CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id acadia08_072
id acadia08_072
authors Frumar, Jerome
year 2008
title An Energy Centric Approach to Architecture: Abstracting the material to co-rationalize design and performance
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 72-81
summary This paper begins by exploring matter as an aggregated system of energy transactions and modulations. With this in mind, it examines the notion of energy driven form finding as a design methodology that can simultaneously negotiate physical, environmental and fabrication considerations. The digital workspace enables this notion of form finding to re-establish itself in the world of architecture through a range of analytic tools that algorithmically encode real world physics. Simulating the spatial and energetic characteristics of reality enables virtual “form generation models that recognize the laws of physics and are able to create ‘minimum’ surfaces for compression, bending [and] tension” (Cook 2004). The language of energy, common in engineering and materials science, enables a renewed trans-disciplinary dialogue that addresses significant historic disjunctions such as the professional divide between architects and engineers. Design becomes a science of exploring abstracted energy states to discover a suitable resonance with which to tune the built environment. ¶ A case study of one particular method of energy driven form finding is presented. Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) is a generative engineering technique developed at RMIT University. It appropriates natural growth strategies to determine optimum forms that respond to structural criteria by reorganizing their topology. This dynamic topology response enables structural optimization to become an integrated component of design exploration. A sequence of investigations illustrates the flexibility and trans-disciplinary benefits of this approach. Using BESO as a tool for design rather than purely for structural optimization fuses the creative approach of the architect with the pragmatic approach of the engineer, enabling outcomes that neither profession could develop in isolation. The BESO case study alludes to future design processes that will facilitate a coherent unfolding of design logic comparable to morphogenesis.
keywords Energy; Form-Finding; Morphogenesis; Optimization; Structure
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id 041123sowa-a
id 041123sowa-a
authors Sowa, Agnieszka
year 2004
title Generation and optimization of complex and irregular construction/structure on example of NDS2004 final project
source ETH postgraduate studies final thesis, Zurich
summary During the postgraduate studies in CAAD at ETH the research is mainly focused on computer based architectural design and its automatic production. Usually the way from an architectural idea to production starts with creating of a digital model of the structure which is than transformed into data which can be used by CNC machines. The final group work of NDS 2004students also follows this schema. This thesis is centered on its first element–computer aided architectural design.The aim of the research was to create a programming tool which generate linear construction grids for a cubic form and then optimize them according to given parameters. The data produced during this process is then visualized by digital models which can be evaluated by a designer as ready for production or can be changed in a further design process. Eventually, this data is an input for scripting tools creating production drawings for CNC machines. The thesis contains information about the mathematical description of the structure, methods of its generation, analysis and optimization. It deals also with problems connected with data exchange and storage. The effect of the work is presented by visualizations of digital models as well as by using rapid prototyping methods. Moreover, the most spectacular result of using tools presented in this thesis is the NDS2004 exhibition structure.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id acadia04_150
id acadia04_150
authors Clarke, Cory
year 2004
title The Siren's Call
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 150-161
summary This paper presents an account of our research and development of processes providing seamless transition from design to fabrication. The narrative of our design, development, and prototyping experi¬ments spans seven years, including our current project, the Trusset software/structural system. Trusset is a combined building system and agent-based software design tool. The building system is based on a differential space-truss designed for fabrication entirely with computer numerically controlled (CNC) linear cutting devices, such as laser cut¬ters or three-axis mills. The software component is a set of agent-based design tools for developing surfaces and envelopes formally suitable to be built using the space-truss structure. Developed in parallel, the soft¬ware and building components combine within the Trusset system to provide a seamless pipeline from design to fabrication and assembly. The story of the development of software components and structural system, leading to the Trusset, act as a means of discussing the larger issues framing the research: the potential pitfalls and benefits of design and fabrication integration via the computer.
keywords Fabrication, Space-truss, Structure
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ijac20032206
id ijac20032206
authors Cory Clarke; Phillip Anzalone
year 2004
title Trusset: Parallel Development of Software and Construction Systems for Space-Truss Structures
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 2
summary This paper documents our current progress on theparallel development of a building system andcorresponding agent-based software design tools;together the two produce a seamless pipeline fromdesign to fabrication and assembly. The building systemis a clad differential space-truss designed forfabrication entirely with computer numericallycontrolled (CNC) linear cutting devices such as CNClaser cutters or two-axis mills. The softwarecomponent is a set of agent-based design tools fordeveloping surfaces and envelopes formally suitable tobe built using our space-truss system.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id avocaad_2003_05
id avocaad_2003_05
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2003
title Autonomous mechanisms in architectural design systems
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary The development of architectural design systems that describe fully the form, structure and behaviour of a design relies heavily on the incorporation of intelligence in the representations, analyses, transformations and transactions used by the computer. Traditionally such intelligence takes either of two forms. The first is a methodical framework that guides actions supported by the design system (usually in a top-down fashion). The second is local, intelligence mechanisms that resolve discrete, relatively well-defined subproblems (often with limited if any user intervention). Local intelligent mechanisms offer the means for adaptability and transformability in architectural design systems, including the localization of global tendencies. This refers both to the digital design technologies and to the historical, cultural and contextual modifications of design styles and approaches.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id sigradi2006_e131c
id sigradi2006_e131c
authors Ataman, Osman
year 2006
title Toward New Wall Systems: Lighter, Stronger, Versatile
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 248-253
summary Recent developments in digital technologies and smart materials have created new opportunities and are suggesting significant changes in the way we design and build architecture. Traditionally, however, there has always been a gap between the new technologies and their applications into other areas. Even though, most technological innovations hold the promise to transform the building industry and the architecture within, and although, there have been some limited attempts in this area recently; to date architecture has failed to utilize the vast amount of accumulated technological knowledge and innovations to significantly transform the industry. Consequently, the applications of new technologies to architecture remain remote and inadequate. One of the main reasons of this problem is economical. Architecture is still seen and operated as a sub-service to the Construction industry and it does not seem to be feasible to apply recent innovations in Building Technology area. Another reason lies at the heart of architectural education. Architectural education does not follow technological innovations (Watson 1997), and that “design and technology issues are trivialized by their segregation from one another” (Fernandez 2004). The final reason is practicality and this one is partially related to the previous reasons. The history of architecture is full of visions for revolutionizing building technology, ideas that failed to achieve commercial practicality. Although, there have been some adaptations in this area recently, the improvements in architecture reflect only incremental progress, not the significant discoveries needed to transform the industry. However, architectural innovations and movements have often been generated by the advances of building materials, such as the impact of steel in the last and reinforced concrete in this century. There have been some scattered attempts of the creation of new materials and systems but currently they are mainly used for limited remote applications and mostly for aesthetic purposes. We believe a new architectural material class is needed which will merge digital and material technologies, embedded in architectural spaces and play a significant role in the way we use and experience architecture. As a principle element of architecture, technology has allowed for the wall to become an increasingly dynamic component of the built environment. The traditional connotations and objectives related to the wall are being redefined: static becomes fluid, opaque becomes transparent, barrier becomes filter and boundary becomes borderless. Combining smart materials, intelligent systems, engineering, and art can create a component that does not just support and define but significantly enhances the architectural space. This paper presents an ongoing research project about the development of new class of architectural wall system by incorporating distributed sensors and macroelectronics directly into the building environment. This type of composite, which is a representative example of an even broader class of smart architectural material, has the potential to change the design and function of an architectural structure or living environment. As of today, this kind of composite does not exist. Once completed, this will be the first technology on its own. We believe this study will lay the fundamental groundwork for a new paradigm in surface engineering that may be of considerable significance in architecture, building and construction industry, and materials science.
keywords Digital; Material; Wall; Electronics
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 2004_248
id 2004_248
authors Chang, Teng-Wen and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 2004
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 248-254
summary The Australian branch of the SEED project created a new formalism for design spaces in which the fundamental structuring operator is information specificity, formally characterised as subsumption. Here design space navigation is composed as combinations of the primitive operators of resolution, unification, anti-unification, search, query and hysterical undo. The structures needed to support such a view are highly constrained in a mathematical sense and it is in these constraints that the problems for representation of geometry arise. The research challenge is to add the formal design space exploration constraints into an existing geometric representation scheme or alternatively to discover a new scheme in which the constraints are realized. Based on Typed Feature Structures (TFS), Geometric Typed Feature Structures (GTFS) are a representation scheme and method for performing the basic design space exploration operations on geometric objects. The crucial insight behind extending TFS to geometry is to discover useful algebraic structures of geometric objects affording the mathematics required of TFS. In this paper we describe Geometric Typed Feature Structures through one example of form: IOPSet. Our method of exposition is both mathematical and graphical: for each structure we will demonstrate both how it meets the necessary formal conditions as well as the sorts of form-sculpting operations it enables. An architectural example: insulated enclosure is used as a demonstration of subsumption operations over IOPSet. One alternative description of insulated enclosure using GTFS is also shown in the paper.
keywords Geometric Typed Feature Structures, SEED, Design Space Explorer, Geometric Design Information
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2005/10/27 11:57

_id sigradi2004_363
id sigradi2004_363
authors Eleanna Cadalso; Alejandro Haiek Coll; Pedro Soza Ruiz
year 2004
title Graficando estructuras de conocimiento: Diagramas matriciales, infomapas, cartografias y estructuras de organización cognitiva [Representing Knowledge Structures: Matrix Diagrams, Infomaps, cartographies and Structures of Cognitive Organization]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This investigation approaches graphical representation systems as mechanisms that provide a greater level of expansion for the acquirement, production and transmission of knowledge. It serves as a digital educational instrument that connects to the academic platform and assists students and professors allowing them to experiment with different operational components directly form a user.s interface. The device has a Registration and Temporal Evaluation Structure, which allows students to retrieve information regarding the semester, course grades and student.s individual performance; a Search System, which downloads theoretical reference texts, practical tutorials, libraries of images, models or videos; an Interaction and Communication System, which benefits the exchange of information through forums and chats; and finally an Access, Interpretation and Data Transfer Map, which acts as a cartography of the process organizing simultaneously all the cognitive matrixes.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id acadia03_040
id acadia03_040
authors Katherine A. Liapi, Katherine A. and Kim, Jinman
year 2003
title A Parametric Approach to the Design of a Tensegrity Vaulted Dome for an Ephemeral Structure for the 2004 Olympics
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 301-309
summary Tensegrity, defined as “tensional integrity,” is central to the design of a semi-open exhibition space that was submitted as an entry to the international competition for the design of “Ephemeral Structures for the City of Athens,” in the context of the 2004 Olympic Games. The main feature of the proposed exhibition space is a vaulted dome composed of interconnected detachable and deployable tensegrity units. The most challenging aspect in the design of the tensegrity vault was the generation of alternative spatial configurations for form exploration and study. For this purpose a mathematical code has been developed that links all the parameters that affect the design of tensegrity vaults. The code also allows for the parametric graphical generation of the vault by displaying geometric information in a 3D environment. This paper discusses the geometric basis of the code and its usefulness in the morphological study of the tensegrity vaulted dome for the proposed ephemeral structure. The mathematical code has been shown to significantly facilitate the study of various preliminary configurations of tensegrity vaulted structures.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id 502caadria2004
id 502caadria2004
authors Kirsty A. Beilharz
year 2004
title Designing Generative Sound for Responsive 3D Digital Environment Interaction
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 741-758
summary This paper examines three key areas of responsive sound interaction in 3D Digital Environments: designing generative sound that derives its composition and relevance from social and physical human interaction within a digital environment; the relation of sonic structure to the digital visual and spatial experience; and responsive, reactive real time sound generation activated by environmental conditions and human behaviours. The primary purposes for responsive sound design are: (1) to provide navigational cues supporting way-finding and spatial orientation; and (2) to provide realtime generative environmental sound that reflects social behaviour in a way that is meaningful and recognisable. The applied contexts for navigational cues and environmental generative sound include online (multi-user), synchronous Virtual Environments and Digital Installation Spaces (e.g. intelligent rooms, virtual reality and immersive environments). Outcomes of responsive sound design include: a trigger system of aural alerts, warnings and guidance; a computational system for generating sound in real time activated by spatial location and social interaction; and an audio (non-visual) tool aiding spatial orientation and way-finding interaction in 3D immersive Digital Environments.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:43

_id ijac20032207
id ijac20032207
authors Liapi, Katherine A.; Kim, Jinman
year 2004
title A Parametric Approach to the Design of Vaulted Tensegrity Networks
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 2
summary Significant new research in tensegrity theory and technology encourages tensegrity’s implementation in architecture. A recently developed technology makes possible the rapid modular assembly of deployable tensegrity units, and the construction of alternate curved configurations by re-using the same modules. Although a form exploration method for tensegrity structures already exists, estimating the structure’s new geometry remains a challenge due to difficulties designers encounter in understanding and following the method’s geometric construction process. Besides, the method doesn’t address the geometry of vaulted configurations. This paper presents algorithms that link together the geometric parameters that determine the shape of tensegrity vaults by addressing different design-construction scenarios, and a software code that generates parametric models of tensegrity vaulted structures.The application of the algorithms to the morphological study of a tensegrity vaulted dome, which constituted the main feature of an entry to arecent international architectural competition, is also presented.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2010/05/16 07:13

_id caadria2005_b_5c_b
id caadria2005_b_5c_b
authors Martin Tamke
year 2005
title Crossing The Media
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 364-374
summary An open-ended, diversified and critical approach of architectural design, using different form of ideas representation might offer best chances to gain new spatial solutions. Today’s most forward architects and designer are aware of this and make full use of physical and digital media during the process of design. During the summer term 2004 the experiment ‘Crossing the Media’ took place at the Technical University of Braunschweig. The main goal of this practical oriented seminar has been the exploration of the interface between analogue and digital Media within the design process. Both techniques, analogue and digital, were used in an experimental way and their interaction and adaptability in the field of architecture was analyzed. The work examines the possibility of a consistent integration of digital and physical representation in a design process and the individual benefits of each. In order to achieve this, we made up a stringent line of digital-analogue and analogue-digital (DA-AD) Technologies for our design experiment. During the examination we focused especially on the creative potential of the techniques used, their interaction and adaptability in the field of architecture. Hence one of the goals of the occupation with the digital analogue interfaces was the examination of the emerging shift within the structure during the process, the imprints of technology. This paper describes the workflow and tools that were used, our practical experiences with analogue digital interface and the emerging questions and impulses to architects future work and theory. The discovered limitations and consequences of interfaces between the analogue and digital realm of design and their creative chances will be revealed. We share results which we think are helpful to others, and we highlight areas where further research is necessary.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id 2004_630
id 2004_630
authors Naai-Jung Shih, Chen-Yan Lin, and Chai-Yuan Liau
year 2004
title A 3D Information System for the Digital Preservation of Historical Architecture
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 630-637
summary The purpose of this study is to build 3D models for the digital preservation of Chinese architecture. A historical architecture, the main hall of the Pao-An Temple, was scanned with a long-range 3D laser scanner. This temple is 19.68 meters wide, 18.2 meters wide, and 15.7 meters high. In total, the exterior and interior were registered into 1958 scans in order to cover the main hall. Scanned point clouds were converted into 3D computer models, sections, and boundary projections. Digital models were used as references for chronological records and comparison. Scanned components included the roof ridge, wood structure, dragon column, and a hanging flower. This research, which was sponsored by the National Science Council, created a two-way construction process, integrated geometric and image data, and established a digital reservation work process. Web pages were made to display 3D color components by using a plug-in to enable browsing of large files.
keywords 3D Laser Scanner; Historical Preservation
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 11cb
id 11cb
authors Oguzhan Özcan
year 2004
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 199-203.
summary Many people believe that mathematical thought is an essential element of creativity. The origin of this idea in art dates back to Plato. Asserting that aesthetics is based on logical and mathematical rules, Plato had noticed that geometrical forms were “forms of beauty” in his late years. Unlike his contemporaries, he had stressed that the use of geometrical forms such as lines, circles, planes, cubes in a composition would aid to form an aesthetics. The rational forms of Plato and the rules of geometry have formed the basis of antique Greek art, sculpture and architecture and have influenced art and design throughout history in varying degrees. This emphasis on geometry has continued in modern design, reflected prominently by Kandinsky’s geometric classifications .

Mathematics and especially geometry have found increasing application in the computer-based design environment of our day. The computer has become the central tool in the modern design environment, replacing the brush, the paints, the pens and pencils of the artist. However, if the artist does not master the internal working of this new tool thoroughly, he can neither develop nor express his creativity. If the designer merely learns how to use a computer-based tool, he risks producing designs that appear to be created by a computer. From this perspective, many design schools have included computer courses, which teach not only the use of application programs but also programming to modify and create computer-based tools.

In the current academic educational structure, different techniques are used to show the interrelationship of design and programming to students. One of the best examples in this area is an application program that attempts to teach the programming logic to design students in a simple way. One of the earliest examples of such programs is the Topdown Programming Shell developed by Mitchell, Liggett and Tan in 1988 . The Topdown system is an educational CAD tool for architectural applications, where students program in Pascal to create architectural objects. Different examples of such educational programs have appeared since then. A recent fine example of these is the book and program called “Design by Number” by John Maeda . In that book, students are led to learn programming by coding in a simple programming language to create various graphical primitives.

However, visual programming is based largely on geometry and one cannot master the use of computer-based tools without a through understanding of the mathematical principles involved. Therefore, in a model for design education, computer-based application and creativity classes should be supported by "mathematics for design" courses. The definition of such a course and its application in the multimedia design program is the subject of this article.

series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/04/07 13:36

_id sigradi2008_166
id sigradi2008_166
authors Papanikolaou, Dimitris
year 2008
title Digital Fabrication Production System Theory: Towards an Integrated Environment for Design and Production of Assemblies
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary A Digital Fabrication Production System (DFPS) is a concept describing a set of processes, tools, and resources that will be able to produce an artifact according to a design, fast, cheap, and easy, independently of location. A DFPS project is a complex assembly of custom parts that is delivered by a network of fabrication and assembly processes. This network is called the value chain. The workflow concept of a DFPS is the following: begin design process with a custom geometric form; decompose it into constructible parts; send the part files for fabrication to various locations; transport all parts at the construction site at the right time; finally, assemble the final artifact. Conceptually it means that based on a well structured value chain we could build anything we want, at anyplace, at controllable cost and quality. The goals of a DFPS are the following: custom shapes, controllable lead time, controllable quality, controllable cost, easiness of fabrication, and easiness of assembly. Simply stated this means to build any form, anywhere, accurately, cheap, fast, and easy. Unfortunately, the reality with current Digital Fabrication (DF) projects is rather disappointing: They take more time than what was planned, they get more expensive than what was expected, they involve great risk and uncertainty, and finally they are too complex to plan, understand, and manage. Moreover, most of these problems are discovered during production when it is already late for correction. However, there is currently no systematic approach to evaluate difficulty of production of DF projects in Architecture. Most of current risk assessment methods are based on experience gathered from previous similar cases. But it is the premise of mass customization that projects can be radically different. Assembly incompatibilities are currently addressed by building physical mockups. But physical mockups cause a significant loss in both time and cost. All these problems suggest that an introduction of a DFPS for mass customization in architecture needs first an integrated theory of assembly and management control. Evaluating feasibility of a DF project has two main problems: first, how to evaluate assemblability of the design; second, how to evaluate performance of the value chain. Assemblability is a system’s structure problem, while performance is a system’s dynamics problem. Structure of systems has been studied in the field of Systems Engineering by Network Analysis methods such as the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) (Steward 1981), and the liaison graph (Whitney 2004), while dynamics of systems have been studied by System Dynamics (Forrester 1961). Can we define a formal method to evaluate the difficulty of production of an artifact if we know the artifact’s design and the production system’s structure? This paper formulates Attribute Process Methodology (APM); a method for assessing feasibility of a DFPS project that combines Network Analysis to evaluate assemblability of the design with System Dynamics to evaluate performance of the value chain.
keywords Digital Fabrication, Production System, System Dynamics, Network Analysis, Assembly
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id sigradi2004_357
id sigradi2004_357
authors Carlos Calderon and Nicholas Worley
year 2004
title An automatic real-time camera control engine for the exploration of architectural designs
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This paper is concerned with the use of real-time camera engines in architectural virtual environments as a method of enhancing the user.s experience and as a way of facilitating the understanding of architectural concepts. This paper reports on an initial prototype of a real-time cinematic control camera engine for dynamic virtual environments in the architectural domain. The paper discusses the potential of the system to convey architectural concepts using well known architectural concepts such as rhythm and proposes a series of future improvements to address those limitations. Keywords: virtual environments, camera control, design process, filmaking.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id disschoo
id disschoo
authors Choo, Seung Yeon
year 2004
source Technische Universität München
summary The research presented in this thesis describes a computer-aided design support of traditional architectural theories. Traditional architectural theories in western architecture have been considered as a basis for answering the fundamental questions of architecture: proportion, symmetry, colour, harmony and so on. In particular, the aesthetic aspect of these theories has been one of many important architectural aspects, and which is concerned with the field of architecture in determining the beauty of architectural form. The most significant role of the traditional theories in architecture is to maintain unity, to avoid chaos and then to achieve harmony in a design, using some specific design principles. However, current technology-guided constructions tend to neglect often the importance of these theories due to the standardization of building elements, due to mechanically-prepared construction and the reducing completion costs, etc. Thus, this research proposes a design support system as a design assistant that gives an intelligent advice on architectural design, using analytical design- and ordering- principles of traditional theories for the optimization of the architectural design from the aesthetic perspective. To evaluate the aesthetic quality of an architectural design, this system is implemented in the AutoCAD environment, using the AutoLISP. It is applied so as to explain and develop aesthetic qualities of a design. Designs proposed by this system include optimum designs, which are based on the traditional architectural theories, and new ones which can be in future connected to information models. To do this, the definition of information about building elements is accomplished by using the neutral format EXPRESS and EXPRESS-G for such application systems. The results of the application system are presented, such as the easily generating and quickly conceptualising of an object model, the checking of the aesthetic value of the design during the various design phases, the helping to find direction during rational searching for a solution. The user can easily appreciate the usefulness of the proposed system as a set of tools for searching for rational architectural aesthetics and formal solutions at different design-stages. It is to be hoped that a new "traditional" fundamental of architecture, such as the proposed system, incorporating CAAD systems, will find its place among new technological methods in the AEC industry and so help to bridge the gap between the value of traditional architecture and CAAD systems.
keywords Aesthetics, Design Theory, Order Principle, Product Model, IFC, AutoCAD/AutoLISP
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/23 05:05

_id 316caadria2004
id 316caadria2004
authors Chor-Kheng Lim
year 2004
title A Revolution of the Design Process
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 571-583
summary Along with the development of computer technologies and CAD/CAM, digital tools are increasingly adapted in architectural design. Developed thus far, functions of digital tools are no long limited to two-dimensional drafting or final presentation; they have become tools that can assist design thinking. Because of the involvement of digital tools, the design process has been greatly affected; or, one may say that digital tools liberated the confines of forms and structuring of architectures. This research aims to explore the procedures in the design process using digital tools. In the conclusion, we found that in an attempt to abridge the gap between design ideas and actual implementation, the designer used the digital reality simulation function very frequently to assist in decision making, and in order to process more complex and freer forms, the designer relied on the 3D design environment to carry out his thinking process and amendments. In addition, the digital design process is mainly conducted through the methods of 1, 3D modeling, 2, Simulation, 3, Generation, and 4, Fabrication. The steps and methods in the digital design process are obviously different from the traditional ones, which focus mainly on mass-production of 2D drawings; therefore, it is certain that the new tools will change the outcome of the designs.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:39

_id 2004_174
id 2004_174
authors Duarte, José P., Caldas, Luisa G. and Rocha, João
year 2004
title Free-form Ceramics - Design and Production of Complex Architectural Forms with Ceramic Elements
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 174-183
summary This paper describes a studio experiment developed with the aim of exploring the design and fabrication of complex architectural forms using ceramic elements. History has examples of double-sided curved forms built in ceramics. Such examples would not fulfill contemporary functional and aesthetic principles, neither would they be feasible or cost-effective considering current construction standards. There are recent examples of such forms built in other materials. These examples are difficult to emulate when ceramics is concerned, as they imply the fabrication of unique parts and sophisticated assembly techniques. Creating a double-curved surface in ceramics thus seems a difficult task. There are, however, advantages to such a formulation of design problems. They prompt the questioning of traditional wisdom, the rejection of accepted types, and the raising of interesting questions. What are the design strategies that should be followed when creating ceramic free-forms? What is the design media required to design them? And what are the techniques needed to fabricate and construct them? These are the questions investigated in the design project pursued jointly by students at an American and a Portuguese school, in collaboration with a professional research center and a ceramics factory. The students tested various possibilities, and in the process learned about state-of-art design and production techniques. The final projects are very expressive of their investigations and include a twisted glass tunnel, large-scale ceramic ‘bubbles,’ a rotated-tile wall, and a load-bearing wall system.
keywords Design Education: Rapid Prototyping; Remote Collaboration; Ceramics; Innovation; Free-Form Architecture
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

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