CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 541

_id ddss2004_d-291
id ddss2004_d-291
authors Hensen, J.L.M.
year 2004
title Towards More Effective Use of Building Performance Simulation in Design
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 291-306
summary This paper discusses some issues which hinder effective use of building performance simulation in building design, and some approaches towards better and more efficient use of this important but underutilized technology. In particular, the paper discusses the issues of quality assurance, the relative slow software developments and the limited use (usability) of building performance simulation mainly during the final stages of the building design process.
keywords Building Performance Simulation, Design Support
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 2004_318
id 2004_318
authors Ng, Edward
year 2004
title Optimise Urban Daylight Design Using Computational Simulations
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 318-324
summary Urban design is about providing an infrastructure for its inhabitants. An important consideration of design is to provide natural outdoor conditions that are pleasant and conductive to human activities. A well designed outdoor urban environment will also make the design of individual buildings within it easier. There are many design parameters, for example: Development Density, Plot ratio, Site Coverage, Skyline, Building to Space Ratio, Permeability, Building Shapes and so on. This paper reports a study based on „skylines“ as a design parameter, and how it affects daylight and natural ventilation provisions and performance. Experiments are conducted with physical models in artificial sky, as well as using computational lighting simulations. The study establishes that by varying the skylines of the city, the overall daylight performances could be improved when compared to a city with a uniform skyline - given the same density. The message of the paper is that: through better understanding and design, high density cities could be planned and optimised without losing the development efficacy of the land.
keywords Daylight; Parametric Study; Urban Design; Density
series eCAADe
email edwardng@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id sigradi2004_216
id sigradi2004_216
authors Pablo C. Grazziotin; Benamy Turkienicz; Luciano Sclovsky; Carla M. D. S. Freitas
year 2004
title Cityzoom - A tool for the visualization of the impact of urban regulations
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Visualization has been used for many years as an important way of presenting architectural design and projects. However, beyond design, planning urban areas requires the analysis of different factors. Urban regulations are planning tools used to control and/or stimulate changes in the urban structure and to reproduce a certain level of quality of the urban milieu. Land area, built area, plot rate, average building height, and other important attributes can be easily obtained from the geometric objects in the city model or explicitly associated to them. This paper presents a system, CityZoom, which integrates several performance tools that allow the simulation of different attributes related to a planned or existing city. These attributes are shown in different ways either as tables of attribute values estimated from model evaluation, or 3D scenarios where the user can navigate and observe realistic shadows and daylighting estimation based on the concept of solar envelope.
series SIGRADI
email pablo@grazziotin.com, benamy@portoweb.com.br, lsclovsky@inf.ufrgs.br, carla@inf.ufrgs.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id ddss2004_d-141
id ddss2004_d-141
authors Tabak, V., B. de Vries, and J. Dijkstra
year 2004
title User Behaviour Modelling
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 141-156
summary The aim of the proposed project is to develop methods for the simulation of space utilisation. Up to now no methods for building performance evaluation are available which involve the occupants of the building. Instead, assumptions are made about people’s movement through space and their responses to the environment. These assumptions are input for important design decisions (e.g. capacity of elevators, width of corridors, escape routing) sophisticated calculations (e.g. cooling and lighting calculations) and simulations (e.g. airflow simulation, evacuation simulation). Reliable data on human movement are very scarce and can be valuable input to research in other research areas. New computer technologies allow for dynamic simulations that will provide insight into the building to be built. The research project builds upon existing methods that need to be tailored and/or extended to apply them to the building domain and to support real-time simulation.
keywords Building Simulation, Decision Support Systems, User Behaviour, Petri-nets, Activity Based Modelling
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id caadria2018_016
id caadria2018_016
authors Zahedi, Ata and Petzold, Frank
year 2018
title Utilization of Simulation Tools in Early Design Phases Through Adaptive Detailing Strategies
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 11-20
summary Decisions taken at early stages of building design have a significant effect on the planning steps for the entire lifetime of the project as well as the performance of the building throughout its lifecycle (MacLeamy 2004). Building Information Modelling (BIM) could bring forward and enhance the planning and decision-making processes by enabling the direct reuse of data hold by the model for diverse analysis and simulation tasks (Borrmann et al. 2015). The architect today besides a couple of simplified simulation tools almost exclusively uses his know-how for evaluating and comparing design variants in the early stages of design. This paper focuses on finding new ways to facilitate the use of analytical and simulation tools during the important early phases of conceptual building design, where the models are partially incomplete. The necessary enrichment and proper detailing of the design model could be achieved by means of dialogue-based interaction concepts with analytical and simulation tools through adaptive detailing strategies. This concept is explained using an example scenario for design process. A generic description of the aimed dialog-based interface to various simulation tools will also be discussed in this paper using an example scenario.
keywords BIM; Early Design Stages; Adaptive Detailing ; Communication Protocols; Design Variants
series CAADRIA
email ata.zahedi@tum.de
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id acadia16_140
id acadia16_140
authors Nejur, Andrei; Steinfeld, Kyle
year 2016
title Ivy: Bringing a Weighted-Mesh Representations to Bear on Generative Architectural Design Applications
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 140-151
summary Mesh segmentation has become an important and well-researched topic in computational geometry in recent years (Agathos et al. 2008). As a result, a number of new approaches have been developed that have led to innovations in a diverse set of problems in computer graphics (CG) (Sharmir 2008). Specifically, a range of effective methods for the division of a mesh have recently been proposed, including by K-means (Shlafman et al. 2002), graph cuts (Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008; Katz and Tal 2003), hierarchical clustering (Garland et al. 2001; Gelfand and Guibas 2004; Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008), primitive fitting (Athene et al. 2004), random walks (Lai et al.), core extraction (Katz et al.) tubular multi-scale analysis (Mortara et al. 2004), spectral clustering (Liu and Zhang 2004), and critical point analysis (Lin et al. 20070, all of which depend upon a weighted graph representation, typically the dual of a given mesh (Sharmir 2008). While these approaches have been proven effective within the narrowly defined domains of application for which they have been developed (Chen 2009), they have not been brought to bear on wider classes of problems in fields outside of CG, specifically on problems relevant to generative architectural design. Given the widespread use of meshes and the utility of segmentation in GAD, by surveying the relevant and recently matured approaches to mesh segmentation in CG that share a common representation of the mesh dual, this paper identifies and takes steps to address a heretofore unrealized transfer of technology that would resolve a missed opportunity for both subject areas. Meshes are often employed by architectural designers for purposes that are distinct from and present a unique set of requirements in relation to similar applications that have enjoyed more focused study in computer science. This paper presents a survey of similar applications, including thin-sheet fabrication (Mitani and Suzuki 2004), rendering optimization (Garland et al. 2001), 3D mesh compression (Taubin et al. 1998), morphin (Shapira et al. 2008) and mesh simplification (Kalvin and Taylor 1996), and distinguish the requirements of these applications from those presented by GAD, including non-refinement in advance of the constraining of mesh geometry to planar-quad faces, and the ability to address a diversity of mesh features that may or may not be preserved. Following this survey of existing approaches and unmet needs, the authors assert that if a generalized framework for working with graph representations of meshes is developed, allowing for the interactive adjustment of edge weights, then the recent developments in mesh segmentation may be better brought to bear on GAD problems. This paper presents work toward the development of just such a framework, implemented as a plug-in for the visual programming environment Grasshopper.
keywords tool-building, design simulation, fabrication, computation, megalith
series ACADIA
type paper
email ksteinfe@berkeley.edu
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id ddss2004_ra-19
id ddss2004_ra-19
authors Akamine, A. and A. Nélson Rodrigues da Silva
year 2004
title An Evaluation of Neural Spatial Interaction Models Based on a Practical Application
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 19-32
summary One of the serious problems faced by the Brazilian municipalities is the scarcity of resources for building education infrastructure. This asks for an optimal allocation of the available resources that includes, among other things, a rational spatial arrangement of the supply points (i.e., schools) in order to increase the demand coverage (i.e., students). If it is possible to foresee the regions where the demand is going to be concentrated, it is then possible to plan the location of new facilities and to assess the impact on the future level of service of the entire system. Considering that one of the consequences of the location-allocation process is the distribution of trips from demand points to supply points throughout the city, therefore affecting the overall intraurban accessibility conditions to essential services such as education, there is a strong need of models that planners can rely on to predict the future trip distribution patterns. As a result, the objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) when applied to spatial interaction models, the so-called Neural Spatial Interaction Models. This was done in a practical context, in contrast to the more theoretical works commonly found in literature. The practical application showed that the neural spatial interaction model had different performances when compared to the traditional gravity models. In one case the neural models outperformed the gravity models, while on the other case it was just the opposite. The explanation for this may be in the data or in the ANN model formulation, as discussed in the conclusions.
keywords Artificial Neural Networks, Spatial Interaction Models, Education Infrastructure
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss2004_ra-177
id ddss2004_ra-177
authors Ballas, D., R. Kingston, and J. Stillwell
year 2004
title Using a Spatial Microsimulation Decision Support System for Policy Scenario Analysis
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 177-191
summary This paper discusses the potential of a spatial microsimulation-based decision support system for policy analysis. The system can be used to describe current conditions and issues in neighbourhoods, predict future trends in the composition and health of neighbourhoods and conduct modelling and predictive analysis to measure the likely impact of policy interventions at the local level. A large dynamic spatial micro-simulation model is being constructed for the population of Leeds (approximately 715,000 individuals) based on spatial microsimulation techniques in conjunction with a range of data, including 2001 Census data for Output Areas and sample data from the British Household Panel Survey. The project has three main aims as follows: (i) to develop a static microsimulation model to describe current conditions in Leeds; (ii) to enable the performance of ‘What if?’ analysis on a range of policy scenarios; and (iii) to develop a dynamic microsimulation model to predict future conditions in Leeds under different policy scenarios. The paper reports progress in meeting the above aims and outlines the associated difficulties and data issues. One of the significant advantages of the spatial microsimulation approach adopted by this project is that it enables the user to query any combination of variables that is deemed desirable for policy analysis. The paper will illustrate the software tool being developed in the context of this project that is capable of carrying out queries of this type and of mapping their results. The decision support tool is being developed to support policy-makers concerned with urban regeneration and neighbourhood renewal.
keywords Spatial Microsimulation, Spatial Decision Support Systems, Geotools
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id acadia04_088
id acadia04_088
authors Bechthold, Martin
year 2004
title Digital Design and Fabrication of Surface Structures
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aidd Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 88-99
summary This paper presents a study in digital design and manufacturing of shells, which are material-efficient systems that generate their load-bearing capacity through curvature. Their complex shapes are chal­lenging to build, and the few current shell projects employ the same shape repetitively in order to reduce the cost of concrete formwork. Can digital design and manufacturing technology make these systems suitable for the needs of the 21st century? The research developed new digitally-driven fabrication processes for Wood-Foam Sandwich Shells and Ferrocement-Concrete Sandwich Shells. These are partially pre-fabricated in order to allow for the application of Computer-Numerically Controlled (CNC) technology. Sandwich systems offer advantages for the digitally-enabled construction of shells, while at the same time improving their structural and thermal performance. The research defines design and manufacturing processes that reduce the need for repetition in order to save costs. Wood-Foam Sandwich shells are made by laminating wood-strips over a CNC-milled foam mold that eventually becomes the structural sandwich core. For Ferrocement-Concrete sandwich shells, a two-stage process is presented: pre-fabricated ferrocement panels become the permanent formwork for a cast-in-place concrete shell. The design and engineering process is facilitated through the use of parametric solid modeling envi­ronments. Modeling macros and integrated Finite-Element Analysis tools streamline the design process. Accuracy in fabrication is maintained by using CNC techniques for the majority of the shaping processes. The digital design and manufacturing parameters for each process are verified through design and fabrication studies that include prototypes, mockups and physical scale models.
keywords Shell, Pre-Fabrication, Prototype, Custom-Manufacturing, Simulation
series ACADIA
email mbechthold@gsd.harvard.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id ascaad2004_paper21
id ascaad2004_paper21
authors Garba, Shaibu B. and Mohammad A. Hassanain
year 2004
title A Review of Object Oriented CAD Potential for Building Information Modeling and Life Cycle Management
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary In many countries, the Architecture/Engineering/Consulting (AEC) industry is characterised by poor performance reflected in project delays and cost overruns. A contributor to the problem is the traditional approach to handling building information and its communication in life cycle management (LCM). Recent developments in Object Oriented Computer Aided Architectural Design (OO CAD) have provided the opportunity for improving building information modelling and its communication for more effective LCM. The aim of the paper is to review the potentials of OO CAD for building information modelling (BIM) and LCM. The paper reviews building information in the life cycle process, identifying the various actors and activities and the need for communication and information flow to support life cycle management. The paper also reviews the concept of OO CAD, highlighting its potential to improve building information and its flow and communication in life cycle management. The paper then goes on to review the potentials and limitations of OO CAD implementation in the AEC industry. The paper concludes by pointing out that the widespread adoption of OO CAD and the anticipated associated improvement in life cycle management will only be encouraged when the building industry is able to agree on a widely acceptable, interoperable standard for encoding building objects.
series ASCAAD
email sbgarba@kfupm.edu.sa
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id ijac20032105
id ijac20032105
authors Kolarevic, Branko
year 2004
title Back to the Future: Performative Architecture
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 1
summary The paper addresses performative architecture as an emerging design paradigm in which building performance, broadly understood, becomes a guiding design principle. It traces the origins of this approach to design to Tom Maver's visionary work in early seventies, discusses the inadequacy of existing building performance simulation tools in conceptual design, and proposes the development of software that can provide dynamic processes of formation based on specific performance objectives.
series journal
email branko@pobox.upenn.edu
more http://www.multi-science.co.uk/ijac.htm
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id sigradi2008_166
id sigradi2008_166
authors Papanikolaou, Dimitris
year 2008
title Digital Fabrication Production System Theory: Towards an Integrated Environment for Design and Production of Assemblies
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary A Digital Fabrication Production System (DFPS) is a concept describing a set of processes, tools, and resources that will be able to produce an artifact according to a design, fast, cheap, and easy, independently of location. A DFPS project is a complex assembly of custom parts that is delivered by a network of fabrication and assembly processes. This network is called the value chain. The workflow concept of a DFPS is the following: begin design process with a custom geometric form; decompose it into constructible parts; send the part files for fabrication to various locations; transport all parts at the construction site at the right time; finally, assemble the final artifact. Conceptually it means that based on a well structured value chain we could build anything we want, at anyplace, at controllable cost and quality. The goals of a DFPS are the following: custom shapes, controllable lead time, controllable quality, controllable cost, easiness of fabrication, and easiness of assembly. Simply stated this means to build any form, anywhere, accurately, cheap, fast, and easy. Unfortunately, the reality with current Digital Fabrication (DF) projects is rather disappointing: They take more time than what was planned, they get more expensive than what was expected, they involve great risk and uncertainty, and finally they are too complex to plan, understand, and manage. Moreover, most of these problems are discovered during production when it is already late for correction. However, there is currently no systematic approach to evaluate difficulty of production of DF projects in Architecture. Most of current risk assessment methods are based on experience gathered from previous similar cases. But it is the premise of mass customization that projects can be radically different. Assembly incompatibilities are currently addressed by building physical mockups. But physical mockups cause a significant loss in both time and cost. All these problems suggest that an introduction of a DFPS for mass customization in architecture needs first an integrated theory of assembly and management control. Evaluating feasibility of a DF project has two main problems: first, how to evaluate assemblability of the design; second, how to evaluate performance of the value chain. Assemblability is a system’s structure problem, while performance is a system’s dynamics problem. Structure of systems has been studied in the field of Systems Engineering by Network Analysis methods such as the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) (Steward 1981), and the liaison graph (Whitney 2004), while dynamics of systems have been studied by System Dynamics (Forrester 1961). Can we define a formal method to evaluate the difficulty of production of an artifact if we know the artifact’s design and the production system’s structure? This paper formulates Attribute Process Methodology (APM); a method for assessing feasibility of a DFPS project that combines Network Analysis to evaluate assemblability of the design with System Dynamics to evaluate performance of the value chain.
keywords Digital Fabrication, Production System, System Dynamics, Network Analysis, Assembly
series SIGRADI
email dimp@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id ddss2004_ra-325
id ddss2004_ra-325
authors Rodrigues, D.S., L.C.L. Souza, and J.F.G. Mendes
year 2004
title Enhancing 3DSkyView Extension Performance
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-24088, p. 325-340
summary This paper presents a second version of the 3DSkyView extension. The purpose of that extension was to implement a calculation algorithm for assessment and visualization of sky view factors (SVF) by means of tools available in a Geographical Information System (GIS). The sky view factor is a thermal and geometric parameter pointed out in the specialized literature as one of the main causes of urban heat islands. A 3D-GIS is a powerful tool for reaching the goal of this research because it allows the storage, treatment and analysis of tri-dimensional urban data, in addition to a high level of flexibility for incorporating calculation algorithms. The objective in the 3DSkyView extension is to optimize the determination of that factor, not only reducing its demanding calculation and graphical representation time, but also generating a simplified tool for replacing expensive photographic equipment usually applied on this matter. Enhancing functions of ArcView GIS 3.2, the first version of that extension showed a very good performance allowing the automatic delineation and determination of SVF. That performance was although limited to a single observer point. The simulation of SVF for several view points in urban canyons was only possible by applying the extension as many times as the number of observers considered. Therefore, this second version was now developed in order to allow simultaneous determination of SVF for many view points. In addition, the 3DSkyView new interface is more flexible, in a way that the user may choose the kind of output wanted (graphical and/or tabular). With this new feature it is then easier to create a continuous SVF map for an entire area.
keywords Sky View Factor, Urban Geometry, GIS Extension, Urban Heat Island
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id sigradi2018_1824
id sigradi2018_1824
authors Silva, Thiago; Lima, Juliana; Maia, Nicole; Araujo, André
year 2018
title Design synthesis and performance: simulation, discussion and generative strategies
source SIGraDi 2018 [Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISSN: 2318-6968] Brazil, São Carlos 7 - 9 November 2018, pp. 625-630
summary Since the publication of the book Performance architecture: beyond instrumentality (KOLAREVIC and MALKAWI,2004), architects have used a good performance as a guideline for the projects. This research proposes to investigate the possibilities and limitations of one of the guidelines through the incorporation of instantaneous aerodynamics in the parametric design context, from the use of parametric modeling techniques, electronic microcontrollers and computational extensions to promote the connection between them. From the construction of this artifact, we expect to develop strategies for including performance simulations in the processes of synthesis in architecture.
keywords Ventilation; Wind-sensors; Parametric Design, Arduino
series SIGraDi
email thigo@ufu.br
last changed 2019/05/20 09:14

_id acadia04_052
id acadia04_052
authors Sliwka, Ryszard
year 2004
title Untimely Fabrications
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 52-65
summary The value of material in architectural practice is determined not by its character but by functional performance and economy. In early modernist thought, part of this motivation was to liberate construction from the ‘burden’ of aesthetic speculations and return it simply to the concerns of building. Any artistic agenda became embedded in the economic and productive processes of the project. Authenticity emerged out of the need to focus on the essentials and reject the superfluous. However, this demand for truth in materials has long since been compromised by the climatic requirements of building enclosure. Most contemporary practice in architecture is derived from principles of cladding where the ‘essential nature’ of a complex building requires concealment. The communication of the building is expressed in the refinement of the layers that make up the surface. This shift from the emphasis on making and the idea of ‘material’ in architecture, to one of perception and ‘materiality,’ has an important corporeal dimension that parallels the material aesthetic practices developed in art and sculpture in the 1960s. In this sense, Fabrication carries an ‘untimely’ dimension. This paper proposes to look at the work of a broad range of architects, both well-known and not so well-known, in light of these artistic-based approaches to materiality. Digital fabrication opens a new chapter on this debate and it remains to be seen how this economically useful approach to construction changes, once architects investigate the visual characteristics of materials and methods of fabrication.
keywords material, materiality, embodiment, fabrication
series ACADIA
email rsliwka@hotmail.com
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id 2004_515
id 2004_515
authors Tsou, J-Y., Lam, S., Jie, H. and Yucai, X.
year 2004
title Performance Based Planning for High Density Urban Habitation
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 515-522
summary In Hong Kong, about 22% of the total territory‘s area can be classified as built-up area and potential development area. Only 6% of this area is allocated to district and local open space for the 6.8 million populations, i.e. 2m2 per person. Sensible planning of the limited area to enhance the livability and environmental quality hence become a challenging issue for quality urban living of the mass population. However, considering the dynamic relationship of the different performance criteria in the hyper-dense urban environment, one needs to assess various environmental criteria to carry out a balanced planning. Meanwhile, effective tools to evaluate and manage the inter-relationship of these criteria, or indexes for integrated issues indication are not readily available that a reasonable planning is not always easy to achieve. In this paper, the „openness ratio“ concept is introduced for open space planning to provide an integrated index for early stage of planning and design. The new index is expected to provide a comprehensive rating system in considering the environmental performance of open area. It helps to highlight the potential problems in planning or site layout and support the integrated thinking of the four key components: visual sensitivity, urban wind, urban noise and solar heat gain. The concept has shown to be feasible on simple massing study which is applicable in the preliminary planning stage.
keywords Design Process; Performance Simulation; Design Methodology; Urban Planning
series eCAADe
email jinyeutsou@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id avocaad_2003_14
id avocaad_2003_14
authors Yolanda Steijns and Alexander Koutamanis
year 2003
title Information systems for the design and management of transformation in Dutch educational buildings
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary Following a period of little change, new didactic approaches coupled to social and technological developments have recently triggered several fundamental modifications in Dutch secondary education. These modifications have extensive consequences for the accommodation of secondary education. The majority of existing buildings is quite conventional in spatial terms and is characterized by limited flexibility and transformability. The paper is a description of a modular yet coherent information system that supports decision taking concerning the transformation of existing buildings. The system consists of spatial and topological representation of a building and its brief, as well as a matching system that connects the two.The purpose of the system is to support the management of the building transformation by providing appropriate input to design and decision activities, as well as by accommodating their output. This is achieved by providing a responsive context for the analysis and evaluation of design decisions from the major viewpoints and with respect to primary aspects. Continuity is a major consideration in this context: appropriate information and feedback should be available throughout the design and construction process but also after completion (in anticipation of further transformations, as well as for monitoring building performance).
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
email Y.P.M.Steijns@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id acadia04_186
id acadia04_186
authors Bell, Bradley
year 2004
title Digital Tectonics: Structural Patterning of Surface Morphology
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 186-201
summary The computer in architectural design has shifted from its role as a merely representational device to that of a tool for instrumentalized simulation and fabrication. The desire to make buildings look like a rendering, or to produce photo-realistic images and walkthroughs has given way to an opening of the potentials of software to assist the designer with managing complex geometries, parametric organizational diagrams, structural analysis, and integrated building systems. Simulation has become the means by which virtual space becomes more than just a mirror of reality. It becomes the space within which different potential realities can be tested and evaluated before they are materially implemented. In architecture, information derived from material constraints to site conditions can be constantly fed into the computer models to provide an accurate update, which in turn introduces feedback into the overall design, and change can then be registered in the detail.
keywords surface, patterns, structure, CAD/CAM, fabrication
series ACADIA
email bbell3@tulane.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
email conrad.boton@tudor.lu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id eaea2003_25-ws-breen
id eaea2003_25-ws-breen
authors Breen, J.
year 2004
title Towards a Virtual Design Media Museum. Identifying, Structuring and Presenting Design and (Re) Presentation Media Artifacts
source Spatial Simulation and Evaluation - New Tools in Architectural and Urban Design [Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7], pp. 122-132
summary Designing is largely a process of (inter)active imaging. The evolvement of a design concept from preliminary design proposal towards spatial and material environment generally follows an uncertain path through uncharted landscape; a journey of exploration which requires both rational and creative consideration, frequently involving the interchange of information within a design team and collaboration with representatives from different contributing disciplines. Designs are conceived, worked out and specified step by step (roughly speaking from ‘rough to fine’) in iterative design ‘loops’. All the time the designer tries to determine which ‘course’ should be taken, by considering reference material, by reflecting on conceptions developed previously and by generating specific options aimed at furthering the ‘concretisation’ of the end product. In the course of such a trajectory, visual information is continually being developed, selected, tested, and subsequently either discarded or perfected. From early times architects have been considered not only as knowledgeable ‘experts’ in the field of building as a craft, but also as ‘creative directors’ of such development processes. The architect should be capable of not only conjuring up visions of the future spatial and material form of the building, but also of conveying these to the other ‘actors’ involved in the initiation and building process. Such ‘sharing’ of information is necessary in order to generate sufficient understanding, consensus, enthusiasm, as well as means. To become more than ‘figments of the imagination’, the designer’s ideas need to be ‘pinned down’ (even if they are not yet entirely finished) and communicated by using some form of reliable – and preferably readable – ‘language’ for design development and communication.
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

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