CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss2004_ra-177
id ddss2004_ra-177
authors Ballas, D., R. Kingston, and J. Stillwell
year 2004
title Using a Spatial Microsimulation Decision Support System for Policy Scenario Analysis
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 177-191
summary This paper discusses the potential of a spatial microsimulation-based decision support system for policy analysis. The system can be used to describe current conditions and issues in neighbourhoods, predict future trends in the composition and health of neighbourhoods and conduct modelling and predictive analysis to measure the likely impact of policy interventions at the local level. A large dynamic spatial micro-simulation model is being constructed for the population of Leeds (approximately 715,000 individuals) based on spatial microsimulation techniques in conjunction with a range of data, including 2001 Census data for Output Areas and sample data from the British Household Panel Survey. The project has three main aims as follows: (i) to develop a static microsimulation model to describe current conditions in Leeds; (ii) to enable the performance of ‘What if?’ analysis on a range of policy scenarios; and (iii) to develop a dynamic microsimulation model to predict future conditions in Leeds under different policy scenarios. The paper reports progress in meeting the above aims and outlines the associated difficulties and data issues. One of the significant advantages of the spatial microsimulation approach adopted by this project is that it enables the user to query any combination of variables that is deemed desirable for policy analysis. The paper will illustrate the software tool being developed in the context of this project that is capable of carrying out queries of this type and of mapping their results. The decision support tool is being developed to support policy-makers concerned with urban regeneration and neighbourhood renewal.
keywords Spatial Microsimulation, Spatial Decision Support Systems, Geotools
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss2004_ra-145
id ddss2004_ra-145
authors Devisch, O.T.J., H.J.P. Timmermans, T.A. Arentze, and A.W.J. Borgers
year 2004
title Towards a Generic MultiAgent Engine for the Simulation of Spatial Behavioural Processes
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 145-160
summary SwarmCity is being developed as a micro-simulation model, simulating the location-choice behaviour of a population of households, retailers, firms, developers, etc. reacting to an urban plan. The focus of SwarmCity lies –in a first phase- on the decision-making procedures of households, conceptualised as a series of three processes: awakening, search and choice. The methodology used to implement these processes makes use of life-time utility and decisionanalysis trees. The final model should work as a scenario-analysis tool, allowing planners, developers, retailers and municipalities to test interventionproposals, to evaluate legislations, to measure the attractiveness of services, to quantify residential mobility, etc. This paper illustrates the state of the art in household location-choice modelling and introduces a first attempt in developing a conceptual framework.
keywords Micro Simulation, Multi-Agent Systems, Spatial Simulation Models, Scenario Analysis, Heuristic Decision-Making, Location-Choice Behaviour, DecisionAnalysis Trees, Residential Mobility, Lifetime Utility
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss2004_ra-19
id ddss2004_ra-19
authors Akamine, A. and A. Nélson Rodrigues da Silva
year 2004
title An Evaluation of Neural Spatial Interaction Models Based on a Practical Application
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 19-32
summary One of the serious problems faced by the Brazilian municipalities is the scarcity of resources for building education infrastructure. This asks for an optimal allocation of the available resources that includes, among other things, a rational spatial arrangement of the supply points (i.e., schools) in order to increase the demand coverage (i.e., students). If it is possible to foresee the regions where the demand is going to be concentrated, it is then possible to plan the location of new facilities and to assess the impact on the future level of service of the entire system. Considering that one of the consequences of the location-allocation process is the distribution of trips from demand points to supply points throughout the city, therefore affecting the overall intraurban accessibility conditions to essential services such as education, there is a strong need of models that planners can rely on to predict the future trip distribution patterns. As a result, the objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) when applied to spatial interaction models, the so-called Neural Spatial Interaction Models. This was done in a practical context, in contrast to the more theoretical works commonly found in literature. The practical application showed that the neural spatial interaction model had different performances when compared to the traditional gravity models. In one case the neural models outperformed the gravity models, while on the other case it was just the opposite. The explanation for this may be in the data or in the ANN model formulation, as discussed in the conclusions.
keywords Artificial Neural Networks, Spatial Interaction Models, Education Infrastructure
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id eaea2003_11-bremer-sander
id eaea2003_11-bremer-sander
authors Bremer, S. and Sander, H.
year 2004
title View from the Road: Environmental Simulation for the Fractal City of Rhine Ruhr
source Spatial Simulation and Evaluation - New Tools in Architectural and Urban Design [Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7], pp. 43-47
summary Highway seems to be more an issue of traffic planning than of urban design. But the highway can be a very important factor for the modern city pattern. Highways shape the spatial form of the fractal city. The modern highway can define new cores outside and “interior edges” within the city. Seen as a planning tool, highways are the great neglected opportunity in city and regional design. The 1st Architecture Biennial, 1ab, taking place from May 2003 to July 2003 in Rotterdam, explores the creative potentials of modern highways worldwide. An international research team discovered the spatial functions of highways in modern agglomerations. This lecture will give an overview of the results of the worldwide analyses and the design projects that had been undertaken. Both authors are members of the German research team. The German team examined the A 42 running through the Ruhrgebiet, a former coal and steal area in western Germany. The Ruhr Area is converting from an industrially orientated region to an agglomeration of high technology and science. But the regional image remains the same due to the fact that the changes cannot be seen, neither physically, nor from the road. Here, the highway could be used as a catalyst supporting and structuring the spatial changes to make them more legible for the people of Rhine-Ruhr. The nature becomes the most important tool of highway design. Landscape forms a linkage between the different cities of the region. Together with the A 40 and other local highways the region becomes the most important (and largest) public space of the new Rhine-Ruhr. The highway seen as a work of urban art can be designed only from the perspective of the driving car.
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ddss2008-33
id ddss2008-33
authors Charlton, James A.; Bob Giddings and Margaret Horne
year 2008
title A survey of computer software for the urban designprocess
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary Urban design is concerned with the shape, the surface and the physical arrangement of all kinds of urban elements, the basic components that make up the built environment, at the level of buildings, spaces and human activities. It is also concerned with the non-visual aspects of the environment, such as noise, wind and temperature and humidity. The city square is a particular urban element which can take many forms and its geometrical relationships such as maximum dimensions, ratio of width to length and building height to length have been analysed for centuries (Alberti 1475), (Vitruvius 1550), (Sitte 1889), (Corbett 2004). Within the current urban design process there are increasing examples of three dimensional computer representations which allow the user to experience a visual sense of the geometry of city squares in an urban landscape. Computer-aided design and Virtual Reality technologies have recently contributed to this visual assessment, but there have been limited attempts at 3D computer representations which allow the user to experience a greater sense of the urban space. This paper will describe a survey of computer tools which could support a more holistic approach to urban design and which could be used to simulate a number of urban texture and urban quality aspects. It will provide a systematic overview of currently available software that could support the simulation of building density, height, colour and style as well as conditions relating to noise, shading, heat, natural and artificial light. It will describe a methodology for the selection and filtering of appropriate computer applications and offer an initial evaluation of these tools for the analysis and representation of the three-dimensional geometry, urban texture and urban quality of city centre spaces. The paper is structured to include an introduction to the design criteria relating to city centre spaces which underpins this research. Next the systematic review of computer software will be described, and selected tools will undergo initial evaluation. Finally conclusions will be drawn and areas for future research identified.
keywords Urban design, Software identification, 3D modelling, Pedestrian modelling, Wind modelling, Noise mapping, Thermal comfort, VR Engine
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id ecaaderis2018_103
id ecaaderis2018_103
authors Davidová, Marie and Prokop, Šimon
year 2018
title TreeHugger - The Eco-Systemic Prototypical Urban Intervention
source Odysseas Kontovourkis (ed.), Sustainable Computational Workflows [6th eCAADe Regional International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 9789491207143], Department of Architecture, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus, 24-25 May 2018, pp. 75-84
keywords The paper discusses co-design, development, production, application of TreeHugger (see Figure 1). The co-design among community and trans-disciplinary participants with different expertise required scope of media mix, switching between analogue, digital and back again. This involves different degrees of physical and digital 'GIGA-Mapping' (Sevaldson, 2011, 2015), 'Grasshopper3d' (Davidson, 2017) scripting and mix of digital and analogue fabrication to address the real life world. The critical participation of this 'Time-Based Design' (Sevaldson, 2004, 2005) process is the interaction of the prototype with eco-systemic agency of the adjacent environment - the eco-systemic performance. The TreeHugger is a responsive solid wood insect hotel, generating habitats and edible landscaping (Creasy, 2004) on bio-tope in city centre of Prague. To extend the impact, the code was uploaded for communities to download, local-specifically edit and apply worldwide. Thus, the fusion of discussed processes is multi-scaled and multi-layered, utilised in emerging design field: Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance.
series eCAADe
email marie.davidova@gmail.com
last changed 2018/05/29 12:33

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ddss2008-08
id ddss2008-08
authors Koshak, Nabeel A.; Abdullah Fouda
year 2008
title Analyzing Pedestrian Movement in Mataf Using GPSand GIS to Support Space Redesign
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary Evaluating the use of architectural and urban spaces is an important issue for architects and urban designers who wish to enhance space usability. Space usability is crucial in crowded spaces such as Mataf areas. Millions of people come to the city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia every year to perform Hajj (Islamic Pilgrimage) and Umrah. A cornerstone of Hajj and Umrah spirituals is to perform Tawaf, which is the circumambulation of the Ka'bah in the center of the Holy Mosque in Makkah. The areas of performing Tawaf (called Mataf) become very crowded during Hajj and the last ten days of Ramadan. This paper demonstrates how we utilized Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze pedestrian movement while performing Tawaf. During the Hajj of 1424 H (2004 in the Georgian Calendar), several GPS devices were used to collect pedestrian movement coordinates at specific time intervals. Computer software for tracking analysis is used to visualize and analyze the pattern of pedestrian movement in Tawaf. The software allows users to view temporal data, which can be set up with past time windows for historical data analysis. The findings of this research show levels of service and flow rates throughout different zones and times of Mataf. They indicate the most critical zones and times for Tawaf during Hajj. They also visually demonstrate the track pattern of pedestrian movement at different locations in the Tawaf area. The paper concludes with some redesign recommendations to remove obstacles and facilitate pedestrian movement in Tawaf. The approach described in this paper can be implemented in architectural and urban design space modifications to improve pedestrian movement in open spaces.
keywords Pedestrian movement analysis, GPS, GIS, Hajj, Makkah, Tawaf
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id 2206
id 2206
authors Kvan, Thomas
year 2004
title REASONS TO STOP TEACHING CAAD
source Mao-Lin Chiu (ed), Digital design education, Garden City Publishing, Taipei 2003, ISBN 9867705203
summary Computers are a problem. They are expensive, even if the prices have dropped dramatically and promise to continue dropping. They do not look after themselves but demand considerable attention – we have to hire computer specialists to ensure they talk to each other, staff are required to make sure software is installed and to fix things when it no longer works. Learning to use them is tedious; skills have to be developed to master several idiosyncratic software systems. The hardware and software regularly malfunction. It is faster to draw a line by hand than with software. Students already have enough trouble learning how to stop a window leaking or ensure a fire escape route will protect people in time of trouble, why make them learn all these other things. We should stop teaching CAAD. Although technological and economic issues are very real and not to be dismissed lightly, the real problems of teaching CAAD are not these. The real issues we need to address is how we teach and, behind that, why we teach. This paper explores the what and why.
keywords pedagogy
series other
type normal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2004/09/27 05:10

_id ddss2004_ra-341
id ddss2004_ra-341
authors Murakami, M., K. Higuchi, and A. Shibayama
year 2004
title Relationship between Convenience Store Robberies and Road Environment
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 341-356
summary This study focuses on road environment around robbed convenience stores and elucidates the road characteristics that are conducive to convenience store robberies by using GIS and indexes of graphs and networks. The method of this study is as follows: Five convenience store robberies, which occurred in Metropolitan Tokyo, were selected from newspaper reports. Then, road networks within a 1-kilometer radius of the robbed convenience stores were extracted from digital maps with a scale of one-twenty five hundredth (Geographical Survey Institute and Bureau of City Planning Tokyo Metropolitan Government). After adding the road networks and the attributes such as road width, we investigate the road characteristics using GIS and indexes of graphs and networks. Finally, we demonstrate several factors associated with convenience store robberies based on this compiled information.
keywords Convenience Store Robbery, GIS, Graph Theory, Indexes of Graphs and Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss2004_ra-53
id ddss2004_ra-53
authors Pettit, C., A. Nelson, and W. Cartwright
year 2004
title Using On-Line Geographical Visualisation Tools to Improve Land Use Decision-Making with a Bottom-Up Community Participatory Approach
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 53-68
summary This paper examines the development of a prototype suite of on-line integrated multimedia-GIS tools to assist in bottom up decision-making. These tools are being developed in the context of scenario planning to enable the community to actively explore different land use options and the implication of government structure and strategic plans. A case study approach is undertaken, focusing on the Jewell Station Neighbourhood, situated in the City of Moreland, Greater Melbourne Region, Australia. The paper documents the first stage of the project, in developing three land use scenarios delivered through a range of technologies including: VRML, HTML, GIS, Pixmaker and Flash. The paper concludes by outlining the future directions of this research that include: the construction of a virtual sandbox, usability testing, and community consultation.
keywords Scenario Planning, Geographical Visualisation, GIS, Multimedia, VRML
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss2004_d-49
id ddss2004_d-49
authors Polidori, M. and R. Krafta
year 2004
title Environment – Urban Interface within Urban Growth
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 49-62
summary This work presents the synthesis of a model of urban growth dedicated to accomplish simulations of urban spatial dynamics, based on integrated urban and environmental factors and promoting simultaneity among external and internal growth. The city and surrounding environment are captured and modeled in computational ambient, by application of the centrality / potential model (Krafta, 1994 and 1999), with support of graph theory, cellular automata, GIS and geocomputation. The model assumes the city as a field of opportunities for obtaining income, mediated by the space, which is composed of urban and environmental attributes, that work as attractors or as resistances for the urban growth. The space configuration and the distribution of those attributes generate tensions that differentiate qualitatively and quantitatively the space, through the centrality measure (built with the support of graphs techniques), coming to provoke growth in places with larger potential of development (built with the help of techniques of CA – cellular automata). Growths above environmental thresholds are considered problems, generated and overcome in the same process of production of the urban space. Iterations of that process offer a dynamic behaviour to the model, allowing to observe the growth process along the time. The model presents several possibilities: a) urban - natural environment integration; b) internal and external growth integration; c) variety in the scale; d) GIS integration and geocomputation; e) user interface; f) calibration; g) theoretical possibilities; and h) practical possibilities.
keywords Environment, Urban Growth, Urban Morphology, Simulation
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss2004_ra-85
id ddss2004_ra-85
authors Shen, Z.J. and M. Kawakami
year 2004
title Visualization of Usable Building Space According to Planning Permission Ordinances for Public Participation in District Plan in Japan
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & DecisionSupport Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 85-98
summary The district plan in Japan is designed and implemented through public participation, which is based on the zone restrictions of land use system. The usable space of a building can be generated according to the zone restrictions implemented in a district plan, which include the planning controls of high altitude, oblique line and so on. Residents can choose control items as their preference in order to control the urban physical environment of the district. In this paper, we discuss how to generate the virtual world according to the data set of GIS including planning control items and how it can work for net participation. In the future, we would like to conduct an Internet social experiment with the cooperation of a city government and residents in order to support the district plan in a local city.
keywords WEBGIS, JAVA3d, Planning restrictions, Public participation
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 2004_586
id 2004_586
authors Voigt, A., Martens, B. and Linzer, H.
year 2004
title City Simulator - A Multi-dimensional VR-Simulation Environment
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 586-592
summary Whether in splendid rural isolation or in an urban area, settlement and building structures always are exposed to the public. Questions as to the future design of our vital space basically always concern the public and thus call for a great deal of discussion. Launching a well-balanced debate between all those involved in the planning and design process requires clear exemplification of urban-spatial visions by means of simulation. A simulation device - called “City Simulator” - suited to conveying the multitude of spatial relations within the urban configuration and for developing urban-spatial ideas would fulfil such expectations. The complexity of the information required in this context can be coped with effectively by means of computer-aided simulation techniques focusing on digital city models. Thus the implementation of a “City Simulator” may be regarded as a decisive tool for the purpose. As those involved in the process normally consider themselves absolute novices within the context of complex planning processes, the simulator will to some extent act as a “translation machine”. This paper is based on a project proposal which has been submitted by the authors aimed at the acquisition of a “City Simulator” at Vienna University of Technology in the near future.
keywords 3D City Models; Simulation; Virtual Reality; Visualization; Communication
series eCAADe
email voigt@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id ddss2004_d-63
id ddss2004_d-63
authors Wen, K.-C. and W.-L. Chen
year 2004
title Applying Genetic Algorithms to Establish Disaster Decision Support System for Flooding Evacuation Path of Hsichih Area in Taiwan
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 63-75
summary Because of the special geography features and subtropics weather in Taiwan, we need to provide correct information to help people making decision when they are in disaster. So the disaster decision support system must offer proper information of evacuation path to people. This research has shown the difficulties associated with the GIS and the flooding evacuation path search through the huge searching space generated during the network analysis process. This research also presents an approach to these problems by utilizing a search process whose concept is derived from natural genetics. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been introduced in the optimization problem solving area by Holland (1975) and Goldberg (1989) and have shown their usefulness through numerous applications. We apply GA and GIS to choice flooding evacuation path in metropolitan area in this study. We take the region of Shiji city in Taiwan for case. Firstly, we establish the node relationship of GA calculation, the level of the weight is the standard of the date that is exported by Disaster Database. Secondly, we apply GA to calculate different evacuation path in different time series. Finally, we build the model of choosing flooding evacuation path.
keywords Genetic Algorithms, Decision Support System, GIS, Evacuation Path
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ascaad2004_paper14
id ascaad2004_paper14
authors Abdel Mohsen, Ashraf M.
year 2004
title Future Space Cities@Universe (Digi-City Vision)
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary A template for the future city has been carved into the heavens. Ever since the beginning of humankind, we have looked to the sky for the opportunity to make a new start in our imperfect world. Between the stars and the darkness we have imagined utopias beyond the reach of our travel technologies, colonizing space with our fantasies. Now we are in the first stages of an electronic revolution, but in the future 50 years later we will be in a mega-digital era which we have to predict, work and search for the reality of that future. Our planet is recently over loaded with different problems, such as pollution, population, nature disasters. Our vast speed of technology and the curiosity of discovering the invisible, leads to study and find out the nearest Future Space Architecture. With the vast acceleration of technology and digital life, we should start to predict the future architecture on, into or behind the Earth. This paper is one of many perceptions of life and architecture behind the Earth in the digital era, Digi-City Vision.
series ASCAAD
email ashraf@cubeconsultants.net
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 2004_142
id 2004_142
authors Achten, Henri, Jessurun, Joran and de Vries, Bauke
year 2004
title The Desk-Cave - A Low-Cost Versatile Virtual Reality Design and Research Setup Between Desktop and CAVE
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 142-147
summary Virtual Reality has become an almost ubiquitous technology in many applications, but it has seen limited success in design support. Reasons for this seem to lie in lack of easily available tools, high threshold for non-programmers, and high cost of equipment. In this paper we describe a Virtual Reality environment that is developed at Design Systems called the Desk-Cave. The Desk-Cave is a low-cost VR setup that combines principles of a CAVE system with a work desk. Architecture students with no specific training in VR technology use the Desk-Cave in design projects both in the early stage and the final presentation stage. The system allows quick transfer to the Desk-Cave and architectural evaluation of design proposals.
keywords Virtual Reality, Architectural Design, Design Process, Cel Shading
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id sigradi2004_349
id sigradi2004_349
authors Adriana Simeone; Roberto Segre; José Ripper Kós
year 2004
title O processo de desenvolvimento da ferramenta cidade interativa [The Developmental Process of an Interactive City Tool]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This paper exposes site .Cidade Interativa. development process, based on: a reflection about importance of users. points of view.s incorporation for space remodelling; a study about theoretical and practical experiences which, in different ways, approached potencialities of participation of a community.s members in a project; and, finally, a investigation of propagation alternatives of individual readings as information source for urban project, trying to enhance points of view that generally remain occult in the form of invisible practices of anonymous users. This site must be understood as concretion of an idea: creating a vehicle from which is possible to become individual readings public, so that these are shared and, also, make them available to people responsible for urban projects as information source.
series SIGRADI
email asimeone@ufrj.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ascaad2004_paper17
id ascaad2004_paper17
authors Al-Attili, Aghlab A. and Richard D. Coyne
year 2004
title Embodiment and Illusion: The Implications of Scale as a Cue for Immersion in Virtual Environments
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary This paper examines the extent to which the issue of scale impinges on our sense of immersion in virtual environments. We consider perception from the point of view of Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology, and describe a study involving extended interviews of a small number of subjects who were presented with static, moving and interactive images of spaces. We test a series of propositions about scale cues, and speculate on the wider phenomenological issues of expectation, metaphor and play.
series ASCAAD
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id ddss2006-pb-101
id DDSS2006-PB-101
authors Aloys W.J. Borgers, I.M.E. Smeets, A.D.A.M. Kemperman, and H.J.P. Timmermans
year 2006
title Simulation of Micro Pedestrian Behaviour in Shopping Streets
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Progress in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN-10: 90-386-1756-9, ISBN-13: 978-90-386-1756-5, p. 101-116
summary Over the years, scholars have developed various models of pedestrian movement. These models can be used to assess the effects of detailed design decisions or to predict pedestrian behaviour under conditions of crowding. To date, not much attention has been paid to pedestrians' shopping behaviour at the micro level. Therefore, the main purpose of this project is to test a model that aims at simulating micro pedestrian behaviour in shopping streets, including entering shops. The model assumes a detailed network of links to represent the structure of street segments and entrances to the shops. The basic principle underlying the model is that a pedestrian moves from one link in the network to another, adjacent link. In fact, a pedestrian enters a segment at one side, heading for the other side of the segment. However, a pedestrian might enter the segment by leaving a shop as well. Then, the pedestrian might be heading for either side of the segment. While transferring from the current link to the next link, the pedestrian will be attracted by the shops along both sides of the street. The study area is Antwerp's main shopping street. During a one-week workshop in July 2004, students observed pedestrian movement in this shopping street. An inventory of some physical characteristics of the shopping street was made and pedestrians were tracked through two separate segments of the shopping street. In total, 334 pedestrians were tracked. A conventional multinomial logit model is used to simulate pedestrians' micro behaviour. The process of consecutively selecting links continues until the pedestrian has reached one of the terminal links or a shop. The model performs very well. Simulated routes were used to assess the validity of the model. Observed and simulated link loading correspond fairly well, however, the model seems to slightly mispredict the attraction of a number of shops.
keywords Micro pedestrian behaviour, Shopping street, Simulation
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

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