CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 565

_id acadia04_230
id acadia04_230
authors Johnson, Scott
year 2004
title Linking Analysis and Architectural Data: Why It's Harder than We Thought
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 230-243
summary This paper considers high-level, architecturally oriented repre­sentations, like Building Information Models (BIMs), and examines the difficulty of integrating analyses with such representations. Structural analysis is selected as a sample analysis domain, and is examined by integrating a structural analysis into the test implementation of a program that utilizes architecturally oriented elements. A fundamental problem is found to be that architecturally oriented elements are inappropriate for structural analysis. Methods for sequentially analyzing architectural elements are discussed, but are found to be inadequate. Accurate analysis requires analyzing the entire structure at once using a representation specific to structural analysis. A method for generating a structural representation based on the architectural representation is discussed, but the process is not simple. The process is complicated by the fact that architectural elements and structural elements do not correspond in a one-to-one or even a one-to-many manner. An accurate structural representation may even require semi-fictitious elements not corresponding to actual physical components. These findings are believed to be true for other analysis domains, as well.
keywords Representations, Building Information Models, Proteus, structural analysis, finite elements
series ACADIA
email sven@umich.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id ascaad2004_paper9
id ascaad2004_paper9
authors Bennadji, A.; H. Ahriz, and P. Alastair
year 2004
title Computer Aided Sustainable Design
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary One of the most important aspects architects need to consider fairly early on is that of energy saving, cost, thermal comfort and the effect on the environment in terms of CO2 emissions. At present, during the early design stage of a building, different options are assessed using simple tools (tables, graphs and software) that contain a large number of assumptions the very nature of which can bias choice or possibly lead to an inappropriate solution. It can be argued that the only way to provide a rational assessment of options is to use calculation methods that represent in detail the physical processes involved; this usually involves the use of dynamic thermal models. Furthermore if this tool is also used during detailed design it would introduce a consistency that is normally absent from the analytical design process. Many designers are of the opinion that, because not all details are known, then such tools are not suitable for application at early stages in the design. This view can be challenged because, even at the concept stage, a great deal is known about a building. This paper aims to show that a general description of a building can be used to generate sufficient data to drive a valid analysis using a detailed thermal model at the early sketch stage of the design process. The paper describes the philosophy, methodology and the interface developed to achieve this aim. The interface guides the user through the input process using a series of screens giving options for keywords used to describe the building; comprehensive default data built into the software are then attached to these keywords. The resulting data file is a building description that is the best possible interpretation of the design intent. This can then be used to assess options and guide towards a final design.
series ASCAAD
email a.bennadji@rgu.ac.uk
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id ascaad2004_paper15
id ascaad2004_paper15
authors Mallasi, Z.
year 2004
title Identification and Visualisation of Construction Activities’ Workspace Conflicts Utilising 4D CAD/VR Tools
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary This work addresses the problem arising on all construction sites: the occurrence of workspace interference between construction activities. From a site space planning context, this problem can lead to an inevitable roadblock to the progress of the scheduled construction operations. In real situations, when the spatial congestions occur, they could reduce productivity of workers sharing the same workspace and may cause health and safety hazard issues. The aim of this paper is on presenting a computer-based method and developed tool to assist site managers in the assignment and identification of workspace conflicts. The author focuses on the concept of ‘visualising space competition’ between the construction activities. The concept is based on a unique representation of the dynamic behaviour of activity workspace in 3D space and time. An innovative computer-based tool dubbed PECASO (Patterns Execution and Critical Analysis of Site-space Organisation) has been developed. The emerging technique of 4D (3D + time) visualisation has been chosen to yield an interesting 4D space planning and visualisation tool. A multi-criteria function for measuring the severity of the workspace congestions is designed, embedding the spatial and schedule related criteria. The paper evaluates the PECASO approach in order to minimise the workspace congestions, using a real case study. The paper concludes that the PECASO approach reduces the number of competing workspaces and the conflicting volumes between occupied workspace, which in turn produces better assessment to the execution strategy for a given project schedule. The system proves to be a promising tool for 4D space planning; in that it introduces a new way of communicating the programme of work.
series ASCAAD
email z.mallasi@tees.ac.uk
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id sigradi2008_166
id sigradi2008_166
authors Papanikolaou, Dimitris
year 2008
title Digital Fabrication Production System Theory: Towards an Integrated Environment for Design and Production of Assemblies
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary A Digital Fabrication Production System (DFPS) is a concept describing a set of processes, tools, and resources that will be able to produce an artifact according to a design, fast, cheap, and easy, independently of location. A DFPS project is a complex assembly of custom parts that is delivered by a network of fabrication and assembly processes. This network is called the value chain. The workflow concept of a DFPS is the following: begin design process with a custom geometric form; decompose it into constructible parts; send the part files for fabrication to various locations; transport all parts at the construction site at the right time; finally, assemble the final artifact. Conceptually it means that based on a well structured value chain we could build anything we want, at anyplace, at controllable cost and quality. The goals of a DFPS are the following: custom shapes, controllable lead time, controllable quality, controllable cost, easiness of fabrication, and easiness of assembly. Simply stated this means to build any form, anywhere, accurately, cheap, fast, and easy. Unfortunately, the reality with current Digital Fabrication (DF) projects is rather disappointing: They take more time than what was planned, they get more expensive than what was expected, they involve great risk and uncertainty, and finally they are too complex to plan, understand, and manage. Moreover, most of these problems are discovered during production when it is already late for correction. However, there is currently no systematic approach to evaluate difficulty of production of DF projects in Architecture. Most of current risk assessment methods are based on experience gathered from previous similar cases. But it is the premise of mass customization that projects can be radically different. Assembly incompatibilities are currently addressed by building physical mockups. But physical mockups cause a significant loss in both time and cost. All these problems suggest that an introduction of a DFPS for mass customization in architecture needs first an integrated theory of assembly and management control. Evaluating feasibility of a DF project has two main problems: first, how to evaluate assemblability of the design; second, how to evaluate performance of the value chain. Assemblability is a system’s structure problem, while performance is a system’s dynamics problem. Structure of systems has been studied in the field of Systems Engineering by Network Analysis methods such as the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) (Steward 1981), and the liaison graph (Whitney 2004), while dynamics of systems have been studied by System Dynamics (Forrester 1961). Can we define a formal method to evaluate the difficulty of production of an artifact if we know the artifact’s design and the production system’s structure? This paper formulates Attribute Process Methodology (APM); a method for assessing feasibility of a DFPS project that combines Network Analysis to evaluate assemblability of the design with System Dynamics to evaluate performance of the value chain.
keywords Digital Fabrication, Production System, System Dynamics, Network Analysis, Assembly
series SIGRADI
email dimp@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id ddss2004_ra-325
id ddss2004_ra-325
authors Rodrigues, D.S., L.C.L. Souza, and J.F.G. Mendes
year 2004
title Enhancing 3DSkyView Extension Performance
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-24088, p. 325-340
summary This paper presents a second version of the 3DSkyView extension. The purpose of that extension was to implement a calculation algorithm for assessment and visualization of sky view factors (SVF) by means of tools available in a Geographical Information System (GIS). The sky view factor is a thermal and geometric parameter pointed out in the specialized literature as one of the main causes of urban heat islands. A 3D-GIS is a powerful tool for reaching the goal of this research because it allows the storage, treatment and analysis of tri-dimensional urban data, in addition to a high level of flexibility for incorporating calculation algorithms. The objective in the 3DSkyView extension is to optimize the determination of that factor, not only reducing its demanding calculation and graphical representation time, but also generating a simplified tool for replacing expensive photographic equipment usually applied on this matter. Enhancing functions of ArcView GIS 3.2, the first version of that extension showed a very good performance allowing the automatic delineation and determination of SVF. That performance was although limited to a single observer point. The simulation of SVF for several view points in urban canyons was only possible by applying the extension as many times as the number of observers considered. Therefore, this second version was now developed in order to allow simultaneous determination of SVF for many view points. In addition, the 3DSkyView new interface is more flexible, in a way that the user may choose the kind of output wanted (graphical and/or tabular). With this new feature it is then easier to create a continuous SVF map for an entire area.
keywords Sky View Factor, Urban Geometry, GIS Extension, Urban Heat Island
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss2004_d-269
id ddss2004_d-269
authors Beetz, J., J. van Leeuwen, and B. de Vries
year 2004
title Towards a Multi Agent System for the Support of Collaborative Design
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 269-280
summary In this paper we are drafting the outline of a framework for a Multi Agent System (MAS) for the support of Collaborative Design in the architectural domain. The system we are proposing makes use of Machine Learning (ML) techniques to infer personalized knowledge from observing a users’ action in a generic working environment using standard tools such as CAD packages. We introduce and discuss possible strategies to combine Concept Modelling (CM)-based approaches using existing ontologies with statistical analysis of action sequences within a domain specific application. In a later step, Agent technologies will be used to gather additional related information from external resources such as examples of similar problems on the users hard disk, from corresponding work of team-members within an intranet or from advises of expert from different knowledge domains, themselves represented by agents. As users deny or reward resulting proposals offered by the agent(s) through an interface the system will be enhanced over time using methods like Reinforced Learning.
keywords Multi Agent Systems, Design & Decision Support Systems, Collaborative Design, Human Computer Interfaces, Machine learning, Data Mining
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id acadia04_100
id acadia04_100
authors Liapi, Katherine
year 2004
title A computer Based System for the Design and Fabrication of Tensegrity Structures
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 100-109
summary Tensegrity structures are composed of tension compression com­ponents, where the compression components (bars) are discontinu­ously enclosed within continuous tensile components (cables). From an engineering point of view, a tensegrity structure is characterized by geometric non-linearity and large displacements under loading. Therefore, its prestressed shape and deformation under loading are the result of the combined effect of the geometric parameters that determine the initial configuration of the structure, the level of pre­stress applied to cables, and the material properties of the compo­nent members of the structure. A method for generating the initial geometric configuration of tensegrity structures composed of tenseg­rity units and a parametric expression of this geometry have already been developed. A novel technology that makes possible the construction of tensegrity structures from the on-site assembly of deployable tensegrity units, which are fur­nished with a simple mechanism that permits bar-elongation, and, as a result, an increase of the prestress applied to the cables of each unit, is also under development. Also under development is a static analysis method that takes into account the above method for prestressing cables. This paper discusses the features of a system that supports the combined geometric and structural design of tensegrity structures, and integrates a graphical interface to display: a) models of initial geometry, b) geometry of the structure after prestress and loading are applied, and c) magnitude of forces applied to the structure’s component members (bars and cables). The system also provides numerical data to be used in component fabrication, and is therefore expected to become a very valuable tool for the design and construction of tensegrity structures.
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id ijac20032205
id ijac20032205
authors Yi-Luen Do, Ellen; Gross, Mark D.
year 2004
title Let There be Light! Knowledge-Based 3-D Sketching Design Tools
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 2
summary This paper presents a framework for 3D knowledgebasedsketching tools for lighting design and twosoftware prototypes built to illustrate sketch-basedinteraction with intelligent systems in 3-D domains.Spot supports direct sunlight simulation andvisualization in a selected time period and Light Pensupports placement of electric lighting designs to lightan intended area in space. In both examples, a 3-Dsketching front-end is coupled with a back-endknowledge-based system. This enables a designer topose a problem by drawing onto a 3-D model towhich the knowledge-based system offers a solution –in one case by providing quantitative data analysis; inthe other by modifying the 3-D model. Spot and LightPen’s specific domain of architectural lighting designexemplifies a more general class of 3-D interactionwith intelligent systems.
series journal
email ellendo@u.washington.edu
more http://www.multi-science.co.uk/ijac.htm
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id ddss2008-33
id ddss2008-33
authors Charlton, James A.; Bob Giddings and Margaret Horne
year 2008
title A survey of computer software for the urban designprocess
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary Urban design is concerned with the shape, the surface and the physical arrangement of all kinds of urban elements, the basic components that make up the built environment, at the level of buildings, spaces and human activities. It is also concerned with the non-visual aspects of the environment, such as noise, wind and temperature and humidity. The city square is a particular urban element which can take many forms and its geometrical relationships such as maximum dimensions, ratio of width to length and building height to length have been analysed for centuries (Alberti 1475), (Vitruvius 1550), (Sitte 1889), (Corbett 2004). Within the current urban design process there are increasing examples of three dimensional computer representations which allow the user to experience a visual sense of the geometry of city squares in an urban landscape. Computer-aided design and Virtual Reality technologies have recently contributed to this visual assessment, but there have been limited attempts at 3D computer representations which allow the user to experience a greater sense of the urban space. This paper will describe a survey of computer tools which could support a more holistic approach to urban design and which could be used to simulate a number of urban texture and urban quality aspects. It will provide a systematic overview of currently available software that could support the simulation of building density, height, colour and style as well as conditions relating to noise, shading, heat, natural and artificial light. It will describe a methodology for the selection and filtering of appropriate computer applications and offer an initial evaluation of these tools for the analysis and representation of the three-dimensional geometry, urban texture and urban quality of city centre spaces. The paper is structured to include an introduction to the design criteria relating to city centre spaces which underpins this research. Next the systematic review of computer software will be described, and selected tools will undergo initial evaluation. Finally conclusions will be drawn and areas for future research identified.
keywords Urban design, Software identification, 3D modelling, Pedestrian modelling, Wind modelling, Noise mapping, Thermal comfort, VR Engine
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id fa6e
id fa6e
authors Escayola, Rosa María; Bauleo, Silvina A.; Diez, Leonardo Pablo
year 2004
title DISTANCE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS FOR STUDENTS OF ARCHITECTURE: IS IT POSSIBLE?
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 105-109.
summary On the basis of our experience as teachers of Mathematics in the School of Architecture of the University of Buenos Aires and with the support of an expert designer of image and sound, we undertook the task of distance teaching the subject Mathematics II for students of Architecture. The academic guidance of Ms Spinadel, PhD, the university’s authorization and the support of a computer platform provided by Nueva Internet S.A. have enabled the completion of this project. We were encouraged to set up the distance teaching of the subject by the many advantages the system offers, namely, the chance for students to work at home with a computer-based platform containing all of the subject’s contents and to integrate and apply all the knowledge acquired in architectural contexts; and the chance for teachers to offer on-line guidance and tutorials. Distance teaching is not to be understood or configured as an accumulation of calculus procedures. Rather, it should be thought of as having the major aim of promoting the full development of the students’ imagination for the solution of architectural design problems. For that purpose, students must become familiar with the interface to be used as the virtual classroom, read the theoretical introduction to every one of the units, solve application problems (the students are provided with all the material, which they can visualize on line or print), and send their tutor all the queries they may have so that the process of teaching and learning is facilitated and enriched. The solution to exercises is presented in a didactic manner and students can resort to additional bibliography, image and formula galleries and a technical help forum provided by the software firm. A virtual classroom has been set up where students and teachers interact all the time. Students must also submit integrative assignments, which are corrected by the tutor and will form part of the subject’s final assessment, together with an in-person exam at the end of the semester. Excellent results have been obtained so far, being that this is the first time a subject of the Architecture course is taught this way. This paper is intended to share this experience and show how, in spite of the modality of the subject, the interaction achieved between students and teachers has proved to be very enriching.
series other
type normal paper
email vspinade@fibertel.com.ar
last changed 2005/04/07 10:50

_id ascaad2004_paper16
id ascaad2004_paper16
authors Hassan, R.; K. Jorgensen
year 2004
title Computer Visualizations in Planning
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary A wide range of visualizations have been developed and implemented as tools for urban simulations and visual impact assessment. These include: plans, diagrams, elevations, perspective sketches, renderings, modified photographs (photo renderings and photomontages), slide projections, scale models, movies, videotapes and computer graphics. In the last decade, graphical computer applications have proven to be an increasingly supportive tool in visualization and manipulation of graphical material. This study presents the state of the art of computer visualization in planning. More specifically, the use of web-based computerized visualizations for landscape visual simulation, with the aim to develop a system of visualization techniques as an aid to communicating planning and design scenarios for historically important landscapes and urban places, with particular attention to the city of Nablus in Palestine. This has led to the evaluation of possibilities and potentials of computer use in this field, and to the definition of the visual problems and challenges of the city of Nablus. This study will argue what extra one can draw from computerized visualizations, what is likely to be its impact on future planning and design research, and what this visualization experience really means for historical important locations as in Nablus. The study demonstrates that computerized visualizations can be a powerful tool in representing a cityscape in three-dimensions from different angels. Visualizations will allow better understanding of the components of the city, its landscapes, city features and the process of change. In this way it may provide new and better platforms for public participation in planning.
series ASCAAD
email ramzi.hassan@ilp.nlh.no
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id ddss2004_d-157
id ddss2004_d-157
authors Krafta, R.
year 2004
title Space is the Machine, with a Ghost Inside
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 157-173
summary The purpose of this paper is to report efforts towards the construction of a model for urban spatial dynamics simulation, based on multi-agents and space. The underlying idea is to have urban space producers and consumers operating in a two-layer, two-circuit model. The first layer holds urban space and its successive transformations; a second layer contains agents related to space; the first circuit simulates space production, and a second one simulates space consumption. Relationship between layers is represented as objective spatial features that agents are submitted to (the machine) and subjective meanings agents attach to each spatial feature (the ghost). While space works always in the same way, meanings vary according to each agent’s background and context. Relationships between circuits are represented by means of a market game in which producers try to maximize their profits by gambling with their risks, whereas consumers try to foresee the spatial distribution of local externalities that maximizes their utilities and investments. Urban Spatial Features are captured through centrality and land use patterns; every single agent’s action leads to changes in both patterns. Producers’ profit is a function of built form location. Consumers’ local externalities are concerned basically with present and future services. The model iteration is twofold: first it generates and allocates a number of built forms within a previously determined spatial system (a cellular matrix, for example), and second it allocates users to built forms. Population of users have its social profile and growth rate externally determined. Built form allocation is decided on the basis of a combination of profitXrisk perspectives. Users’ locational choice is supported by accessibility to services and present/future neighbourhood profile. Built form allocation works as parameter for users’ locational assessment, whereas users’ choices are used as parameters for developers. The model tends to adjust itself, in terms of quantities and types of built forms to be erected, although through a market lag of some iterations. Allocations are always made through weighted draws, so that mutations (non deterministic allocations) do occur.
keywords Urban Morphology, Urban Growth, Simulation
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss2004_ra-129
id ddss2004_ra-129
authors Ma, L., Th. Arentze, A. Borgers, and H. Timmermans
year 2004
title Using Bayesian Decision Networks for Knowledge Representation under Conditions of Uncertainty in Multi-Agent Land Use Simulation Models
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 1-4020-24088, p. 129-144
summary Land suitability analysis typically involves the assessment of the suitability of land units without knowing the future spatial distribution of land use. Traditional planning techniques have used “algebraic equations” to express land suitability as a weighted function of suitability scores across multiple criteria. However, the existing multi-criteria evaluation methods do not systematically account for uncertainty about the land use in adjacent and other cells. This paper proposes an alternative approach to land suitability analysis that does address the problem of uncertainty. In particular, Bayesian decision networks are suggested as a means of knowledge representation for agents in a multi-agent land use simulation system. Bayesian decision networks model the uncertainty in terms of probabilities specified in the network representing the expertise of specialists with respect to specific land uses. This paper discusses the approach and illustrates its use in the context of a retail agent.
keywords Land Suitability Analysis, Multi-Agents, Knowledge Representation, Bayesian Decision Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ascaad2004_paper4
id ascaad2004_paper4
authors Ahmad, Sumbul and Scott C. Chase
year 2004
title Design Generation of the Central Asian Caravanserai
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary Challenges for the study of Islamic architecture include its abundance and diversity in expression and its classification based on distinct functional or stylistic types. We address these issues by presenting shape grammars as a methodology for the analysis and design generation of Islamic architecture, with a specific example in the form of a parametric shape grammar for central Asian caravanserais. The grammar is developed by identifying distinct design types. Shape rules are created based on a study of the spatial elements and their organisation in the designs. We illustrate the utility of the grammar by deriving an extant design and as well as, previously unknown designs. We conclude by discussing possible extensions to the current grammar and future work involving the development of a grammar based framework for the comparative analysis of medieval Islamic courtyard buildings.
series ASCAAD
email s.c.chase@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id sigradi2004_333
id sigradi2004_333
authors Andrés S. Rodríguez
year 2004
title Exploración de relaciones entre analogías y bocetos durante la generación de ideas en diseño industrial como elicitación de requerimientos para CAD [Exploration of Relations between Analogies and Sketches During the Generation of Ideas in Industrial Design for Eliciting CAD Requirements]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary An exploration on the analogy-based idea generation process in industrial design is reported. In particular we try to identify relationships between the sketching process and the analogy building in order to elicit requirements for a supporting software. We use concurrent think aloud protocols to obtain experimental data and an extension of a proved content oriented schema to analyze them. Statistical analysis on segments containing .analogical chains. found relations between analogical and design actions that allow us to support the hypothesis that the sketch seems to be more useful for helping the analytical aspects of the analogical making (i.e. to code a situation in terms of higher order relations) than the synthetic ones (i.e. to identify an analogy source). Results were interpreted as software requirements for a Computer Aided Design Application.
keywords Sketching, Analogy, CAD, Industrial design, Protocol analysis
series SIGRADI
email arodrig@netverk.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 2004_617
id 2004_617
authors Barelkowski, Robert
year 2004
title The Optimization of Assumptions of the Reconstruction of Monumental Objects of Romanesque and Gothic Architecture - Computer Aided Archeological and Architectural Research
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 617-623
summary The paper discusses the methodological principles, the structure and the application aspects of individually created software application helping in architectural / archaeological research. The program is designed as 3layer software, providing the user with database, application with all functional modules and interface. The key content is the modular application allowing dynamic structural analyses, comparative analyses and other various possibilities, necessary in collecting and revising data from different sources. In author’s opinion the Manticora software is able to vastly support the interdisciplinary research and can help in optimizing its results.
keywords Interdisciplinarity, Computer Aided Architectural / Archaeological Research, Programming Tools, Programming Implementations for Architecture
series eCAADe
email robert@armageddon.poznan.pl
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id acadia04_088
id acadia04_088
authors Bechthold, Martin
year 2004
title Digital Design and Fabrication of Surface Structures
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aidd Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 88-99
summary This paper presents a study in digital design and manufacturing of shells, which are material-efficient systems that generate their load-bearing capacity through curvature. Their complex shapes are chal­lenging to build, and the few current shell projects employ the same shape repetitively in order to reduce the cost of concrete formwork. Can digital design and manufacturing technology make these systems suitable for the needs of the 21st century? The research developed new digitally-driven fabrication processes for Wood-Foam Sandwich Shells and Ferrocement-Concrete Sandwich Shells. These are partially pre-fabricated in order to allow for the application of Computer-Numerically Controlled (CNC) technology. Sandwich systems offer advantages for the digitally-enabled construction of shells, while at the same time improving their structural and thermal performance. The research defines design and manufacturing processes that reduce the need for repetition in order to save costs. Wood-Foam Sandwich shells are made by laminating wood-strips over a CNC-milled foam mold that eventually becomes the structural sandwich core. For Ferrocement-Concrete sandwich shells, a two-stage process is presented: pre-fabricated ferrocement panels become the permanent formwork for a cast-in-place concrete shell. The design and engineering process is facilitated through the use of parametric solid modeling envi­ronments. Modeling macros and integrated Finite-Element Analysis tools streamline the design process. Accuracy in fabrication is maintained by using CNC techniques for the majority of the shaping processes. The digital design and manufacturing parameters for each process are verified through design and fabrication studies that include prototypes, mockups and physical scale models.
keywords Shell, Pre-Fabrication, Prototype, Custom-Manufacturing, Simulation
series ACADIA
email mbechthold@gsd.harvard.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_186
id acadia04_186
authors Bell, Bradley
year 2004
title Digital Tectonics: Structural Patterning of Surface Morphology
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 186-201
summary The computer in architectural design has shifted from its role as a merely representational device to that of a tool for instrumentalized simulation and fabrication. The desire to make buildings look like a rendering, or to produce photo-realistic images and walkthroughs has given way to an opening of the potentials of software to assist the designer with managing complex geometries, parametric organizational diagrams, structural analysis, and integrated building systems. Simulation has become the means by which virtual space becomes more than just a mirror of reality. It becomes the space within which different potential realities can be tested and evaluated before they are materially implemented. In architecture, information derived from material constraints to site conditions can be constantly fed into the computer models to provide an accurate update, which in turn introduces feedback into the overall design, and change can then be registered in the detail.
keywords surface, patterns, structure, CAD/CAM, fabrication
series ACADIA
email bbell3@tulane.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id 2004_489
id 2004_489
authors Bille, Pia
year 2004
title CityScape - Analysing Modern Urbanism
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 489-494
summary Understanding scale is a major concern and a condition of working in the field of architecture and urban design. The project described in this case origins from Blauwe Koffer, a method developed in the 80’s by the Dutch architects Dolf Dobbelaar and Paul de Vroom. The method is devoted to analysis of form and function of important architectural and urban design projects in the last century and is a flexible model for searching architectural solutions at an early stage of a project. In the paper I will describe how a group of faculty transformed the Blauwe Koffer into a digital method serving as an introduction to urban design in the second year curriculum. The project introduced topics of modern urbanism defined as cityscapes. Through a series of mapping analysis the students studied variations of scale, extension, volume, density, borders, overlaps, bricollage, diversity etc. The students were required to do analysis in the form of a matrix of 6 x 7 cells. Categories in the analysis were three scales of figure / ground studies, bricollage and studies of the urban raster. DataTown was a particular category inspired by MVRDV. The project data derived from digital maps, and project presentations in books and magazines. At second year the students are assigned to do digital projects as a part of the curriculum and the students are required to have their own computer. The project was the first digital assignment in studio and previous computer courses and skills were limited to a one-week course in desktop publishing. The CityScape project was a successful experience in integrating computation in studio, in group work and in analysis of modern urbanism. The paper will show some of the projects and discuss the assignment as a part of the implementation of an IT-strategy.
keywords CAAD-Curriculum; Urban Morphology; Mapping; Education and Practise
series eCAADe
email pia.bille@aarch.dk
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

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