner that players who collaborate (in a variety of ways) stand to gain more points than those who do not. The player with the most points 'wins.'
series journal
email kalay@socrates.Berkeley.edu
more http://www.multi-science.co.uk/ijac.htm
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id cee4
authors Kristianto, Mandau Apri
year 2003
title Performance Evaluation of 3D-Model CAAD Implementation in Dutch Architecture Firms
source South Bank University [In cooperation with Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen - The Netherlands]
summary The principal theme of this research is to provide information regarding the implementation of 3D Model CAAD, CAAD system which uses 3D Drawing Production Method (DPM) instead of 2D DPM This research is focused on its implementation in architecture firms and on justifies its performance and investment value. Principally there are two evaluations conducted in this research. First evaluation aimed to justify 3D-Model CAAD influence on design process and the second is investment evaluation which aimed to provide information for current and prospective user regarding their current and future investment on 3D-Model CAAD.

The results of the evaluations are: 3D Model CAAD has improved performance through efficiency on time and cost of design process also improvement on design quality. However correlation between the use of 3D-Model C.4AD and better performance, while tested using Chi-Square Test, is not significantly. This fact indicates that there are some other strong factors to influence design performance. Second, 3D-Model CAAD, according the Importance-Performance Map is positioned at top right quadrant which categorised as 'keep the good work' which means it has good investment value.

keywords Evaluation; Performance; 3D-Modeling C.4AD; Investment; Drawing Production Method
series thesis:MSc
email makristian@student.han.nl
last changed 2003/06/09 07:28

_id acadia03_021
id acadia03_021
authors Marx, John and Tomassian, Raffi
year 2003
title Digital Practice
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, p. 158
summary Technical competence in computer technology has become a conditio sine qua non of landing a job at a respectable architectural practice. By itself, though, this does not imply that all architectural practices are now doing their work in a revolutionary way. In their overwhelming majority they have been forced into the digital domain by the ubiquity of technology itself. The digital file has replaced the drawing as the information backbone in building profession. However, the common convertible currency of this information down the construction process is still lines on paper, albeit physically produced by incredibly sophisticated devices.
series ACADIA
email jmarx@form4inc.com
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

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