CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 301caadria2004
id 301caadria2004
authors Chia-Yu Wang, Teng-Wen Chang
year 2004
title Information Sharing for Small Design Studios - Ubiquitous Information Flow Approaches
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 391-404
summary While balancing the feasibility of management as well as design quality, design offices with strong focus on design are getting smaller and more compact. Mobility and dynamic information flow are two key issues for information sharing in design studio. In this research, we discussions about these concepts of ubiquitous computing, workflow and information model on small design studio. The goal of this research is trying to use available digital equipments as a ubiquitous device for sharing information dynamically no matter where and when they are. Use such digital equipments as well as server to store information and improve human interaction to achieve better interaction between human and technology. For these issues, we analyze three components of our system—the types of information, the interactive behaviors using roles as a metaphor, and ubiquitous devices that are available for small design studio. Within this research, we propose a system call Ubiquitous Information Flow Tool (UIFO) based on Java and Web technology for testing and reifying the concepts of ubiquitous information flow.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:39

_id 2004_523
id 2004_523
authors He, Jie and Tsou, Jin Yeu
year 2004
title Balancing Visual and Ecological Resource Reservation in Large-scale Recreation Area Planning Support on a GIS Platform - A case study of the Wenzhou Ecological Park
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 523-528
summary This paper proposes an experimental approach in visual landscape analysis on a GIS platform, which has the potential of integrating with ecological aspects and consequently making scientific decision making supports for urban and landscape planning practices. The research team scrutinizes the potential of the GIS platform in balancing multi-aspect planning strategies. The methodology of GIS-based visual landscape protection for recreation purpose is demonstrated through the case of the Wenzhou Ecological Park. The same platform can also be introduced the landscape ecology capacity analysis. This methodology can improve the comprehensiveness of the landscape resource management system, and enhance its validity and reliability in its application in the landscape ecologically considerable projects.
keywords GIS; Urban Planning; Visual Landscape; Landscape Ecology; Resource Management Decision Making Support
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ijac20032203
id ijac20032203
authors Elvin, George
year 2004
title Integrating Design and Construction with Wearable Computers
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 2
summary Wearable computers can help bridge the gap betweendesign and construction. They can integrate thesetraditionally separate cultures by improving the flowof information between them. Using a wearablecomputer, design and construction personnel can nowexchange design information quickly and continuouslybetween the point of work on the construction siteand the remote design office. The improved iterationbetween design and construction and much strongerconnection between design personnel andconstruction site afforded by wearable computers maypoint the way to a new kind of integratedarchitectural process. In this study, the goal was todetermine the value of wearable computers inintegrating design and construction by measuringspecific performance characteristics.The resultsinclude findings on productivity, rework andcommunication quality. They reveal that wearablecomputers can improve communication quality andreduce rework, but may have an initially negativeimpact on productivity. These findings suggest thatwearable computers may play a key role in futurebuilding projects, helping to bridge the current dividebetween design and construction.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id sigradi2007_af13
id sigradi2007_af13
authors Granero, Adriana Edith; Alicia Barrón; María Teresa Urruti
year 2007
title Transformations in the educational system, Influence of the Digital Graph [Transformaciones en el sistema educacional, influencia de la Gráfica Digital]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 182-186
summary The educative proposal was based on the summary attained through experiences piled up during the 2 last semester courses, 2/2006-1/2007. This proposal corresponds to a mix of methodology (by personal attendance / by internet). Founding on the Theory of the Game (Eric Berne 1960) and on different theories such as: Multiple intelligences (Haward Gardner 1983), Emotional Intelligence (Peter Salowey and John Mayer 1990, Goleman 1998), Social Intelligence (Goleman 2006), the Triarchy of Intelligence (Stemberg, R.J. 1985, 1997), “the hand of the human power”, it´s established that the power of the voice, that of the imagination, the reward, the commitment and association produce a significant increase of the productivity (Rosabeth Moss Kanter 2000), aside from the constructive processes of the knowledge (new pedagogical concepts constructivista of Ormrod J.E. 2003 and Tim O´Reilly 2004).
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 4b2a
id 4b2a
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2004
source University of Michigan
summary The development of appropriate research frameworks and guidelines for the construction of software aids in the area of architectural design can lead to a better understanding of designing and computer support for designing (Gero and Maher 1997). The field of research and development in computer-supported collaborative architectural design reflects that of the early period in the development of the field of computersupported cooperative work (CSCW). In the early 1990s, the field of CSCW relied on unsystematic attempts to generate software that increases the productivity of people working together (Robinson 1992). Furthermore, a shift is taking place by which researchers in the field of architecture are increasingly becoming consumers of rather than innovators of technology (Gero and Maher . In particular, the field of architecture is rapidly becoming dependent on commercial software implementations that are slow to respond to new research or to user demands. Additionally, these commercial systems force a particular view of the domain they serve and as such might hinder rather than help its development. The aim of this dissertation is to provide information to architects and others to help them build their own tools or, at a minimum, be critical of commercial solutions.
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2004/10/24 20:35

_id ascaad2004_paper15
id ascaad2004_paper15
authors Mallasi, Z.
year 2004
title Identification and Visualisation of Construction Activities’ Workspace Conflicts Utilising 4D CAD/VR Tools
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary This work addresses the problem arising on all construction sites: the occurrence of workspace interference between construction activities. From a site space planning context, this problem can lead to an inevitable roadblock to the progress of the scheduled construction operations. In real situations, when the spatial congestions occur, they could reduce productivity of workers sharing the same workspace and may cause health and safety hazard issues. The aim of this paper is on presenting a computer-based method and developed tool to assist site managers in the assignment and identification of workspace conflicts. The author focuses on the concept of ‘visualising space competition’ between the construction activities. The concept is based on a unique representation of the dynamic behaviour of activity workspace in 3D space and time. An innovative computer-based tool dubbed PECASO (Patterns Execution and Critical Analysis of Site-space Organisation) has been developed. The emerging technique of 4D (3D + time) visualisation has been chosen to yield an interesting 4D space planning and visualisation tool. A multi-criteria function for measuring the severity of the workspace congestions is designed, embedding the spatial and schedule related criteria. The paper evaluates the PECASO approach in order to minimise the workspace congestions, using a real case study. The paper concludes that the PECASO approach reduces the number of competing workspaces and the conflicting volumes between occupied workspace, which in turn produces better assessment to the execution strategy for a given project schedule. The system proves to be a promising tool for 4D space planning; in that it introduces a new way of communicating the programme of work.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id ddss2004_d-283
id ddss2004_d-283
authors Van Bronswijk, J.E.M.H., L.G.H. Koren, and C.E.E. Pernot
year 2004
title Adapting Epidemiological Methodologies to the Prediction of Health Effects of Built Environment Interventions
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 283-290
summary The influence of built environments on vitality and productivity of users is paramount. Since the introduction of Industrial, Flexible and Demountable Building, domotics, smart buildings, in general: mass-produced, intelligent and learning built environments, tailored built environments are within reach. This has resulted in the need for methodologies to predict short-term and long-term health effects of different built-environment constellations. Epidemiology has developed and validated methods to assess changes in prevalence of inflictions and other unhealthy conditions, as well as the number of healthy and vital years in a life span. After analysing the relationships among building (services) parts and its combinations, health determinants (exposures) and health outcomes, we could adapt the healthy years assessment (DALY) to changes in construction (insulation, air tightness) and building services engineering (ventilation, heating) for dwellings under Dutch conditions. The most important conclusion is that natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation and balanced ventilation not only differ in their average health effect, but even more so in the size of the ranges of these effects. Other systems, such as heat pumps or photo voltaic cells are expensive but will become economically applicable when healthcare costs are taken into account. These outcomes gave valuable clues for product innovation and opened the possibility to model health in relation to built environments. The method could also be applied to quality classification systems for dwellings.
keywords Health Prediction, Built Environment, Epidemiology, Modelling
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id avocaad_2003_06
id avocaad_2003_06
authors Arturo F. Montagu and Juan Pablo Cieri
year 2003
title Urbamedia - Development of an urban database of fragments of some Argentinian and Latin-American cities using digital technology
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary The proposal of "Urbamedia" is to undertake the development of 3D virtual and interactive models of historical areas of Latin-American cities. The selected zone is the "Mayo Avenue" including the "Mayo Square", an historical place of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina; this project is financed by the National Agency of Scientific and Technological Development of Argentina and the University of Buenos Aires.We are presenting the first experimental model of the "Mayo Square" that has been developed at ABACUS, Department of Architecture & Building Aids Computer Unit, University of Strathclyde UK. combined with a system analysis of urban activities using the “Atlas.ti” CAQDAS software.This particular use of the “Atlas.ti” software is under experimental applications to this type of urban analysis procedures; allowed us the possibility to analysed a set of activities by means of graph theory as result of a series of interviews to the people working in the area. We are also looking to include historical areas of three cities: Mar del Plata, Rosario and Santa Fe (Argentina) and eventually other cities from Latin América as Rio de Janeiro and Habana.Due that ABACUS has a strong experience in city modelling plus the powerful software and hardware used there, we must develop a VRML customized menu to be adapted to our low cost PC equipment. The 3D model will be used mainly in urban design simulation procedures and the idea is to extend to other type of simulations of the environmental parameters.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id acadia07_174
id acadia07_174
authors Bontemps, Arnaud; Potvin, André; Demers, Claude
year 2007
title The Dynamics of Physical Ambiences
source Expanding Bodies: Art • Cities• Environment [Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 978-0-9780978-6-8] Halifax (Nova Scotia) 1-7 October 2007, 174-181
summary This research proposes to support the reading of physical ambiences by the development of a representational technique which compiles, in a numerical interface, two types of data: sensory and filmic. These data are recorded through the use of a portable array equipped with sensors (Potvin 1997, 2002, 2004) as well as the acquisition of Video information of the moving environment. The compilation of information is carried out through a multi-media approach, by means of a program converting the environmental data into dynamic diagrams, as well as the creation of an interactive interface allowing a possible diffusion on the Web. This technique, named APMAP/Video, makes it possible to read out simultaneously spatial and environmental diversity. It is demonstrated through surveys taken at various seasons and time of the day at the new Caisse de dépôt et de placement headquarters in Montreal which is also the corpus for a SSHRC (Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council) research grant on Environmental Adaptability in Architecture (Potvin et al. 2003-2007). This case study shows that the technique can prove of great relevance for POEs (Post Occupancy Evaluation) as well as for assistance in a new design project.
series ACADIA
last changed 2007/10/02 06:11

_id eaea2003_15-breen
id eaea2003_15-breen
authors Breen, J. and Giro, H.
year 2004
title The DXI Experience. Ten Years of Design Visualization Developments in an Educational Laboratory Context
source Spatial Simulation and Evaluation - New Tools in Architectural and Urban Design [Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7], pp. 71-77
summary Design visualisation is an essential aspect of virtually every form of design enquiry. The effects of potential environmental interventions may be simulated in order to gain the types of insights, which cannot be acquired easily from two-dimensional notations. Three-dimensional representations may be generated for very different reasons. The most direct form of design imaging is traditionally for the benefit of the designer him/herself, in order to test whether the working concepts offer fitting solutions to the complex array of design conditions such as context, programme and feasibility. Alternately, images may be generated for the benefit of communication, in order to offer insights into the expected workings of a particular proposal (possibly including alternatives). This may lead to greater understanding and possibly to reaching consensus amongst different ‘actors’ involved in the design and realisation process. In many cases the results of such visualisation studies contribute to ‘bridging the gap’ between the professionals and other parties involved more indirectly in design decision-making or the appraisal of the proposals. Designers can use distinctly different methods when going about such imaging procedures. Their choices for particular techniques may depend on their familiarity or the availability of certain media devices. Being confronted with new modelling and/or visualisation instruments can stimulate the interest in fresh approaches. In this respect, the design education environment can play an important role in not only teaching ‘proven’ applications to future designers, but also in creating a platform for the active development of innovative approaches to the design visualisation practices: education as a ‘laboratory’ for new insights and potentially a ‘breeding ground’ for the extension of the designer’s instrumentation. This contribution documents the experiences gained in some ten years within an educational application, involving active use of design driven media applications. The emphasis lies on the evolvement of techniques for eye-level imaging, whereby use can be made of different types of models: physical scale models as well as digital, virtual models. Changing attitudes towards dynamic and serial vision are considered, whereby storyboard approaches on the level of integral presentation are considered. By analysing a selection of cases and their underlying approaches an indication is given of the changing attitudes and combinations of multimedia techniques, which offer opportunities to design visualisation and communication.
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id eaea2003_11-bremer-sander
id eaea2003_11-bremer-sander
authors Bremer, S. and Sander, H.
year 2004
title View from the Road: Environmental Simulation for the Fractal City of Rhine Ruhr
source Spatial Simulation and Evaluation - New Tools in Architectural and Urban Design [Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7], pp. 43-47
summary Highway seems to be more an issue of traffic planning than of urban design. But the highway can be a very important factor for the modern city pattern. Highways shape the spatial form of the fractal city. The modern highway can define new cores outside and “interior edges” within the city. Seen as a planning tool, highways are the great neglected opportunity in city and regional design. The 1st Architecture Biennial, 1ab, taking place from May 2003 to July 2003 in Rotterdam, explores the creative potentials of modern highways worldwide. An international research team discovered the spatial functions of highways in modern agglomerations. This lecture will give an overview of the results of the worldwide analyses and the design projects that had been undertaken. Both authors are members of the German research team. The German team examined the A 42 running through the Ruhrgebiet, a former coal and steal area in western Germany. The Ruhr Area is converting from an industrially orientated region to an agglomeration of high technology and science. But the regional image remains the same due to the fact that the changes cannot be seen, neither physically, nor from the road. Here, the highway could be used as a catalyst supporting and structuring the spatial changes to make them more legible for the people of Rhine-Ruhr. The nature becomes the most important tool of highway design. Landscape forms a linkage between the different cities of the region. Together with the A 40 and other local highways the region becomes the most important (and largest) public space of the new Rhine-Ruhr. The highway seen as a work of urban art can be designed only from the perspective of the driving car.
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ddss2004_ra-33
id ddss2004_ra-33
authors Diappi, L., P. Bolchim, and M. Buscema
year 2004
title Improved Understanding of Urban Sprawl Using Neural Networks
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 14020-2408-8, p. 33-49
summary It is widely accepted that the spatial pattern of settlements is a crucial factor affecting quality of life and environmental sustainability, but few recent studies have attempted to examine the phenomenon of sprawl by modelling the process rather than adopting a descriptive approach. The issue was partly addressed by models of land use and transportation which were mainly developed in the UK and US in the 1970s and 1980s, but the major advances were made in the area of modelling transportation, while very little was achieved in the area of spatial and temporal land use. Models of land use and transportation are well-established tools, based on explicit, exogenouslyformulated rules within a theoretical framework. The new approaches of artificial intelligence, and in particular, systems involving parallel processing, (Neural Networks, Cellular Automata and Multi-Agent Systems) defined by the expression “Neurocomputing”, allow problems to be approached in the reverse, bottom-up, direction by discovering rules, relationships and scenarios from a database. In this article we examine the hypothesis that territorial micro-transformations occur according to a local logic, i.e. according to use, accessibility, the presence of services and conditions of centrality, periphericity or isolation of each territorial “cell” relative to its surroundings. The prediction capabilities of different architectures of supervised Neural networks are implemented to the south Metropolitan area of Milan at two different temporal thresholds and discussed. Starting from data on land use in 1980 and 1994 and by subdividing the area into square cells on an orthogonal grid, the model produces a spatial and functional map of urbanisation in 2008. An implementation of the SOM (Self Organizing Map) processing to the Data Base allows the typologies of transformation to be identified, i.e. the classes of area which are transformed in the same way and which give rise to territorial morphologies; this is an interesting by-product of the approach.
keywords Neural Networks, Self-Organizing Maps, Land-Use Dynamics, Supervised Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id sigradi2004_240
id sigradi2004_240
authors Dora Castañé; Arturo F. Montagu
year 2004
title Mercedes: De lo sustentable al ecoproyecto en poblados con patrimonio histórico [Mercedes: A Sustainable Ecoproject in Towns with Historical Patrimony]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This proposal addresses the following topic of a doctoral thesis in progress: The Evolution and Development of Digitized Processes for the Research and Maintenance of Small Town Patrimonies, School and Architecture and Urban Design, University of Buenos Aires, co-directed by architects A. Montagu and R. Gutierrez. The research has been based on the town of Mercedes, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, symbols of Buenos Aires.s cultural heritage. At this stage, we are looking for alternative methods to support a project of patrimonial preservation that would help define future landscapes of small towns, and, at the same time, would have minimal or positive environmental impact. This analysis proposes reflexive studies of the paradigms affecting the environment and the feasibility of the project, with the intention of utilizing the concept of .ecoproject.. Therefore, the crucial assistance of specific digital systems, from which evolution is analyzed, supports and enhances the efficiency of the proposed goal. New and broad research opportunities are opening up in this field.
keywords Patrimony, research, virtual city, preservation
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id ascaad2004_paper1
id ascaad2004_paper1
authors Eldin, Neil N. and K.A. Eldrandaly
year 2004
title A Computer-Aided System for Site Selection of Major Capital Investments
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary Site selection for capital investments is a crucial complex decision for owners and analysts. Difficulties are caused by the inclusion of the numerous possible sites that may qualify, multiple objectives that could also contradict each other, intangible objectives that are difficult to quantify, diversity of interest groups, uncertainties regarding external factors such as government legislations, uncertainties regarding the timing required for permitting the sites in question, and unknown construction challenges for the different sites. As such, these exercises are multi-facetted and necessitate the employment of analysts who possess in-depth knowledge in a number of fields. More importantly, a solution must satisfy a number of physical suitability criteria, as well as, meeting a number of social, economical, environmental and political requirements. Consequently, a number of specialized tools is frequently utilized to ensure reaching an optimal decision. This paper presents a new system that integrates Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) operations within a Geographic Information System (GIS) application to determine the optimum site for a specified facility. The system was validated through a facility for a selected metropolitan area.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id sigradi2004_236
id sigradi2004_236
authors Fernando Rodrigues Lima; Carlos Alberto Nunes Cosenza; Alessandro da Silva
year 2004
title Sistema de representação gráfica para estudo de localização de atividades ligadas ao ciclo de produção do biodiesel no nordeste brasileiro [Graphic Representation System for a Localization Study on Activities Related to the Production Cycle of Biodiesel in the Brazilian Northeast]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This paper presents the development of graphics interface on GIS (Georeferenced Information System) applied to a location model. The model performs an hierarchical analysis to locate activities related to the Biodiesel production cycle, based on castor oil (Ricinus communis L.). The case study is placed in Brazilian Northeast region, and indicates properly selected counties for Biodiesel major stages: planting, crushing and oil processing. The GIS was implemented on Windows with Personal Geodatabase and Feature Class, applied to SAD 69 references, and involves a large set of administrative, economical, social, environmental and agricultural data. Both partial and final results were obtained with graphical and query methods for selecting and editing data. A fuzzy set program imports territorial offer data and exports location indicators to database. Thematic maps are used for hierarchical data organisation and to perform a Biodiesel stages zone classification, based on graphical analysis of generated data.
keywords GIS, location model, digital mapping
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id acadia08_072
id acadia08_072
authors Frumar, Jerome
year 2008
title An Energy Centric Approach to Architecture: Abstracting the material to co-rationalize design and performance
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 72-81
summary This paper begins by exploring matter as an aggregated system of energy transactions and modulations. With this in mind, it examines the notion of energy driven form finding as a design methodology that can simultaneously negotiate physical, environmental and fabrication considerations. The digital workspace enables this notion of form finding to re-establish itself in the world of architecture through a range of analytic tools that algorithmically encode real world physics. Simulating the spatial and energetic characteristics of reality enables virtual “form generation models that recognize the laws of physics and are able to create ‘minimum’ surfaces for compression, bending [and] tension” (Cook 2004). The language of energy, common in engineering and materials science, enables a renewed trans-disciplinary dialogue that addresses significant historic disjunctions such as the professional divide between architects and engineers. Design becomes a science of exploring abstracted energy states to discover a suitable resonance with which to tune the built environment. ¶ A case study of one particular method of energy driven form finding is presented. Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) is a generative engineering technique developed at RMIT University. It appropriates natural growth strategies to determine optimum forms that respond to structural criteria by reorganizing their topology. This dynamic topology response enables structural optimization to become an integrated component of design exploration. A sequence of investigations illustrates the flexibility and trans-disciplinary benefits of this approach. Using BESO as a tool for design rather than purely for structural optimization fuses the creative approach of the architect with the pragmatic approach of the engineer, enabling outcomes that neither profession could develop in isolation. The BESO case study alludes to future design processes that will facilitate a coherent unfolding of design logic comparable to morphogenesis.
keywords Energy; Form-Finding; Morphogenesis; Optimization; Structure
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id cf2009_poster_09
id cf2009_poster_09
authors Hsu, Yin-Cheng
year 2009
title Lego Free-Form? Towards a Modularized Free-Form Construction
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009 CD-Rom
summary Design Media is the tool designers use for concept realization (Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Liu, 1996). Design thinking of designers is deeply effected by the media they tend to use (Zevi, 1981; Liu, 1996; Lim, 2003). Historically, architecture is influenced by the design media that were available within that era (Liu, 1996; Porter and Neale, 2000; Smith, 2004). From the 2D plans first used in ancient egypt, to the 3D physical models that came about during the Renaissance period, architecture reflects the media used for design. When breakthroughs in CAD/CAM technologies were brought to the world in the twentieth century, new possibilities opened up for architects.
keywords CAD/CAM free-form construction, modularization
series CAAD Futures
type poster
last changed 2009/07/08 20:12

_id eaea2003_0
id eaea2003_0
authors Kardos, P. and Urland, U. (Eds.)
year 2004
source Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7, 144 p.
summary The 5th eaea Conference in Essen yielded four principal findings: • After having been limited to endoscopic picture and film renderings of analog scaled models, the european architectural endoscopy association (eaea) first bridged the gap to digital environmental simulations at this conference. It is not about a better or correct method, but a suitable method of representing the planned reality of a particular project using ways that make sense. The combination of digital and analog simulation media is a source of impetus to the user of both methods. The future belongs to the casespecific application and the numerous integration possibilities of the two different media. • In investigating the perception of pictures produced in both analog and digital form, it was ascertained that it was only after greater effort that the same level of pleasing qualities were achieved in the digital world, compared to pictures of analog scaled models. It seems that for many planning phases model-based pictures are superior to digital photos – with regards to economy, quality of representation and imaginative attributes. This last point seems to be especially important in the draft planning stages: the less sharp a picture is, the more remaining room for viewer interpretation there is. In particular, the high degree of precision characteristic of digital simulations no longer allows room for imagination in the individual viewer. • 3D environmental simulations will increasingly be incorporated with success in architecture and urban design courses at universities and colleges both here in Germany as well as abroad. The further spread of these techniques to other universities and colleges is desirable. Over and above application as a pedagogic tool, the use of these simulations by architects and city planners, private planning agencies and municipal planning administrators will also be in evidence in the future – for checking designs, for informing the involved parties, for establishing the decisions of government bodies, for marketing the project. • Also, the interactive use of endoscopic simulation facilities continually opens new fields of research – whether it be for registering subjective distance perception, whether it be for determining orientation possibilities in open spaces.
series EAEA
type normal paper
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

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