CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id liewh_pdh_2004
id liewh_pdh_2004
authors Liew, Haldane
year 2004
title SGML: a meta-language for shape grammars
source PhD dissertation, Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass
summary A shape grammar develops a drawing through a series of transformations by repeatedly applying if-then rules. Although the rules can be designed, in principle, to construct any type of drawing, the drawings they construct may not necessarily develop in the manner intended by the designer of the grammar. In this thesis, I introduce a shape grammar meta-language that adds power to grammars based on the shape grammar language. Using the shape grammar meta-language, the author of a grammar can: (1) explicitly determine the sequence in which a set of rules is applied; (2) restrict rule application through a filtering process; and (3) use context to guide the rule matching process, all of which provide a guided design experience for the user of the grammar. Three example grammars demonstrate the effectiveness of the meta-language. The first example is the Bilateral Grid grammar which demonstrates how the meta-language facilitates the development of grammars that offer users multiple design choices. The second grammar is the Hexagon Path grammar which demonstrates how the metalanguage is useful in contexts other than architectural design. The third and most ambitious example is the Durand grammar which embodies the floor plan design process described in Précis of the Lectures of Architecture, written by JNL Durand, an eighteenth century architectural educator. Durand's floor plan design process develops a plan through a series of transformations from grid to axis to parti to wall. The corresponding Durand grammar, which consists of 74 rules and 15 macros organized into eight stages, captures Durand's ideas and fills in gaps in Durand's description of his process. A key contribution of this thesis is the seven descriptors that constitute the meta-language. The descriptors are used in grammar rules: (1) to organize a set of rules for the user to choose from; (2) to group together a series of rules; (3) to filter information in a drawing; (4) to constrain where a rule can apply; and (5) to control how a rule is applied. The end result is a language that allows the author to create grammars that guide users by carefully controlling the design process in the manner intended by the author.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id ascaad2004_paper4
id ascaad2004_paper4
authors Ahmad, Sumbul and Scott C. Chase
year 2004
title Design Generation of the Central Asian Caravanserai
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary Challenges for the study of Islamic architecture include its abundance and diversity in expression and its classification based on distinct functional or stylistic types. We address these issues by presenting shape grammars as a methodology for the analysis and design generation of Islamic architecture, with a specific example in the form of a parametric shape grammar for central Asian caravanserais. The grammar is developed by identifying distinct design types. Shape rules are created based on a study of the spatial elements and their organisation in the designs. We illustrate the utility of the grammar by deriving an extant design and as well as, previously unknown designs. We conclude by discussing possible extensions to the current grammar and future work involving the development of a grammar based framework for the comparative analysis of medieval Islamic courtyard buildings.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id sigradi2006_e183a
id sigradi2006_e183a
authors Costa Couceiro, Mauro
year 2006
title La Arquitectura como Extensión Fenotípica Humana - Un Acercamiento Basado en Análisis Computacionales [Architecture as human phenotypic extension – An approach based on computational explorations]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 56-60
summary The study describes some of the aspects tackled within a current Ph.D. research where architectural applications of constructive, structural and organization processes existing in biological systems are considered. The present information processing capacity of computers and the specific software development have allowed creating a bridge between two holistic nature disciplines: architecture and biology. The crossover between those disciplines entails a methodological paradigm change towards a new one based on the dynamical aspects of forms and compositions. Recent studies about artificial-natural intelligence (Hawkins, 2004) and developmental-evolutionary biology (Maturana, 2004) have added fundamental knowledge about the role of the analogy in the creative process and the relationship between forms and functions. The dimensions and restrictions of the Evo-Devo concepts are analyzed, developed and tested by software that combines parametric geometries, L-systems (Lindenmayer, 1990), shape-grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1971) and evolutionary algorithms (Holland, 1975) as a way of testing new architectural solutions within computable environments. It is pondered Lamarck´s (1744-1829) and Weismann (1834-1914) theoretical approaches to evolution where can be found significant opposing views. Lamarck´s theory assumes that an individual effort towards a specific evolutionary goal can cause change to descendents. On the other hand, Weismann defended that the germ cells are not affected by anything the body learns or any ability it acquires during its life, and cannot pass this information on to the next generation; this is called the Weismann barrier. Lamarck’s widely rejected theory has recently found a new place in artificial and natural intelligence researches as a valid explanation to some aspects of the human knowledge evolution phenomena, that is, the deliberate change of paradigms in the intentional research of solutions. As well as the analogy between genetics and architecture (Estévez and Shu, 2000) is useful in order to understand and program emergent complexity phenomena (Hopfield, 1982) for architectural solutions, also the consideration of architecture as a product of a human extended phenotype can help us to understand better its cultural dimension.
keywords evolutionary computation; genetic architectures; artificial/natural intelligence
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id ijac20042405
id ijac20042405
authors Heitor, Teresa V.; Duarte, José P.; Pinto, Rafaela M.
year 2004
title Combing Grammars and Space Syntax: Formulating, Generating and Evaluating Designs
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 4, 492-515
summary This paper is concerned with how two different computational approaches to design – shape grammars and space syntax – can be combined into a single common framework for formulating, generating, and evaluating designs. The main goal is to explore how the formal principles applied in the design process interact with the spatial properties of the designed objects. Results suggest that space syntax is (1) useful in determining the universe of solutions generated by the grammar and (2) in evaluating the evolving designs in terms of spatial properties and, therefore, in guiding the generation of designs.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id 781d
id 781d
authors Mayer, Rosirene; Turkienicz, Benamy
year 2005
title Generative Process of Oskar Niemeyer‘s Style
source 2005 Aesthetics and Architectural Composition. Proceedings of the Dresden International Symposium of Architecture 2004 (to appear in "pro Literatur Verlag", D-82291 Mammendorf ISBN: 3-86611-022-7 / Editors: Ralf Weber/Matthias Albrecht Amann/ TU Dresden
summary The aim of this study is to outline the structure of a possible grammar of Oscar Niemeyer’s architectural language, focusing on the so-called “free forms.” The idea is to assess the extent to which it is possible to shed some light on the discussion of architectural freedom as used by many authors when describing the work of the Brazilian architect. The investigation associates geometric relations present in Niemeyer’s buildings to the Shape Grammar model as proposed by Stiny & Gips (1975). The model made possible the depiction of consistencies in vocabulary, rules and operations deployed by Niemeyer. This eventually led to the description of an original architectural language present in Niemeyer’s buildings.
keywords Shape Grammars, Oskar Niemeyer, Generative process
series other
type symposium
last changed 2006/10/01 06:39

_id sigradi2004_192
id sigradi2004_192
authors Adrián J. Levy
year 2004
title Espacios 4-d animados - Arquitectura de la música [4-D Animated Spaces - The Architecture of Music]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This project involves the creation of an architecture of music which may be defined as a series of interdisciplinary steps which seek to generate four-dimensional virtual spaces for the materialization of music. This materialization uses music as its .genetic information ., the virtual space as its medium, and the execution time of the musical piece as the fourth dimension to a three-dimensional virtual space. Within this space, each instrument.s execution is represented by a shape whose properties undergo changes resulting from the musical information. Through the use of new Virtual Reality techniques, we will soon have the possibility to be inside the music, as a habitable place. The achievement of this project is to provide the opportunity to experience this representation through virtual animation.
keywords Architecture of music, navigable music, cyberspace, four-dimensional, animation
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id avocaad_2003_17
id avocaad_2003_17
authors Anna Maria Chrabin, Jaroslaw Szewczyk and Herman Neuckermans
year 2003
title A Critical Evaluation of Early Stages Software in its Capacity of Coping with Contextual Issues
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary In this paper we analyse critically early design stages software in its capacity of coping with contextual data at large (i.e. representing cultural, aesthetical context, etc.). We identified 5 categories of early stages software: geometry based graphic editors, evaluation architectural software, generative and shape-grammar based systems, evolutionary systems and other systems. Calling the object under creation during of the early stages a CAD conceptual model, we will investigate to what extend this software allows the architect to experience and represent the context in which a design is situated. Especially we will focus on its capacity to allow interaction, playful interaction on our way to the design. Designers, and particularly architects, interact with the local context similarly to interacting in a game: the context influences the users’ decisions, surprises them and causes permanent changes to their ways of thinking. On the other hand, architects permanently shape and reshape the context, and reduce the context to a protean point of reference. Such behaviour characterises creative thinking that is crucial for the early stage of design. The investigation led us to the conclusions that the effective interactivity with the context needs simple rules, a plain interface and data reduced as simple as possible, especially when interaction with the context is performed during the early stages of a design process. The findings can be used in organising computer environments for early-stage design.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id acadia04_088
id acadia04_088
authors Bechthold, Martin
year 2004
title Digital Design and Fabrication of Surface Structures
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aidd Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 88-99
summary This paper presents a study in digital design and manufacturing of shells, which are material-efficient systems that generate their load-bearing capacity through curvature. Their complex shapes are chal­lenging to build, and the few current shell projects employ the same shape repetitively in order to reduce the cost of concrete formwork. Can digital design and manufacturing technology make these systems suitable for the needs of the 21st century? The research developed new digitally-driven fabrication processes for Wood-Foam Sandwich Shells and Ferrocement-Concrete Sandwich Shells. These are partially pre-fabricated in order to allow for the application of Computer-Numerically Controlled (CNC) technology. Sandwich systems offer advantages for the digitally-enabled construction of shells, while at the same time improving their structural and thermal performance. The research defines design and manufacturing processes that reduce the need for repetition in order to save costs. Wood-Foam Sandwich shells are made by laminating wood-strips over a CNC-milled foam mold that eventually becomes the structural sandwich core. For Ferrocement-Concrete sandwich shells, a two-stage process is presented: pre-fabricated ferrocement panels become the permanent formwork for a cast-in-place concrete shell. The design and engineering process is facilitated through the use of parametric solid modeling envi­ronments. Modeling macros and integrated Finite-Element Analysis tools streamline the design process. Accuracy in fabrication is maintained by using CNC techniques for the majority of the shaping processes. The digital design and manufacturing parameters for each process are verified through design and fabrication studies that include prototypes, mockups and physical scale models.
keywords Shell, Pre-Fabrication, Prototype, Custom-Manufacturing, Simulation
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id eaea2003_25-ws-breen
id eaea2003_25-ws-breen
authors Breen, J.
year 2004
title Towards a Virtual Design Media Museum. Identifying, Structuring and Presenting Design and (Re) Presentation Media Artifacts
source Spatial Simulation and Evaluation - New Tools in Architectural and Urban Design [Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7], pp. 122-132
summary Designing is largely a process of (inter)active imaging. The evolvement of a design concept from preliminary design proposal towards spatial and material environment generally follows an uncertain path through uncharted landscape; a journey of exploration which requires both rational and creative consideration, frequently involving the interchange of information within a design team and collaboration with representatives from different contributing disciplines. Designs are conceived, worked out and specified step by step (roughly speaking from ‘rough to fine’) in iterative design ‘loops’. All the time the designer tries to determine which ‘course’ should be taken, by considering reference material, by reflecting on conceptions developed previously and by generating specific options aimed at furthering the ‘concretisation’ of the end product. In the course of such a trajectory, visual information is continually being developed, selected, tested, and subsequently either discarded or perfected. From early times architects have been considered not only as knowledgeable ‘experts’ in the field of building as a craft, but also as ‘creative directors’ of such development processes. The architect should be capable of not only conjuring up visions of the future spatial and material form of the building, but also of conveying these to the other ‘actors’ involved in the initiation and building process. Such ‘sharing’ of information is necessary in order to generate sufficient understanding, consensus, enthusiasm, as well as means. To become more than ‘figments of the imagination’, the designer’s ideas need to be ‘pinned down’ (even if they are not yet entirely finished) and communicated by using some form of reliable – and preferably readable – ‘language’ for design development and communication.
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id eaea2003_11-bremer-sander
id eaea2003_11-bremer-sander
authors Bremer, S. and Sander, H.
year 2004
title View from the Road: Environmental Simulation for the Fractal City of Rhine Ruhr
source Spatial Simulation and Evaluation - New Tools in Architectural and Urban Design [Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7], pp. 43-47
summary Highway seems to be more an issue of traffic planning than of urban design. But the highway can be a very important factor for the modern city pattern. Highways shape the spatial form of the fractal city. The modern highway can define new cores outside and “interior edges” within the city. Seen as a planning tool, highways are the great neglected opportunity in city and regional design. The 1st Architecture Biennial, 1ab, taking place from May 2003 to July 2003 in Rotterdam, explores the creative potentials of modern highways worldwide. An international research team discovered the spatial functions of highways in modern agglomerations. This lecture will give an overview of the results of the worldwide analyses and the design projects that had been undertaken. Both authors are members of the German research team. The German team examined the A 42 running through the Ruhrgebiet, a former coal and steal area in western Germany. The Ruhr Area is converting from an industrially orientated region to an agglomeration of high technology and science. But the regional image remains the same due to the fact that the changes cannot be seen, neither physically, nor from the road. Here, the highway could be used as a catalyst supporting and structuring the spatial changes to make them more legible for the people of Rhine-Ruhr. The nature becomes the most important tool of highway design. Landscape forms a linkage between the different cities of the region. Together with the A 40 and other local highways the region becomes the most important (and largest) public space of the new Rhine-Ruhr. The highway seen as a work of urban art can be designed only from the perspective of the driving car.
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id sigradi2004_213
id sigradi2004_213
authors Carlos Roberto Barrios Hernandez
year 2004
title Parametric Gaudi
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This research is a work in progress in the development of parametric systems for modeling of complex shapes. The research takes on the fundamental rules for form generation of column knots of the Expiatory Temple of the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona. Designed by the Spanish Architect, Antonio Gaudi, the forms of the Sagrada Familia represent a synthesis of manipulation of simple geometrical rules and the use of basic procedures which result in a rich language with no precedents in architecture.
keywords Parametric modeling, design variations, evaluation of designs
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id ddss2008-33
id ddss2008-33
authors Charlton, James A.; Bob Giddings and Margaret Horne
year 2008
title A survey of computer software for the urban designprocess
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary Urban design is concerned with the shape, the surface and the physical arrangement of all kinds of urban elements, the basic components that make up the built environment, at the level of buildings, spaces and human activities. It is also concerned with the non-visual aspects of the environment, such as noise, wind and temperature and humidity. The city square is a particular urban element which can take many forms and its geometrical relationships such as maximum dimensions, ratio of width to length and building height to length have been analysed for centuries (Alberti 1475), (Vitruvius 1550), (Sitte 1889), (Corbett 2004). Within the current urban design process there are increasing examples of three dimensional computer representations which allow the user to experience a visual sense of the geometry of city squares in an urban landscape. Computer-aided design and Virtual Reality technologies have recently contributed to this visual assessment, but there have been limited attempts at 3D computer representations which allow the user to experience a greater sense of the urban space. This paper will describe a survey of computer tools which could support a more holistic approach to urban design and which could be used to simulate a number of urban texture and urban quality aspects. It will provide a systematic overview of currently available software that could support the simulation of building density, height, colour and style as well as conditions relating to noise, shading, heat, natural and artificial light. It will describe a methodology for the selection and filtering of appropriate computer applications and offer an initial evaluation of these tools for the analysis and representation of the three-dimensional geometry, urban texture and urban quality of city centre spaces. The paper is structured to include an introduction to the design criteria relating to city centre spaces which underpins this research. Next the systematic review of computer software will be described, and selected tools will undergo initial evaluation. Finally conclusions will be drawn and areas for future research identified.
keywords Urban design, Software identification, 3D modelling, Pedestrian modelling, Wind modelling, Noise mapping, Thermal comfort, VR Engine
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id 041029_duerr-c
id 041029_duerr-c
authors Dürr, Christian
year 2004
source ETH postgraduate studies final thesis, Zurich
summary The advent of computer technologies in the design-processes has already taken place, is meanwhile ordinary. New design perspectives are opened, and an almost inexhaustable form repertoire is available, even buildable - ‘Nothing is impossible‘. This thesis work deals only with a small clip from there. Essentially it consists of two parts: » MORPHOGENESIS – Evolution of Shape « describes the present situation of generating shape with the help of computers. Some of the technologies that are used for, as comupter-morphing or evolutionary programming, are examined more closely here. »IMAGINATION AMPLIFIER Version 1.0« is an interactive Form-Generator for houses - a House-Machine. The program deals with the possibilities of interpolation and morphing between two, 3 dimensional, states (Startand Target-House) configured by the user. As an output–result, the generator depicts the put in number of steps in between, with characteristic values like cubical contents (V), surface quadrature (A) and the relation between V/A. All the results are stored in a database, where it is possible to select from for new morphing operations, to get in the end closer to a more optimized shape.
series thesis:MSc
type normal paper
last changed 2005/09/09 11:13

_id 041222_ebnoether-i
id 041222_ebnoether-i
authors Ebnöther, If
year 2004
title SkinChair
source ETH postgraduate studies final thesis, Zurich
summary The skin chair project is an exploration of some of the possibilities that CNC technologies offer for designers and makers. At the center of attention is the fascination with the possibility of small-scale, on-demand production without the need for large investments in tooling. A lot of work has already been done in this field. The skin chair project aims to examine a few aspects using specific tools available at ETH Hönggerberg. The idea for the skin chair emerged from a commercial project where I learnt how difficult it can be to manufacture a threedimensional seating surface for a chair in steel. The constructional concept of the skin chair is simple: two ribs at either side of the chair define the shape, a skin (a thin material) is wrapped around these thus a hollow volume is created. The simple principle lends itself to parameterisation and thus the creation of many variants of the intial design. In an attempt to approximate a real-life product scenario, a number of components of the workflow were prototyped.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id acadia08_072
id acadia08_072
authors Frumar, Jerome
year 2008
title An Energy Centric Approach to Architecture: Abstracting the material to co-rationalize design and performance
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 72-81
summary This paper begins by exploring matter as an aggregated system of energy transactions and modulations. With this in mind, it examines the notion of energy driven form finding as a design methodology that can simultaneously negotiate physical, environmental and fabrication considerations. The digital workspace enables this notion of form finding to re-establish itself in the world of architecture through a range of analytic tools that algorithmically encode real world physics. Simulating the spatial and energetic characteristics of reality enables virtual “form generation models that recognize the laws of physics and are able to create ‘minimum’ surfaces for compression, bending [and] tension” (Cook 2004). The language of energy, common in engineering and materials science, enables a renewed trans-disciplinary dialogue that addresses significant historic disjunctions such as the professional divide between architects and engineers. Design becomes a science of exploring abstracted energy states to discover a suitable resonance with which to tune the built environment. ¶ A case study of one particular method of energy driven form finding is presented. Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) is a generative engineering technique developed at RMIT University. It appropriates natural growth strategies to determine optimum forms that respond to structural criteria by reorganizing their topology. This dynamic topology response enables structural optimization to become an integrated component of design exploration. A sequence of investigations illustrates the flexibility and trans-disciplinary benefits of this approach. Using BESO as a tool for design rather than purely for structural optimization fuses the creative approach of the architect with the pragmatic approach of the engineer, enabling outcomes that neither profession could develop in isolation. The BESO case study alludes to future design processes that will facilitate a coherent unfolding of design logic comparable to morphogenesis.
keywords Energy; Form-Finding; Morphogenesis; Optimization; Structure
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id sigradi2004_067
id sigradi2004_067
authors Gabriela Celani
year 2004
title The symmetry exercise: Using an old tool in a new way
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary The present paper describes an exercise for architecture students that has two objectives: (1) to present the different types of symmetry and introduce the importance of symmetric design in graphic and architectural composition; and (2) to describe an example of how common CAD tools can be customized and turned into specific symmetric design tools. The final aim is to show how computer drafting can be more efficient than hand drafting in certain cases, especially when the computer.s real-time shape computation abilities can be used to the designer.s help.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 2004_366
id 2004_366
authors García Alvarado, Rodrigo and Monedero Isorna, Javier
year 2004
title The Fragmented Eye - Cinematographic Techniques for Architectural Animations
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 366-373
summary In order to contribute to the elaboration of more expressive architectural animations, some famous films, documentaries of buildings and award-winning animations were analyzed. This was carried out examining the cinematographic techniques used at three levels of filming language; image setting, shot movements and montage, according to concepts described in theoretical texts. The analysis revealed an extensive use of techniques, in particular in movies, that give graphic diversity and perceptual stability. Based on that, it proposes some ideas for the planning of an architectural animation and a computer implementation of some filmic concepts, in particular related to movements of the point-of-view. This study suggest a fragmented view of building designs, to get an appealing moving presentation, with visual interest and continuity, as such should be also in architecture.
keywords Animation, Film, Image, Movement, Montage
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 2004_269
id 2004_269
authors Gowans, Scott and Wright, Richard M.
year 2004
title Developing Architectonic Language Through Digital Observation
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 269-277
summary The question for architects is always how to begin. This proposal attempts to illustrate a design methodology that is characterised by its attention to non-traditional generators. The focus of the paper is the definition of an innovative design process characterised by the production of an architectonic language through the observation of the ephemeral and the transitory (the quanta of place), and which pays cognisance to the realization of a three-dimensional narrative, placing value upon the products of investigation as well as the resultant design. As the title suggests the process outlined concerns itself with the examination of the ephemeral, the transitory and the unobserved. The overriding concern is with the recording of fragments of a chosen environment (site) and, the collation and depiction of these findings in an alternative three-dimensional environment (virtual space). This process is only made possible by the advent of computer applications capable of generating the complexity of three-dimensional environments needed to explore the plethora of forms generated by the initial recordings. This process is concerned with the nascence of architectural expression and the formalising of architectural propositions composed from an individual’s interpretation of the ‘space between’, the obvious and the immaterial, and the phenomena that exist there. The generators are the things beyond immediate perception. They are the quanta of place. It is this process of capturing fixed moments in time and space and, translating imperceptible nanomoments and nanoevents, that allows for the development of exploratory diagrams constructed over a backdrop of credible analysis. These make apparent the infinite possibilities for further transition whilst illustrating the conceptual lineage that links each instance to its antecedents. The resultant physical forms embody the essence of something transformed. They possess cultural and emotional syntax. They become mementos in the landscape.
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. 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keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 205caadria2004
id 205caadria2004
authors Guan-Ye Mivo Chen
year 2004
title What Is Intention Structure? - Represent Invisible Information of Spatial Depicts
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 275-286
summary The significant problem of this paper is how we convey spatial information to represent concrete meaning of mental imagery. For replying the above problem, we are developing a spatial information structure called "Intention Structure". Intention structure is used to represent some spatial experience of a particular person and awareness of the aura into some spatial depicts at that physical place. The meaning of “intention” is implied into a sequential relation when a navigator moves and gazes something in a place. This sequential relation can be described into two ways of spatial representation: one is the action of human body including “moving the body” and “moving the head”; another is converting the visual information into spatial memories through the behavior of gaze, including “the sight focus” and “the snapshot glance”. Otherwise, we also consider the limitation of topology at that physical place. Based on the above ideas, we use XML technologies in Java language to represent spatial data of intention structure for the describable usages of invisible information. we implemented this idea on a project of spatial analysis with Taiwanese traditional garden, the Lin family garden in Banciao, Taipei County, Taiwan.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 16:46

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