CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ijac20032207
id ijac20032207
authors Liapi, Katherine A.; Kim, Jinman
year 2004
title A Parametric Approach to the Design of Vaulted Tensegrity Networks
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 2
summary Significant new research in tensegrity theory and technology encourages tensegrity’s implementation in architecture. A recently developed technology makes possible the rapid modular assembly of deployable tensegrity units, and the construction of alternate curved configurations by re-using the same modules. Although a form exploration method for tensegrity structures already exists, estimating the structure’s new geometry remains a challenge due to difficulties designers encounter in understanding and following the method’s geometric construction process. Besides, the method doesn’t address the geometry of vaulted configurations. This paper presents algorithms that link together the geometric parameters that determine the shape of tensegrity vaults by addressing different design-construction scenarios, and a software code that generates parametric models of tensegrity vaulted structures.The application of the algorithms to the morphological study of a tensegrity vaulted dome, which constituted the main feature of an entry to arecent international architectural competition, is also presented.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2010/05/16 07:13

_id ddss2004_ra-325
id ddss2004_ra-325
authors Rodrigues, D.S., L.C.L. Souza, and J.F.G. Mendes
year 2004
title Enhancing 3DSkyView Extension Performance
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-24088, p. 325-340
summary This paper presents a second version of the 3DSkyView extension. The purpose of that extension was to implement a calculation algorithm for assessment and visualization of sky view factors (SVF) by means of tools available in a Geographical Information System (GIS). The sky view factor is a thermal and geometric parameter pointed out in the specialized literature as one of the main causes of urban heat islands. A 3D-GIS is a powerful tool for reaching the goal of this research because it allows the storage, treatment and analysis of tri-dimensional urban data, in addition to a high level of flexibility for incorporating calculation algorithms. The objective in the 3DSkyView extension is to optimize the determination of that factor, not only reducing its demanding calculation and graphical representation time, but also generating a simplified tool for replacing expensive photographic equipment usually applied on this matter. Enhancing functions of ArcView GIS 3.2, the first version of that extension showed a very good performance allowing the automatic delineation and determination of SVF. That performance was although limited to a single observer point. The simulation of SVF for several view points in urban canyons was only possible by applying the extension as many times as the number of observers considered. Therefore, this second version was now developed in order to allow simultaneous determination of SVF for many view points. In addition, the 3DSkyView new interface is more flexible, in a way that the user may choose the kind of output wanted (graphical and/or tabular). With this new feature it is then easier to create a continuous SVF map for an entire area.
keywords Sky View Factor, Urban Geometry, GIS Extension, Urban Heat Island
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 2004_480
id 2004_480
authors Mark, Earl
year 2004
title Inter-related Scaled Models of the Built and Natural Environment: Merging CAD with Satellite Image Viewing
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 480-488
summary By inter-relating CAD and satellite image earth-viewing tools at building specific, city-wide and larger global scales, a wider framework of observation yields insight into the connectedness between built environments and tracking influences between them. The technologies for visualization and analysis at distinct scales are moving towards greater integration. This project demonstrates integration through three case studies, each at a different scale of application, and considers performance issues and implications for more general use. More specifically, CAD, GIS and now Satellite Image Based Earth Viewing systems all have found separate application within Architecture, Urban Planning and Strategic Regional Analysis This paper reports on an effort to test the tighter coupling of these systems on three projects, each at a different scale: (1) urban and regional scale, (2) continental scale, and (3) hemispheric analysis scale.
keywords CAD, Earth Viewer, Digital Terrain Model, Comprehensive Plan, Architectural Review Board, Computer Animation
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id cf2011_p018
id cf2011_p018
authors Sokmenoglu, Ahu; Cagdas Gulen, Sariyildiz Sevil
year 2011
title A Multi-dimensional Exploration of Urban Attributes by Data Mining
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 333-350.
summary The paper which is proposed here will introduce an ongoing research project aiming to research data mining as a methodology of knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis. To address the increasing multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires a multidisciplinary approach to urban analysis. This research is an attempt to establish a link between knowledge discovery methodologies and automated urban feature analysis. Therefore, in the scope of this research we apply data mining methodologies for urban analysis. Data mining is defined as to extract important patterns and trends from raw data (Witten and Frank, 2005). When applied to discover relationships between urban attributes, data mining can constitute a methodology for the analysis of multi-dimensional relational complexity of urban environments (Gil, Montenegro, Beirao and Duarte, 2009) The theoretical motivation of the research is derived by the lack of explanatory urban knowledge which is an issue since 1970’s in the area of urban research. This situation is mostly associated with deductive methods of analysis. The analysis of urban system from the perspective of few interrelated factors, without considering the multi-dimensionality of the system in a deductive fashion was not been explanatory enough. (Jacobs, 1961, Lefebvre, 1970 Harvey, 1973) To address the multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires the consideration of diverse spatial, social, economic, cultural, morphological, environmental, political etc. features of urban entities. The main claim is that, in urban analysis, there is a need to advance from traditional one dimensional (Marshall, 2004) description and classification of urban forms (e.g. Land-use maps, Density maps) to the consideration of the simultaneous multi-dimensionality of urban systems. For this purpose, this research proposes a methodology consisting of the application of data mining as a knowledge discovery method into a GIS based conceptual urban database built out of official real data of Beyoglu. Generally, the proposed methodology is a framework for representing and analyzing urban entities represented as objects with properties (attributes). It concerns the formulation of an urban entity’s database based on both available and non-available (constructed from available data) data, and then data mining of spatial and non-spatial attributes of the urban entities. Location or position is the primary reference basis for the data that is describing urban entities. Urban entities are; building floors, buildings, building blocks, streets, geographically defined districts and neighborhoods etc. Urban attributes are district properties of locations (such as land-use, land value, slope, view and so forth) that change from one location to another. Every basic urban entity is unique in terms of its attributes. All the available qualitative and quantitative attributes that is relavant (in the mind of the analyst) and appropriate for encoding, can be coded inside the computer representation of the basic urban entity. Our methodology is applied by using the real and official, the most complex, complete and up-to-dataset of Beyoglu (a historical neighborhood of Istanbul) that is provided by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IBB). Basically, in our research, data mining in the context of urban data is introduced as a computer based, data-driven, context-specific approach for supporting analysis of urban systems without relying on any existing theories. Data mining in the context of urban data; • Can help in the design process by providing site-specific insight through deeper understanding of urban data. • Can produce results that can assist architects and urban planners at design, policy and strategy levels. • Can constitute a robust scientific base for rule definition in urban simulation applications such as urban growth prediction systems, land-use simulation models etc. In the paper, firstly we will present the framework of our research with an emphasis on its theoretical background. Afterwards we will introduce our methodology in detail and finally we will present some of important results of data mining analysis processed in Rapid Miner open-source software. Specifically, our research define a general framework for knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis and enable the usage of GIS and data mining as complementary applications in urban feature analysis. Acknowledgments I would like to thank to Nuffic, the Netherlands Organization for International Cooperation in Higher Education, for funding of this research. I would like to thank Ceyhun Burak Akgul for his support in Data Mining and to H. Serdar Kaya for his support in GIS.
keywords urban feature analysis, data mining, urban database, urban complexity, GIS
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 2004_586
id 2004_586
authors Voigt, A., Martens, B. and Linzer, H.
year 2004
title City Simulator - A Multi-dimensional VR-Simulation Environment
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 586-592
summary Whether in splendid rural isolation or in an urban area, settlement and building structures always are exposed to the public. Questions as to the future design of our vital space basically always concern the public and thus call for a great deal of discussion. Launching a well-balanced debate between all those involved in the planning and design process requires clear exemplification of urban-spatial visions by means of simulation. A simulation device - called “City Simulator” - suited to conveying the multitude of spatial relations within the urban configuration and for developing urban-spatial ideas would fulfil such expectations. The complexity of the information required in this context can be coped with effectively by means of computer-aided simulation techniques focusing on digital city models. Thus the implementation of a “City Simulator” may be regarded as a decisive tool for the purpose. As those involved in the process normally consider themselves absolute novices within the context of complex planning processes, the simulator will to some extent act as a “translation machine”. This paper is based on a project proposal which has been submitted by the authors aimed at the acquisition of a “City Simulator” at Vienna University of Technology in the near future.
keywords 3D City Models; Simulation; Virtual Reality; Visualization; Communication
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id acadia04_088
id acadia04_088
authors Bechthold, Martin
year 2004
title Digital Design and Fabrication of Surface Structures
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aidd Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 88-99
summary This paper presents a study in digital design and manufacturing of shells, which are material-efficient systems that generate their load-bearing capacity through curvature. Their complex shapes are chal­lenging to build, and the few current shell projects employ the same shape repetitively in order to reduce the cost of concrete formwork. Can digital design and manufacturing technology make these systems suitable for the needs of the 21st century? The research developed new digitally-driven fabrication processes for Wood-Foam Sandwich Shells and Ferrocement-Concrete Sandwich Shells. These are partially pre-fabricated in order to allow for the application of Computer-Numerically Controlled (CNC) technology. Sandwich systems offer advantages for the digitally-enabled construction of shells, while at the same time improving their structural and thermal performance. The research defines design and manufacturing processes that reduce the need for repetition in order to save costs. Wood-Foam Sandwich shells are made by laminating wood-strips over a CNC-milled foam mold that eventually becomes the structural sandwich core. For Ferrocement-Concrete sandwich shells, a two-stage process is presented: pre-fabricated ferrocement panels become the permanent formwork for a cast-in-place concrete shell. The design and engineering process is facilitated through the use of parametric solid modeling envi­ronments. Modeling macros and integrated Finite-Element Analysis tools streamline the design process. Accuracy in fabrication is maintained by using CNC techniques for the majority of the shaping processes. The digital design and manufacturing parameters for each process are verified through design and fabrication studies that include prototypes, mockups and physical scale models.
keywords Shell, Pre-Fabrication, Prototype, Custom-Manufacturing, Simulation
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_076
id acadia04_076
authors Hanna, Sean
year 2004
title Modularity and Flexibility at the Small Scale: Evolving Continuous Material Variation with Stereolithography
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 76-87
summary In this paper, we introduce a technique by which the internal material properties of an object can be optimised at a microstructural level (5x10-5m) to counteract the forces that are applied to it. These can then be fabricated using the rapid prototyping method of stere­olithography. The proposed technique is analogous to principles of mass customization and takes advantage of a flexible module to cre­ate complex structures in a manner that is computationally efficient and effective. The process is two-staged, in which a genetic algorithm evolves the topology of the microstructure and a second algorithm incorporating Finite Element Analysis then optimises the geometry. The examples shown are designed specifically for the fabrication tech­nique, but the method and general principles are applicable to struc­tural problems at any scale.
keywords genetic algorithm, rapid prototyping, stereolithography, materials
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id 916b
id 916b
authors Janusz Rebielak
year 2004
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 341-350.
summary Design of an efficient and suitably rigid support structure of a tall building is constantly a challenge for architects and engineers. Recently this challenge is enormously increased by the safety requirements conditioned by numerous emergency reasons. Among others one should mention here about effects of fire or a terrorist attack. The complex forms of structural systems have to be examined in many ways. Comprehensive analyses of these systems are carried out by application of suitable numerical models of these systems. The paper contains examples of shapes of structural systems proposed by the author together with definitions of their numerical models prepared in the programming language Formian.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/04/07 13:47

_id ascaad2004_paper13
id ascaad2004_paper13
authors Mandour, Mohamed Alaa
year 2004
title From “Hard Architecture” to “Soft Architecture”: Architecture Form in the 21st Century
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary The digital revolution is affecting not only the way we produce drawings, but also the way we think about architecture. Such expressionistic, neo-baroque forms would have been unthinkable without higher technology, which allows for customization at a massive scale. Three dimensional computation extends the architect's range, permitting a wealth of experimentation, any form seems possible, the architecture language, the vocabulary changed, and the way design thinking has various dimensions. Within a short space of time the computer has become a widely accepted feature of architecture, both in the design process and in the everyday operation of buildings, and we are constantly aware that the computer's introductions into architecture will eventually have farreaching consequences. After all, the current revolution is not just about the computer as a tool but about its role and effect on the form of architecture and thinking This paper will discuss what form will architecture take in the next years? Will every future problem be anticipated, developing more efficient solutions? Will projects reflect meaningful architecture, for dynamic and contemplative environments and for aesthetic quality? And, how we will stand this unavoidable futurism?
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 409caadria2004
id 409caadria2004
authors Masayuki Okada, Kazuhisa Iki, Sadayuki Shimoda
year 2004
title Development of CAFM System for LCM on Building Maintenance and Management
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 681-692
summary The purpose of this study is to develop a Computer Aided Facility Management (CAFM) system to assist the optimal Life Cycle Management (LCM) business, especially in the repair and renewal planning works of the inhabited building Life Cycle Cost (LCC). This system is also useful for annual, mid and long term facility maintenance budget planning. Major steps of this study are as follows: (1) A Study on the actual process of the LCM business was undertaken to determine the required functions of the CAFM system. (2) We surveyed the calculation process of the LCC and examined the data processing method in order to determine an efficient LCC calculation method for the CAFM system. (3) Based on the above result, we developed each function required for the CAFM system. (4) The CAFM system was developed by unifying the above functions in a network browser environment such as data transaction management between database, LCC calculation and graphical representation applications. (5) We evaluate the CAFM system by using case studies of LCM works on actual buildings. This system contributes to the efficient maintenance works of the LCC, and is able to support the appropriate scheduling of LCM works.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:41

_id sigradi2004_370
id sigradi2004_370
authors Saulo Popov Zambiasi; Lizandra G. Lupi Vergara
year 2004
title Ambientes inteligentes computacionais aliados à arquitetura [Intelligent Computational Environments Allied to Architecture]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This work proposes a intelligent environment model to peoples with special needs. So that this intelligent environment . implemented in computer . it is efficient, a multi-level hierarchical model based on Distributed Artificial Intelligence is used, that can be applicable to any it environment or group of environments to be automated. As result, (i) it is joined computer technology to architecture; (ii) competitiveness is added to the companies of civil building construction; and (iii) it offers better life quality for the population.
keywords Distributed Artificial Intelligence, Intelligent Environments, Architecture, People with special needs
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 305caadria2004
id 305caadria2004
authors Somen Chakraborty
year 2004
title Archimetrics: A Necessary Discipline for Obtaining Objective Values From Architectural Subjective Values
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 443-452
summary If we are serious about using CAAD then many subjective design steps normally performed by the architect apparently creatively using subjective values are to be performed by the computer. To fulfil this purpose a tremendous research work is necessary to transform subjective design methods and values to objective design methods and values which should give realistic design solutions not less efficient than that produced by human being. For this purpose it has become imperative now to develop new methods or borrow methods from other disciplines like statistics and psychometrics so that this kind of transformation can be done effectively. It appears that this may form a distinct discipline by itself which may be termed as “archimetrics” keeping parity with similar terms like psychometrics, econometrics, anthropometrics etc. With this view in mind the author has attempted to develop few methods and concepts by virtue of which some of the subjective design methods and values can be transformed into objective design methods and values. The author describes here some basic concepts required for this purpose.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:39

_id sigradi2006_e183a
id sigradi2006_e183a
authors Costa Couceiro, Mauro
year 2006
title La Arquitectura como Extensión Fenotípica Humana - Un Acercamiento Basado en Análisis Computacionales [Architecture as human phenotypic extension – An approach based on computational explorations]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 56-60
summary The study describes some of the aspects tackled within a current Ph.D. research where architectural applications of constructive, structural and organization processes existing in biological systems are considered. The present information processing capacity of computers and the specific software development have allowed creating a bridge between two holistic nature disciplines: architecture and biology. The crossover between those disciplines entails a methodological paradigm change towards a new one based on the dynamical aspects of forms and compositions. Recent studies about artificial-natural intelligence (Hawkins, 2004) and developmental-evolutionary biology (Maturana, 2004) have added fundamental knowledge about the role of the analogy in the creative process and the relationship between forms and functions. The dimensions and restrictions of the Evo-Devo concepts are analyzed, developed and tested by software that combines parametric geometries, L-systems (Lindenmayer, 1990), shape-grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1971) and evolutionary algorithms (Holland, 1975) as a way of testing new architectural solutions within computable environments. It is pondered Lamarck´s (1744-1829) and Weismann (1834-1914) theoretical approaches to evolution where can be found significant opposing views. Lamarck´s theory assumes that an individual effort towards a specific evolutionary goal can cause change to descendents. On the other hand, Weismann defended that the germ cells are not affected by anything the body learns or any ability it acquires during its life, and cannot pass this information on to the next generation; this is called the Weismann barrier. Lamarck’s widely rejected theory has recently found a new place in artificial and natural intelligence researches as a valid explanation to some aspects of the human knowledge evolution phenomena, that is, the deliberate change of paradigms in the intentional research of solutions. As well as the analogy between genetics and architecture (Estévez and Shu, 2000) is useful in order to understand and program emergent complexity phenomena (Hopfield, 1982) for architectural solutions, also the consideration of architecture as a product of a human extended phenotype can help us to understand better its cultural dimension.
keywords evolutionary computation; genetic architectures; artificial/natural intelligence
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ddss2004_d-111
id ddss2004_d-111
authors Kitazawa, K. and M. Batty
year 2004
title Pedestrian Behaviour Modelling
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 111-126
summary This paper introduces a study of pedestrian behaviour modelling which incorporates ideas about agent-based systems and the traffic models based on the utility-maximization theory. The aim of this study is to examine the applicable scope of one of the basic assumptions in existing spatial behaviour models; the route with shortest distance maximizes the utility of each pedestrian’s travel. Although shortest-path models have been widely used in the field of Traffic management to predict routing behaviour, there can be seen a lot of erratic behaviour in urban areas, shopping migration behaviour for instance, which can not be explained by them. Thus, it is important to identify other possible influential factors on their utility maximization process in order to develop more explicable models of pedestrian movements. In this study, we implemented a simulation model using the shortest-path model as one of evaluation criteria of Genetic Algorithms (GA) to computationally emulate retail movements of shoppers in a big shopping centre and to test the accuracy of the model by comparison between the routes estimated by the model and actual trajectories of shoppers. This simulation system will be used as a platform for further modelling.
keywords Pedestrian Modelling, Retail Movement, Shortest-Path, Genetic Algorithms
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 315caadria2004
id 315caadria2004
authors Kuo-Chung Wen, Wei-Lung Chen
year 2004
title Application of Genetic Algorithms to Establish Flooding Evacuation Path Model in Metropolitan Area
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 557-570
summary This research has shown the difficulties associated with the GIS and the flooding evacuation path search through the huge searching space generated during the network analysis process. This research also presents an approach to these problems by utilizing a search process whose concept is derived from natural genetics. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been introduced in the optimization problem solving area by Holland (1975) and Goldberg (1989) and have shown their usefulness through numerous applications. We apply GA and GIS to choice flooding evacuation path in metropolitan area in this study. We take the region of Shiji city in Taiwan for case. That could be divided into four parts. First, is to set the population of GA operation. Second, is to choose crossover and mutation. Third, is to calculate the fitness function of each generation and to select the better gene arrangement. Fourth, is to reproduce, after evolution, we can establish Flooding Evacuation Path that more reflect really human action and choice when flood takes place. However we can apply GA to calculate different evacuation path in different time series. Final, we compare and establish real model of evacuation path model to choosing flooding evacuation path.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:39

_id 2004_325
id 2004_325
authors Sarawgi, Tina
year 2004
title Using Computers as a Spatial Visualization and Design Exploration Medium
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 325-332
summary The constant advances in the use of computers to simulate light over the past few decades, has led computer-aided rendering to become increasingly photorealistic. However, the rendering is still processor-intensive and time-consuming, difficult to generate in real time. Design students need to be well versed in the depiction of the effects of light in an environment, crucial to spatial visualization. With increasing computing power, advanced algorithms and increased realism, the central pedagogical issue in their use is not what computers can do for us today, but what and how we can make them do what we do better. We have to be careful in not getting seduced by the advancing technology but use it innovatively to build students into better designers. This paper discusses a project demonstrating the apparent potential of computers for spatial visualization and design exploration of light and space, in their present stage. The project shows a departure from the traditional methods of using computers or of teaching lighting in a design school. Computers are used by students to especially create flashy imagery. On the other hand, lighting is explained in clinical terms without exploration of its experiential qualities. This exercise helped the students to develop a better understanding of the physics of light from the method most familiar and expected of students – visual. The project deems it more important to have a quick means to produce an overview of the implication of the design choices than to provide precise information regarding a hypothetical final solution. Hence, after creating the lighting in the space based on the desired experiential qualities, the illumination can be conveyed to a lighting expert for detailed quantitative computations. The project results are shown and outcomes discussed.
keywords Visualization, Light, Space, Digital Technology, Pedagogy
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 9968
id 9968
authors Tinnirello, A.; Voget, R.; De Federico, S.
year 2004
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 225-229.
summary One of the earliest human beings desires has been to inhabit a place that may assemble beauty and functionality. Architecture and Design have been the disciplines in charge to formalize it. Their study, as well as the way they are taught have been adapted to fit the needs; and the velocity of their transformation is even greater as well as the link between design, art and technology. Creativity, in it basic generic entity, is the capability to solve appropriately and originally phrased architectural problems which involves not only space, act, environment and semiotics but with everything related to make the project able to be constructed and inhabitable.

New technologies are based on complex algorithms which, by the use of simulators, achieve to produce complexity works that would have been unbelievable twenty year ago. These algorithms have a strong mathematical basis and allow to generate other working methods so as to create wonderful geometrical objects. The study of this New Geometry requires to explore and expand this field of knowledge in the Architecture studies. In order to analyze and use complex design systems to generate non linear experimental models, it is necessary the Mathematical contribution, not only at the University education stage but also at the professional life.

This New Mathematics adequately focused, is able and must be an essential ally to creative design which is born with an exercised imagination in the formation stage; therefore it must aid to establish a space where knowledge and ability for architectural work can be created, synthesized and experimented.

This work tries to encourage students and in relation to Geometry promotes the following aspects: (i) Inspection of new architectural spaces, (ii)Comprehension of the geometrical structure, (iii) Originality and common sense, (iv) Relation between Geometry and design of construction constitutive elements,(v) Insertion of man in the space, (vi) Conditioning of design to human body dimensions, (vii) Fractal geometries.

According to what has been expressed, this proposition acquires a fundamental significance to develop a spatial vision of geometrical shapes in students, in order to stimulate the understanding of the existing relation between abstract geometrical elements and their real applications in Architecture, Geometry and Design and Art. Besides, the purpose of this work has the aim to approach knowledge at the architectural design process and to the study of shapes and mathematical models that such designs sustain , and ultimately demonstrate the importance of an academic organization that involve teachers from different disciplines.

series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/04/07 13:37

_id ddss2004_d-63
id ddss2004_d-63
authors Wen, K.-C. and W.-L. Chen
year 2004
title Applying Genetic Algorithms to Establish Disaster Decision Support System for Flooding Evacuation Path of Hsichih Area in Taiwan
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 63-75
summary Because of the special geography features and subtropics weather in Taiwan, we need to provide correct information to help people making decision when they are in disaster. So the disaster decision support system must offer proper information of evacuation path to people. This research has shown the difficulties associated with the GIS and the flooding evacuation path search through the huge searching space generated during the network analysis process. This research also presents an approach to these problems by utilizing a search process whose concept is derived from natural genetics. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been introduced in the optimization problem solving area by Holland (1975) and Goldberg (1989) and have shown their usefulness through numerous applications. We apply GA and GIS to choice flooding evacuation path in metropolitan area in this study. We take the region of Shiji city in Taiwan for case. Firstly, we establish the node relationship of GA calculation, the level of the weight is the standard of the date that is exported by Disaster Database. Secondly, we apply GA to calculate different evacuation path in different time series. Finally, we build the model of choosing flooding evacuation path.
keywords Genetic Algorithms, Decision Support System, GIS, Evacuation Path
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id sigradi2004_081
id sigradi2004_081
authors Adriane Borda Almeida da Silva; Paula Roberta Silveira; Cristina Wildt Torrezan
year 2004
title Materiais didáticos paraoensino presencial e não presencial de perspectiva [Pedagogic Materials for Distance and Face-to-face Teaching of Perspective]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary The didactic activity related to the teaching of Perspective has been revised considering the possibility offered by the computing tools. This review must evaluate the potentialities of concepts and procedures related to the traditional techniques as sources for architectural graphics expression, before suggesting its suppression. It is possible to improve the accuracy and quickness controlling the visualization parameters of three-dimensional models. On the other hand, it is necessary to explore the development of the ability to construct quick hand made perspectives (sketches). This work searches for the development of a structure to the teaching process, which emphasizes the potentiality of both ways, traditional and computerized. It explores the flexibility of teaching, from face to face to distance learning, and introduces an enlarged structure of knowledge able to support the traditional and also a computerized process of representation.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

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