CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ascaad2004_paper21
id ascaad2004_paper21
authors Garba, Shaibu B. and Mohammad A. Hassanain
year 2004
title A Review of Object Oriented CAD Potential for Building Information Modeling and Life Cycle Management
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary In many countries, the Architecture/Engineering/Consulting (AEC) industry is characterised by poor performance reflected in project delays and cost overruns. A contributor to the problem is the traditional approach to handling building information and its communication in life cycle management (LCM). Recent developments in Object Oriented Computer Aided Architectural Design (OO CAD) have provided the opportunity for improving building information modelling and its communication for more effective LCM. The aim of the paper is to review the potentials of OO CAD for building information modelling (BIM) and LCM. The paper reviews building information in the life cycle process, identifying the various actors and activities and the need for communication and information flow to support life cycle management. The paper also reviews the concept of OO CAD, highlighting its potential to improve building information and its flow and communication in life cycle management. The paper then goes on to review the potentials and limitations of OO CAD implementation in the AEC industry. The paper concludes by pointing out that the widespread adoption of OO CAD and the anticipated associated improvement in life cycle management will only be encouraged when the building industry is able to agree on a widely acceptable, interoperable standard for encoding building objects.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id sigradi2004_050
id sigradi2004_050
authors Filiz Ozel
year 2004
title Standardization of building information management
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This article summarizes the history of the standardization efforts in the architectural, engineering and construction industry and focuses on the three phases of the life cycle of a building, namely design, construction and use phases. Data and information needs of each phase tends to be quite different than one another, thus leading to difficulty in seamless exchange and integration between different constituents of the AEC industry. Downstream data users expect the architect to generate digital design information that is usable in the construction and use phases of a building.s life cycle. Recently American Institute of Architects have assembled a congress in Washington DC, bringing together representatives from the AEC/FM industry, government agencies, software industry and academic institutions. This paper is a summary of the presentation this author gave at this congress in April, 2004.
keywords CAD standards, data models, information models, standards development
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 409caadria2004
id 409caadria2004
authors Masayuki Okada, Kazuhisa Iki, Sadayuki Shimoda
year 2004
title Development of CAFM System for LCM on Building Maintenance and Management
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 681-692
summary The purpose of this study is to develop a Computer Aided Facility Management (CAFM) system to assist the optimal Life Cycle Management (LCM) business, especially in the repair and renewal planning works of the inhabited building Life Cycle Cost (LCC). This system is also useful for annual, mid and long term facility maintenance budget planning. Major steps of this study are as follows: (1) A Study on the actual process of the LCM business was undertaken to determine the required functions of the CAFM system. (2) We surveyed the calculation process of the LCC and examined the data processing method in order to determine an efficient LCC calculation method for the CAFM system. (3) Based on the above result, we developed each function required for the CAFM system. (4) The CAFM system was developed by unifying the above functions in a network browser environment such as data transaction management between database, LCC calculation and graphical representation applications. (5) We evaluate the CAFM system by using case studies of LCM works on actual buildings. This system contributes to the efficient maintenance works of the LCC, and is able to support the appropriate scheduling of LCM works.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:41

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ascaad2004_paper22
id ascaad2004_paper22
authors Leifer, David and John M. Leifer
year 2004
title Towards Computer Aided Life-Cycle Costing
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary Sustainability is recognised as a necessary public good. Building sustainable buildings requires architectural methods, specifically CAD systems, that include suitable predictions of long term performance. Unfortunately the predominant view in the Building Industries of the Developed world is essentially short term; this is because building developers – not being the end users - are essentially interested in short term profit. Until they can see the ‘value-added’ by sustainability impacting on the selling price of their buildings, they will not be motivated to build ‘sustainably’. This paper describes the issues that have led to this situation. It discussed how the advent of computers has allowed life-cycle data to be gathered over time, and may be included intro CAD system databases to enable sustainability performance predictions to be made. Once made we are now able to reap the benefits by performance benchmarking. The availability of this building performance information on-line is making life-cycle costing more readily available, and more accurate, allowing building developers, owners and users to make rapid and timely feasibility studies well in advance of design. This also allows owners to test various capital to operating cost options in order to get the best economic performance over time, as well as map future capital replacement cycles. These emerging possibilities are discussed in this paper.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id cf2011_p018
id cf2011_p018
authors Sokmenoglu, Ahu; Cagdas Gulen, Sariyildiz Sevil
year 2011
title A Multi-dimensional Exploration of Urban Attributes by Data Mining
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 333-350.
summary The paper which is proposed here will introduce an ongoing research project aiming to research data mining as a methodology of knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis. To address the increasing multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires a multidisciplinary approach to urban analysis. This research is an attempt to establish a link between knowledge discovery methodologies and automated urban feature analysis. Therefore, in the scope of this research we apply data mining methodologies for urban analysis. Data mining is defined as to extract important patterns and trends from raw data (Witten and Frank, 2005). When applied to discover relationships between urban attributes, data mining can constitute a methodology for the analysis of multi-dimensional relational complexity of urban environments (Gil, Montenegro, Beirao and Duarte, 2009) The theoretical motivation of the research is derived by the lack of explanatory urban knowledge which is an issue since 1970’s in the area of urban research. This situation is mostly associated with deductive methods of analysis. The analysis of urban system from the perspective of few interrelated factors, without considering the multi-dimensionality of the system in a deductive fashion was not been explanatory enough. (Jacobs, 1961, Lefebvre, 1970 Harvey, 1973) To address the multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires the consideration of diverse spatial, social, economic, cultural, morphological, environmental, political etc. features of urban entities. The main claim is that, in urban analysis, there is a need to advance from traditional one dimensional (Marshall, 2004) description and classification of urban forms (e.g. Land-use maps, Density maps) to the consideration of the simultaneous multi-dimensionality of urban systems. For this purpose, this research proposes a methodology consisting of the application of data mining as a knowledge discovery method into a GIS based conceptual urban database built out of official real data of Beyoglu. Generally, the proposed methodology is a framework for representing and analyzing urban entities represented as objects with properties (attributes). It concerns the formulation of an urban entity’s database based on both available and non-available (constructed from available data) data, and then data mining of spatial and non-spatial attributes of the urban entities. Location or position is the primary reference basis for the data that is describing urban entities. Urban entities are; building floors, buildings, building blocks, streets, geographically defined districts and neighborhoods etc. Urban attributes are district properties of locations (such as land-use, land value, slope, view and so forth) that change from one location to another. Every basic urban entity is unique in terms of its attributes. All the available qualitative and quantitative attributes that is relavant (in the mind of the analyst) and appropriate for encoding, can be coded inside the computer representation of the basic urban entity. Our methodology is applied by using the real and official, the most complex, complete and up-to-dataset of Beyoglu (a historical neighborhood of Istanbul) that is provided by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IBB). Basically, in our research, data mining in the context of urban data is introduced as a computer based, data-driven, context-specific approach for supporting analysis of urban systems without relying on any existing theories. Data mining in the context of urban data; • Can help in the design process by providing site-specific insight through deeper understanding of urban data. • Can produce results that can assist architects and urban planners at design, policy and strategy levels. • Can constitute a robust scientific base for rule definition in urban simulation applications such as urban growth prediction systems, land-use simulation models etc. In the paper, firstly we will present the framework of our research with an emphasis on its theoretical background. Afterwards we will introduce our methodology in detail and finally we will present some of important results of data mining analysis processed in Rapid Miner open-source software. Specifically, our research define a general framework for knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis and enable the usage of GIS and data mining as complementary applications in urban feature analysis. Acknowledgments I would like to thank to Nuffic, the Netherlands Organization for International Cooperation in Higher Education, for funding of this research. I would like to thank Ceyhun Burak Akgul for his support in Data Mining and to H. Serdar Kaya for his support in GIS.
keywords urban feature analysis, data mining, urban database, urban complexity, GIS
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 514caadria2004
id 514caadria2004
authors Soyoung Park, Jinwon Choi
year 2004
title Retrieving and Browsing Information of Building Equipment Using Augmented Reality Techniques
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 911-926
summary Current research on AR (augmented reality) tends to focus more on fields other than architecture. However, the AR technology will also affect architecture and will become more powerful than it is now. In this study, we have attempted to develop a new system called ‘Building Scanner’ that recognizes an area and information of building equipment frequently on a single floor using AR techniques and enables a user to browse/retrieve more naturally and easily. For this system, our study proceeds in the following three steps; 1) Develop an object-oriented CAAD system, 2) Develop building equipment database and input system, and 3) Visualize 3D building equipment data on AR. We believe that our attempts can generate a new powerful tool with a wide range of applications for architecture. Further research includes improving information of building equipment input methodology, user interface designs for the Building Scanner, and constructing other information for broader applications, etc.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:43

_id 0131
id 0131
authors Chiarella, Mauro
year 2004
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 135-139.
summary Geometry regarded as a tool for understanding is perhaps the part of Mathematics which is the most intuitive, concrete and linked to reality. From its roots as a tool to describe and measure shapes, geometry as ‘the space science’ , has grown towards a theory of ideas and methods by means of which it is possible to build and study idealised models, not only from the physical world but also from the real world. In graphic architecture thought, geometry usually appears as an instrumental support for project speculation. Geometric procedures are presented as representational resources for the graphic testing of reflection and for the exposition of ideas in order to build a logical order as regards representation and formal prefiguration. The fast rise of computing in the last decades has made it possible for architects to work massively and in a graphic and intuitive way with mathematical representations of tridimensional geometry, such as the NURBS . These organic surfaces of free shapes defined by vectorial curves have allowed access to a rapid generation of complex shapes with a minumum amount of data and of specific knowledge.

The great development of modelling achieved by the digital media and the limitations in the technical and building areas and in the existence of materials which are coherent with the resultant shapes reveal a considerable distance between the systems of ideation and simulation characteristic of the computing era and the analogous systems of production inherited from the slow industrial development. This distance has been shortened by CAD/CAM systems, which are, however, not very accessible to the architectural field. If we incorporate to the development of these divergent media the limitations which are distinctive of the material resources and procedures of the existent local technology, the aforementioned distance seems even greater.

Assuming the metaphor of living at the threshold of two ages (industrial-computing, analogical-digital, material-virtual) and the challenge of the new conceptual and operational tools in our field, we work in the mixture, with no exclusions or substitutions, proposing (by means of the development of informational complements) some alternatives of work to approach the issue under discussion from the Architecture Workshop.

keywords Geometry, Design, NURBS, Unfolding, Pedagogy
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/04/07 10:51

_id ddss2004_ra-33
id ddss2004_ra-33
authors Diappi, L., P. Bolchim, and M. Buscema
year 2004
title Improved Understanding of Urban Sprawl Using Neural Networks
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 14020-2408-8, p. 33-49
summary It is widely accepted that the spatial pattern of settlements is a crucial factor affecting quality of life and environmental sustainability, but few recent studies have attempted to examine the phenomenon of sprawl by modelling the process rather than adopting a descriptive approach. The issue was partly addressed by models of land use and transportation which were mainly developed in the UK and US in the 1970s and 1980s, but the major advances were made in the area of modelling transportation, while very little was achieved in the area of spatial and temporal land use. Models of land use and transportation are well-established tools, based on explicit, exogenouslyformulated rules within a theoretical framework. The new approaches of artificial intelligence, and in particular, systems involving parallel processing, (Neural Networks, Cellular Automata and Multi-Agent Systems) defined by the expression “Neurocomputing”, allow problems to be approached in the reverse, bottom-up, direction by discovering rules, relationships and scenarios from a database. In this article we examine the hypothesis that territorial micro-transformations occur according to a local logic, i.e. according to use, accessibility, the presence of services and conditions of centrality, periphericity or isolation of each territorial “cell” relative to its surroundings. The prediction capabilities of different architectures of supervised Neural networks are implemented to the south Metropolitan area of Milan at two different temporal thresholds and discussed. Starting from data on land use in 1980 and 1994 and by subdividing the area into square cells on an orthogonal grid, the model produces a spatial and functional map of urbanisation in 2008. An implementation of the SOM (Self Organizing Map) processing to the Data Base allows the typologies of transformation to be identified, i.e. the classes of area which are transformed in the same way and which give rise to territorial morphologies; this is an interesting by-product of the approach.
keywords Neural Networks, Self-Organizing Maps, Land-Use Dynamics, Supervised Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ecaade2012_278
id ecaade2012_278
authors Gu, Ning ; de Vries, Bauke
year 2012
title Two Approaches to Implementing BIM in Architectural Curricula
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 39-48
summary BIM is an IT-enabled approach that supports enhanced design integrity, efficiency and quality through the distributed access, exchange and maintenance of building data (Haymaker and Suter, 2007; Fischer and Kunz, 2004). More recently, many universities have responded to the adoption of BIM in the profession, by gradually introducing the practice into the curricula (i.e. Cory and Schmelter-Morret, 2012; Ibrahim, 2007; Plume and Mitchell, 2007). Focusing on collaboration – one of the most important aspects of BIM, this paper presents two approaches to implementing BIM in architectural curricula with a focus on collaboration but from two different collaboration scales. Through observation and refl ection of these two approaches to teaching BIM, the paper concludes by discussing BIM curriculum design.
wos WOS:000330322400003
keywords Building Information Modelling (BIM); curriculum design; case studies
series eCAADe
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id 102caadria2004
id 102caadria2004
authors Ju-Hung Lan
year 2004
title A Preliminary Study of Knowledge Management in Collaborative Architectural Design
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 35-48
summary Collaborative design has been suffered by dealing with huge amount of undesired information today. The variety of information stored in a collaborative design system actually provides a knowledge repository across multiple design domains. This paper presents an information mining approach to capture hidden knowledge within collaborative design information. The discovered knowledge is used to develop an information service mechanism for helping collaborators to access related information during collaborative design processes.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:49

_id 3b25
id 3b25
authors Kepczynska-Walczak, Anetta
year 2004
title A model proposal for digitisation and recording data on architectural heritage in Poland based on European guidelines and best practices.
source University of Strathclyde, Dept. of Architecture and Building Science, Glasgow UK
summary The aim of the research is an adoption of digital technology in the recording and management of architectural heritage of Poland. The current documentation practice does not fit to the present needs. The existing system of built heritage recording and protection in Poland was developed during the 1960s and the 1970s. It is based on a database of paper fiches. Although the documenting template allows the collection of comprehensive information on historic buildings, the whole system of heritage protection remains petrified. The database verification and upgrade is usually delayed, and moreover, the records do not include some information crucial for successful protection and regeneration of historical buildings. The lack of computer aided documentation system causes, furthermore, inadequate management of the heritage. Central to the research methodology is the belief that a computer aided documentation system for built heritage in Poland should be compatible and harmonised with similar European projects as a response to the needs of the emerging Information Society. To achieve that standards and best practices in Europe were identified, analysed and compared with the current Polish system of heritage protection and management. Activities of Scottish organisations from the cultural heritage sector, being in the forefront of European achievements, were studied in detail. It was observed that Scottish advancements might be a source of valuable lessons and guidelines for similar activities in Poland. The issues crucial to designing a framework model for digitisation and recording data on architectural heritage in Poland were given particular attention. These included aspects related to content, technology, legislation, and project organisation. As a result a number of recommendations were formulated and supported with necessary tables and diagrams. This specification is intended as a starting point for implementation of digital technology in recording and management of architectural heritage of Poland. It is believed that the research outcomes may become useful not only for the architectural heritage documentation and management, but also in the wider cultural heritage sector in Poland. The thesis concludes with a statement that the validity of any guidelines related to the digital technology has a limited lifespan, and therefore the proposed model for digitisation and recording data on architectural heritage in Poland, to be successful, requires constant, diligent review of the technology development.
keywords ICT, architectural heritage, database systems
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2006/10/31 11:32

_id 403caadria2004
id 403caadria2004
authors Magdy M. Ibrahim, Robert J. Krawczyk & George Schipporiet
year 2004
title A Web-Based Approach to Transferring Architectural Information to the Construction Site Based on the Bim Object Concept
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 613-622
summary The current means of transferring architectural data to the construction site depends mainly on the drawing either manually or electronically drafted both in physical or digital formats. The printed or manually drafted drawing is being replaced with the digital version that can be accessed with a PDA. There are many benefits of the digital form over the physical form. However the full potential of this medium has not yet been fully exploited. The new CAD paradigm, BIM (Building Information Modeling), suggests that all the building information can be represented as a digital database that constitutes the information about the building elements as three-dimensional geometry, as well as, properties and specifications in the form of objects. This paper describes the process to convey the information about the CAD objects to the construction site through the web by extracting the properties of the objects into an XML file which can be queried for the needed data.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:41

_id sigradi2008_166
id sigradi2008_166
authors Papanikolaou, Dimitris
year 2008
title Digital Fabrication Production System Theory: Towards an Integrated Environment for Design and Production of Assemblies
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary A Digital Fabrication Production System (DFPS) is a concept describing a set of processes, tools, and resources that will be able to produce an artifact according to a design, fast, cheap, and easy, independently of location. A DFPS project is a complex assembly of custom parts that is delivered by a network of fabrication and assembly processes. This network is called the value chain. The workflow concept of a DFPS is the following: begin design process with a custom geometric form; decompose it into constructible parts; send the part files for fabrication to various locations; transport all parts at the construction site at the right time; finally, assemble the final artifact. Conceptually it means that based on a well structured value chain we could build anything we want, at anyplace, at controllable cost and quality. The goals of a DFPS are the following: custom shapes, controllable lead time, controllable quality, controllable cost, easiness of fabrication, and easiness of assembly. Simply stated this means to build any form, anywhere, accurately, cheap, fast, and easy. Unfortunately, the reality with current Digital Fabrication (DF) projects is rather disappointing: They take more time than what was planned, they get more expensive than what was expected, they involve great risk and uncertainty, and finally they are too complex to plan, understand, and manage. Moreover, most of these problems are discovered during production when it is already late for correction. However, there is currently no systematic approach to evaluate difficulty of production of DF projects in Architecture. Most of current risk assessment methods are based on experience gathered from previous similar cases. But it is the premise of mass customization that projects can be radically different. Assembly incompatibilities are currently addressed by building physical mockups. But physical mockups cause a significant loss in both time and cost. All these problems suggest that an introduction of a DFPS for mass customization in architecture needs first an integrated theory of assembly and management control. Evaluating feasibility of a DF project has two main problems: first, how to evaluate assemblability of the design; second, how to evaluate performance of the value chain. Assemblability is a system’s structure problem, while performance is a system’s dynamics problem. Structure of systems has been studied in the field of Systems Engineering by Network Analysis methods such as the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) (Steward 1981), and the liaison graph (Whitney 2004), while dynamics of systems have been studied by System Dynamics (Forrester 1961). Can we define a formal method to evaluate the difficulty of production of an artifact if we know the artifact’s design and the production system’s structure? This paper formulates Attribute Process Methodology (APM); a method for assessing feasibility of a DFPS project that combines Network Analysis to evaluate assemblability of the design with System Dynamics to evaluate performance of the value chain.
keywords Digital Fabrication, Production System, System Dynamics, Network Analysis, Assembly
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id avocaad_2003_07
id avocaad_2003_07
authors Penttilä, Hannu
year 2003
title Think Globally – Act Locally in Architectural Information Management
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary This paper tries to describe the conceptual connection between the larger-scale, somewhat idealistic global visions and trends in the architectural-ICT-education, and on the other hand the smaller-scale real-life activities that are carried out in the local educational institutions.The local activities are demonstrated with a handful of case-study experiences from HUT/architecture.A proposal for the future, is to establish a continuous web-forum for architectural schools• To submit and maintain their organizational and educational data• To benchmark their education content with other schools• An early version is already available in:
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
type normal paper
last changed 2009/06/04 05:04

_id ecaade2010_054
id ecaade2010_054
authors Wurzer, Gabriel; Fioravanti, Antonio; Loffreda, Gianluigi; Trento, Armando
year 2010
title Function & Action: Verifying a functional program in a game-oriented environment
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.389-394
summary The finding of a functional program for any kind of building involves a great amount of knowledge about the behavior of future building users. This knowledge can be gathered by looking at relevant building literature (Adler, 1999; Neufert and Neufert, 2000) or by investigating the actual processes taking place in similar environments, the latter being demonstrated e.g. by (Schütte-Lihotzky, 2004) or new functionalist approaches of the MVRDV group (Costanzo, 2006)). Both techniques have the disadvantage that the architect might assume a behavior which is seldom experienced in real life (either through lack of information or by failing to meet the building user’s expectations). What is needed is a verification step in which the design is tested on real users. We have devised a game-like environment (Figure 1a) in which it is possible to capture the behavior of future building users in order to verify the relevance of the design even at a very early stage. As result of applying our approach, we can find previously overlooked usage situations, which may be used to further adapt the design to the user’s needs.
wos WOS:000340629400041
keywords Requirements checking; Participative design
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ijac20032201
id ijac20032201
authors Mahalingam, Ganapathy; Kavasseri, Rajesh G.
year 2004
title Improving Objective Digital Images with Neuronal Processing: A Computational Approach
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 2
summary This paper describes an experiment where an imagerecorded with a digital camera is processed using anelectro-physiological model of a neuron. Theluminosity level of each pixel of the source image istreated as the stimulus for an individual neuron, andthe source image is transformed into a responseimage based on the processing behavior of theHodgkin-Huxley neuronal model. It is seen thattransformation of the image through neuronalprocessing yields (i) more evenly balanced levels ofluminosity and (ii) a more ‘subjective’ rendering of theenvironment than what was photographed with thedigital camera.The CCD (charge coupled device) –based digital camera reveals its limitation as a linearrecording device that does not have a balanceddynamic range.The neuronal processing of the imageadds non-linearity and a balanced range to theluminosity levels in the image, rendering it closer to a‘subjective’ perception of the scene.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id eaea2003_08-ohno
id eaea2003_08-ohno
authors Ohno, R., Soeda, M. and Nakashima, K.
year 2004
title The Effectiveness of Design Guideline Regulations for Improving Streetscapes
source Spatial Simulation and Evaluation - New Tools in Architectural and Urban Design [Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7], pp. 21-27
summary Municipal governments or developers make design guidelines to create harmonious streetscapes in new towns. The regulations, however, are often based on arbitrary decisions without any empirical research. The present study employed a visual simulation system to test the effects of such physical features of the buildings as color, height, flatness of the building façade and its recess from the street on pedestrians’ impressions of the place. Thirty subjects were asked to rate their impressions of “order”, “simple”, and to evaluate the atmosphere after experiencing the simulated scenes. The results revealed some relations between the physical features and the pedestrians’ responses.
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ddss2004_ra-19
id ddss2004_ra-19
authors Akamine, A. and A. Nélson Rodrigues da Silva
year 2004
title An Evaluation of Neural Spatial Interaction Models Based on a Practical Application
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 19-32
summary One of the serious problems faced by the Brazilian municipalities is the scarcity of resources for building education infrastructure. This asks for an optimal allocation of the available resources that includes, among other things, a rational spatial arrangement of the supply points (i.e., schools) in order to increase the demand coverage (i.e., students). If it is possible to foresee the regions where the demand is going to be concentrated, it is then possible to plan the location of new facilities and to assess the impact on the future level of service of the entire system. Considering that one of the consequences of the location-allocation process is the distribution of trips from demand points to supply points throughout the city, therefore affecting the overall intraurban accessibility conditions to essential services such as education, there is a strong need of models that planners can rely on to predict the future trip distribution patterns. As a result, the objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) when applied to spatial interaction models, the so-called Neural Spatial Interaction Models. This was done in a practical context, in contrast to the more theoretical works commonly found in literature. The practical application showed that the neural spatial interaction model had different performances when compared to the traditional gravity models. In one case the neural models outperformed the gravity models, while on the other case it was just the opposite. The explanation for this may be in the data or in the ANN model formulation, as discussed in the conclusions.
keywords Artificial Neural Networks, Spatial Interaction Models, Education Infrastructure
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id acadia04_282
id acadia04_282
authors Anders, Peter
year 2004
title Arch-OS: An Implementation of Cybrid Strategies
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 282-293
summary A review of the literature on Intelligent Buildings suggests an ideal of a building as an autonomous system that controls its internal and external environments. The model, whose origin lies with early models of artificial intelligence, effectively treats the building as a slave to human needs, and appears to invest more intelligence in the building than in its occupants. This paper proposes that automated environments be understood as extensions of human sense and awareness. It describes an operating system, Arch-OS, that exemplifies this approach by increasing building occupants’ consciousness of their environment.
keywords Cybrid, Mixed Reality, Responsive Environment, Planetary Collegium
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

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