CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 64

_id ascaad2004_paper11
id ascaad2004_paper11
authors Abdelfattah, Hesham Khairy and Ali A. Raouf
year 2004
title No More Fear or Doubt: Electronic Architecture in Architectural Education
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary Operating electronic and Internet worked tools for Architectural education is an important, and merely a prerequisite step toward creating powerful tele-collabortion and tele-research in our Architectural studios. The design studio, as physical place and pedagogical method, is the core of architectural education. The Carnegie Endowment report on architectural education, published in 1996, identified a comparably central role for studios in schools today. Advances in CAD and visualization, combined with technologies to communicate images, data, and “live” action, now enable virtual dimensions of studio experience. Students no longer need to gather at the same time and place to tackle the same design problem. Critics can comment over the network or by e-mail, and distinguished jurors can make virtual visits without being in the same room as the pin-up—if there is a pin-up (or a room). Virtual design studios (VDS) have the potential to support collaboration over competition, diversify student experiences, and redistribute the intellectual resources of architectural education across geographic and socioeconomic divisions. The challenge is to predict whether VDS will isolate students from a sense of place and materiality, or if it will provide future architects the tools to reconcile communication environments and physical space.
series ASCAAD
email hkhairy@archcairo.org
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id ascaad2004_paper17
id ascaad2004_paper17
authors Al-Attili, Aghlab A. and Richard D. Coyne
year 2004
title Embodiment and Illusion: The Implications of Scale as a Cue for Immersion in Virtual Environments
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary This paper examines the extent to which the issue of scale impinges on our sense of immersion in virtual environments. We consider perception from the point of view of Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology, and describe a study involving extended interviews of a small number of subjects who were presented with static, moving and interactive images of spaces. We test a series of propositions about scale cues, and speculate on the wider phenomenological issues of expectation, metaphor and play.
series ASCAAD
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id sigradi2004_209
id sigradi2004_209
authors Alexandre Cantini Rezende
year 2004
title Estudo sobre o cognitivismo e o hipertexto, e a disponibilização de material didático na internet [A Study on Cognitivism and Hypertext, and Pedagogical Material delivery over the Internet]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Internet has made the use of computer based teaching tools more popular then ever. Little attention has been paid to methods for providing schoolbooks in hypertext environment, though. The objective of this research was to develop propositions of methods and tools specifically for presenting textbook in interactive digital environments, paying attention to the characteristics and demands of contemporary youth and the characteristics and potentialities of hypertext systems, specially its associative quality, similar to those of the human mind. The theory on which this article is based is brought by David Ausubel.s cognitive pedagogy and its similarity to web systems, especially those which are hypertext based.
keywords Hypertext; Education; Cognition; Webdesign; Textbook
series SIGRADI
email alexcantini@yahoo.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2004_292
id sigradi2004_292
authors Aline Couri Fabião
year 2004
title Vilosidades espaciais - Ambientes imersivos e interativos em rede [Space Villosities - Immersive and Interactive Environments in Network]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary With the aim to explore the potential of creating spaces through the Internet, the research is based on Novak.s concepts . .Soundscapes. and .Navigable Music. . for a project that includes the production of a file sharing software (peer to peer) and chat that allows the sonorous and visual representation of the connected users, defining a virtual space, a fluid sonorous landscape, where it.s main constituent substance is the sound. An environment network with participative and collective sound and image being able to be visualized in full screen. This software is the experimental part of the MSc project (still in its initial phase) developed in the School of Communication of UFRJ, in the line of research Communication Technologies and Aesthetics.
keywords Soundscape; communication; net art; peer to peer; environment
series SIGRADI
email alinecouri@terra.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia04_282
id acadia04_282
authors Anders, Peter
year 2004
title Arch-OS: An Implementation of Cybrid Strategies
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 282-293
summary A review of the literature on Intelligent Buildings suggests an ideal of a building as an autonomous system that controls its internal and external environments. The model, whose origin lies with early models of artificial intelligence, effectively treats the building as a slave to human needs, and appears to invest more intelligence in the building than in its occupants. This paper proposes that automated environments be understood as extensions of human sense and awareness. It describes an operating system, Arch-OS, that exemplifies this approach by increasing building occupants’ consciousness of their environment.
keywords Cybrid, Mixed Reality, Responsive Environment, Planetary Collegium
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id avocaad_2003_17
id avocaad_2003_17
authors Anna Maria Chrabin, Jaroslaw Szewczyk and Herman Neuckermans
year 2003
title A Critical Evaluation of Early Stages Software in its Capacity of Coping with Contextual Issues
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary In this paper we analyse critically early design stages software in its capacity of coping with contextual data at large (i.e. representing cultural, aesthetical context, etc.). We identified 5 categories of early stages software: geometry based graphic editors, evaluation architectural software, generative and shape-grammar based systems, evolutionary systems and other systems. Calling the object under creation during of the early stages a CAD conceptual model, we will investigate to what extend this software allows the architect to experience and represent the context in which a design is situated. Especially we will focus on its capacity to allow interaction, playful interaction on our way to the design. Designers, and particularly architects, interact with the local context similarly to interacting in a game: the context influences the users’ decisions, surprises them and causes permanent changes to their ways of thinking. On the other hand, architects permanently shape and reshape the context, and reduce the context to a protean point of reference. Such behaviour characterises creative thinking that is crucial for the early stage of design. The investigation led us to the conclusions that the effective interactivity with the context needs simple rules, a plain interface and data reduced as simple as possible, especially when interaction with the context is performed during the early stages of a design process. The findings can be used in organising computer environments for early-stage design.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
email Herman.Neuckermans@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id sigradi2004_357
id sigradi2004_357
authors Carlos Calderon and Nicholas Worley
year 2004
title An automatic real-time camera control engine for the exploration of architectural designs
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This paper is concerned with the use of real-time camera engines in architectural virtual environments as a method of enhancing the user.s experience and as a way of facilitating the understanding of architectural concepts. This paper reports on an initial prototype of a real-time cinematic control camera engine for dynamic virtual environments in the architectural domain. The paper discusses the potential of the system to convey architectural concepts using well known architectural concepts such as rhythm and proposes a series of future improvements to address those limitations. Keywords: virtual environments, camera control, design process, filmaking.
series SIGRADI
email carlos.calderon@newcastle.ac.uk, n.j.worley@newcastle.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id sigradi2004_043
id sigradi2004_043
authors Celso Pereira Guimarães; Gerson G. Cunha; Luis Landau
year 2004
title Sistema de informação e orientação para ambientes públicos em VR - O caso do hu da ufrj um projeto sinalético [Information and Orientation System for Public Environments in VR - The Case of UFRJ University Hospital, a Communication Design Project]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Considering Levy.s (1996) thought that qualifies the cyberspace as an anbient par excellence and susceptible to be transformed and explored [1], our work intends to introduce through the simulation in VR, the use of that anbient as support of conception projetual and of the analysis and verification of the efficiency of the proposal of the System of Comunication Design implanted at the Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (HU). [2]
series SIGRADI
email celsopg@acd.ufrj.br, gerson@lamce.ufrj.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 310caadria2004
id 310caadria2004
authors Chi Hsiang Lin, Yu Lin Hsu
year 2004
title The Influence of Digital Architecture on Virtual Furniture Design
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 493-504
summary This exploration attempts to address a new concept, a condition in which digital architecture has started to have a significant impact on the ways in which we live and design. Working practices, social interaction and many other facets of contemporary life have been radically changed. As a time when architecture is becoming digital through the use of computers in the design process and the architecture has became digital through an increasing application of three-dimensional simulated environments to understand and navigate digital information in space. The digital and architecture are being invisibly integrated in a process that is not even apparent to most architects. It makes us aware of the many opportunities that exist between these two design approaches. Instead of trying to validate conventional design thinking in a different realm, the strategy should be to infiltrate design with other media and disciplines to produce a new crossbreed profession. Through an exploration of outstanding digital architecture the detail of generative form, sculptural and curvaceous form, and zoomorphic form, which will have a significant impact on virtual furniture design, can be discovered.
series CAADRIA
email ddes5168@yahoo.com.tw
last changed 2004/05/20 17:39

_id 2004_050
id 2004_050
authors Chiu, Mao-Lin
year 2004
title Curious Agents in Virtual Exhibitive Environments Simulative Human-Computer Interaction
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 50-57
summary The creation of virtual environments is becoming the alternative for spatial design, while what can be expanded from the real environment is often questioned. This paper proposes the agent interface based on curiosity to create human computer interaction in virtual exhibitive environments. From a social and behavioral point of view, this research explores the use of places as metaphors and simulative human-computer interactions in virtual environments by reactive agents and proactive curious agents based on situation detection. The process is demonstrated by a museum exhibition project. Both the physical and the virtual environment are built, and studied the human behaviors and experiences from their presence at both environments. Agent interfaces are adopted in the virtual environment to enhance people-to-people and people-to-place interactions. The development process, the observation, the interface agent, and discussion based on the findings are presented.
keywords Virtual Environment; Digital Design; Agent; Curiosity; Interfaces
series eCAADe
email mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id sigradi2006_e183a
id sigradi2006_e183a
authors Costa Couceiro, Mauro
year 2006
title La Arquitectura como Extensión Fenotípica Humana - Un Acercamiento Basado en Análisis Computacionales [Architecture as human phenotypic extension – An approach based on computational explorations]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 56-60
summary The study describes some of the aspects tackled within a current Ph.D. research where architectural applications of constructive, structural and organization processes existing in biological systems are considered. The present information processing capacity of computers and the specific software development have allowed creating a bridge between two holistic nature disciplines: architecture and biology. The crossover between those disciplines entails a methodological paradigm change towards a new one based on the dynamical aspects of forms and compositions. Recent studies about artificial-natural intelligence (Hawkins, 2004) and developmental-evolutionary biology (Maturana, 2004) have added fundamental knowledge about the role of the analogy in the creative process and the relationship between forms and functions. The dimensions and restrictions of the Evo-Devo concepts are analyzed, developed and tested by software that combines parametric geometries, L-systems (Lindenmayer, 1990), shape-grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1971) and evolutionary algorithms (Holland, 1975) as a way of testing new architectural solutions within computable environments. It is pondered Lamarck´s (1744-1829) and Weismann (1834-1914) theoretical approaches to evolution where can be found significant opposing views. Lamarck´s theory assumes that an individual effort towards a specific evolutionary goal can cause change to descendents. On the other hand, Weismann defended that the germ cells are not affected by anything the body learns or any ability it acquires during its life, and cannot pass this information on to the next generation; this is called the Weismann barrier. Lamarck’s widely rejected theory has recently found a new place in artificial and natural intelligence researches as a valid explanation to some aspects of the human knowledge evolution phenomena, that is, the deliberate change of paradigms in the intentional research of solutions. As well as the analogy between genetics and architecture (Estévez and Shu, 2000) is useful in order to understand and program emergent complexity phenomena (Hopfield, 1982) for architectural solutions, also the consideration of architecture as a product of a human extended phenotype can help us to understand better its cultural dimension.
keywords evolutionary computation; genetic architectures; artificial/natural intelligence
series SIGRADI
email mail@maurocosta.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id sigradi2004_175
id sigradi2004_175
authors Diana Rodríguez Barros
year 2004
title Modelos urbanos virtuales y lecturas hipermediales [Virtual Urban Models and Hypermedia Readings]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary The urban virtual models are complex environments where interactive modelization and visualization systems have developed high advances, making possible they applications in many different purposes, by expert and non-expert users. Is interesting, in hypermedial reading, to recognise and to evaluate the advantages and obstacles to examine a 2D-3D-4D-5D model. In that direction is presented an exploratory study of preexperimental design, in which is investigated the impacts and influences in non-expert users, that the presence and use of interactive strategies of navigation, selection and manipulation, produces in the results and affects the attitudes with regard to the possibilities of understanding and integration of information and in the confusion and cognitive overflow. The objective is to contribute in the definition and systematization of methodologys and design patterns about interfaces and interactions in three-dimensional hypermedia, from theoretical, operating and pedagogical approach.
keywords Hypermedial / virtual model /interaction/ interface / exploratory study
series SIGRADI
email dibarros@mdp.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id 2004_333
id 2004_333
authors Donath, Dirk and Tonn, Christian
year 2004
title How to Design Colour Schemes? Conceptual Tools for the Architectural Design
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 333-341
summary The paper describes the concept and development of software to support the architectural design and planning of colour schemes for interiors and buildings. “Coloured Architecture” is a plausibility instrument for the formulation of colour scheme proposals for building interiors and elevations. In practice colours schemes are arrived at through the production of many different colour design studies before a final colour scheme is decided upon. With the help of intuitively usable light simulations, colour, material and spatial concepts can be assessed realistically. The development concept incorporates numerous aspects which must be considered in the selection of a colour scheme: colour schemes for built environments must be realisable . This initial development prototype already demonstrates the added value possible through the consequent use of CAAD: function, construction and not least design aspects have equal status and can be worked upon in direct relation with one another.
keywords CAAD, Colour Schemes, Architecture, Planning Process, Plausibility, Added Value, On Site Support
series eCAADe
email donath@architektur.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 2004_396
id 2004_396
authors Fischer, Thomas
year 2004
title Microcontroller - Enhanced Physical Models for Architectural and Product Design
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 396-403
summary Electronic sensors, controllers, displays and actuators can significantly enhance the value of physical models as processes of use, interaction and transformation take center stage in various fields of design. These technologies allow the development of novel computer interfaces for new kinds of interaction with virtual models, and in the future they will allow new types of active building components and materials for automated construction and dynamic runtime adaptations of inhabitable environments. However, embedding programmed logic into physical objects seems to confront designers and model makers with a steep learning curve outside the domains of their traditional expertise. The variety of alternative technologies and development tools in this area has a particularly disorienting effect on novices. Some early experiences however suggest that mastery of this learning curve is easily within reach, given some basic introduction, guidance and support. It is the purpose of this paper to provide designers with a starting point for explorations into this area, to give orientation and to demonstrate some possible development approaches and results.
keywords Interaction, Process, High-Fidelity Models, Microcontrollers, Electronics
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id sigradi2004_185
id sigradi2004_185
authors Fábio Araújo; Jose dos Santos Cabral Filho
year 2004
title Espacialização de ambientes virtuais de imersão ñ convergência entre arquitetura real e digital [Spatialization of Immersive Virtual Environments - The Convergence between Real and Digital Architecture]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This research paper deals with the Information Technology and its close and increasing relation with the dwelling spaces in search for new and more accurate environments in real, tectonics spaces in architecture promoting new ways of living and dealing with space. This work has great importance since it is generally noticed straight convergence between architecture and the state of the art digital medias. Working through interactive digital media system attached to physical environments the paper also discuss the real sense of production and insertion of these new medias in the architecture environs and which kind of qualification is gained in these spaces through out this event.
keywords Information technology, physical (real) spaces, interactivity
series SIGRADI
email faraujo21@ig.com.br, jcabral@arq.ufmg.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 3841
id 3841
authors Gero J.S. and Kannengiesser, U.
year 2004
title THE SITUATED FUNCTION-BEHAVIOUR-STRUCTURE FRAMEWORK
source Design Studies 25(4): 373-391
summary This paper extends the function–behaviour–structure (FBS) framework, which proposed eight fundamental processes involved in designing. That framework did not explicitly account for the dynamic character of the context in which designing takes place, described by the notion of situatedness. This paper describes this concept as a recursive interrelationship between different environments, which, together with a model of constructive memory, provides the foundation of a situated FBS framework. The eight fundamental processes are then reconstructed within this new framework to represent designing in a dynamic world.
keywords design model(s), design process(es), design science, design theory, logic of design
series journal paper
type normal paper
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2006/01/28 10:39

_id 2004_269
id 2004_269
authors Gowans, Scott and Wright, Richard M.
year 2004
title Developing Architectonic Language Through Digital Observation
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 269-277
summary The question for architects is always how to begin. This proposal attempts to illustrate a design methodology that is characterised by its attention to non-traditional generators. The focus of the paper is the definition of an innovative design process characterised by the production of an architectonic language through the observation of the ephemeral and the transitory (the quanta of place), and which pays cognisance to the realization of a three-dimensional narrative, placing value upon the products of investigation as well as the resultant design. As the title suggests the process outlined concerns itself with the examination of the ephemeral, the transitory and the unobserved. The overriding concern is with the recording of fragments of a chosen environment (site) and, the collation and depiction of these findings in an alternative three-dimensional environment (virtual space). This process is only made possible by the advent of computer applications capable of generating the complexity of three-dimensional environments needed to explore the plethora of forms generated by the initial recordings. This process is concerned with the nascence of architectural expression and the formalising of architectural propositions composed from an individual’s interpretation of the ‘space between’, the obvious and the immaterial, and the phenomena that exist there. The generators are the things beyond immediate perception. They are the quanta of place. It is this process of capturing fixed moments in time and space and, translating imperceptible nanomoments and nanoevents, that allows for the development of exploratory diagrams constructed over a backdrop of credible analysis. These make apparent the infinite possibilities for further transition whilst illustrating the conceptual lineage that links each instance to its antecedents. The resultant physical forms embody the essence of something transformed. They possess cultural and emotional syntax. They become mementos in the landscape.
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 2004_374
id 2004_374
authors Hannibal, C., Brown, A. and Knight, M.
year 2004
title How Useful is the Digital Sketch?
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 374-379
summary This paper presents an experimental approach that examines human response to three virtual representations (sketchy line, non-photorealistic and near-photorealistic) of three similar architectural schemes (in terms of concept, context and scale) within a non-immersive large-screen projected virtual environment. Participant response is recorded utilising the factors of detail, spatial understanding, character and presence. By comparing data it should be possible to draw conclusions about aspects particular to non-immersive Virtual Reality (VR) activity as a means of architectural representation.
keywords Non-Immersive Virtual Environments, Digital Sketching, Non-Photorealism
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 2004
authors Hendricx, A.
year 2000
title A Core Object Model for Architectural Design
source Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
summary A core object model apt to describe architectural objects and their functionality is one of the keystones to an integrated digital design environment for architecture. The object model presented in this thesis is based on a conceptual framework for computer aided architectural design (CAAD) and aims to assist the architect designer right from the early stages in the design process. For its development the object-oriented analysis method MERODE (Model-based Existence-dependency Relationship Object-oriented Development) is used. After a survey on the role of computers in the architectural design process and on particular Product Modelling initiatives, the model is elaborated in two phases: the enterprise-modelling phase and the higher functionality-modelling phase. Actual design cases and test implementations help to establish the conceptual model and illustrate its concepts. The appendices provide a detailed description of both the object model and one of the case studies. The architect’s point of view and the specific nature of the architectural design process are the basic considerations, thus leading to a unique model that hopes to make a valuable contribution to the research area of integrated design environments.
series thesis:PhD
email ann.hendricx@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 2004_024
id 2004_024
authors Holmgren, S., Rüdiger, B., Storgaard, K. and Tournay, B.
year 2004
title The Electronic Neighbourhood - A New Urban Space
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 24-34
summary During the event Cultural Market Days on 23 and 24 August 2003 at Noerrebro Park in Copenhagen, visitors could also enter the marketplace from their home via the Internet, as a digital 3D model had been constructed that showed the marketplace with all its information booths and activities. This virtual marketplace functioned as an extension of the urban space, allowing you to take part in the flow of information, activities and experiences that were offered in the marketplace. And this just by a click on the Internet address: http://www.e-kvarter.dk. Furthermore at certain times of the day you could chat with people from some of the many working groups of the urban regeneration project in Noerrebro. The digital 3D model is similar to the marketplace, but it creates its own universe in the green surroundings of Noerrebro Park. And now, when the Cultural Market Days are finished and the booths and people have gone, the Electronic Marketplace still remains on the Internet, with a potential for developing a new public space for information, dialogue and cooperation between the actors of the urban regeneration project. This paper presents the results of a 3-year research project, The Electronic Neighbourhood (2000-2004). Researchers have developed and tested a digital model of the urban area and other digital tools for supporting the dialogue and cooperation between professionals and citizens in an urban regeneration project in Copenhagen. The Danish Agency for Enterprise and Housing, the Ministry for Refugees, Immigration and Integration and Copenhagen Municipality have financed the research, which is planned to be published 2004. The results can also be followed on the Internet www.e-kvarter.dk.
keywords 3D Modelling; Virtual Environments; Design Process; Human-Computer Interaction; Collaborative Design; Urban Planning
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

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