CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id acadia04_088
id acadia04_088
authors Bechthold, Martin
year 2004
title Digital Design and Fabrication of Surface Structures
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aidd Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 88-99
summary This paper presents a study in digital design and manufacturing of shells, which are material-efficient systems that generate their load-bearing capacity through curvature. Their complex shapes are chal­lenging to build, and the few current shell projects employ the same shape repetitively in order to reduce the cost of concrete formwork. Can digital design and manufacturing technology make these systems suitable for the needs of the 21st century? The research developed new digitally-driven fabrication processes for Wood-Foam Sandwich Shells and Ferrocement-Concrete Sandwich Shells. These are partially pre-fabricated in order to allow for the application of Computer-Numerically Controlled (CNC) technology. Sandwich systems offer advantages for the digitally-enabled construction of shells, while at the same time improving their structural and thermal performance. The research defines design and manufacturing processes that reduce the need for repetition in order to save costs. Wood-Foam Sandwich shells are made by laminating wood-strips over a CNC-milled foam mold that eventually becomes the structural sandwich core. For Ferrocement-Concrete sandwich shells, a two-stage process is presented: pre-fabricated ferrocement panels become the permanent formwork for a cast-in-place concrete shell. The design and engineering process is facilitated through the use of parametric solid modeling envi­ronments. Modeling macros and integrated Finite-Element Analysis tools streamline the design process. Accuracy in fabrication is maintained by using CNC techniques for the majority of the shaping processes. The digital design and manufacturing parameters for each process are verified through design and fabrication studies that include prototypes, mockups and physical scale models.
keywords Shell, Pre-Fabrication, Prototype, Custom-Manufacturing, Simulation
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id sigradi2004_123
id sigradi2004_123
authors Elizabeth Bund y Patricia Recayte
year 2004
title Temporalidad y movimiento en una experiencia proyectual digital [Temporality and Movement in a Digital Design Experience]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This paper proposes an analysis of resulting product of a didactical design experience produced into digital environment in architectural shape context. The line of argument is the study of temporality and movement as necessary conditions of shape to be experienced in two levels: the literal-objective and the phenomenic-perceptual. An hipermedia design proceeding of interconnected character, not lineal, with superposition of project process and presentation strategies in hipertextual organization has been developed. The student involves himself as producer-operator, into rational and intuitive levels simultaneously, to generate and simulate, conditions and architectural experiences by using digital media. As a result of this experience abilities and proper worths of the digital media are recognized, that encourage reflection and creativity, allowing to increase critical and aesthetic capabilities in producing the architectural work.
keywords Time, movement, architecture, didactical experience
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 202caadria2004
id 202caadria2004
authors Soo-Hoon Park
year 2004
title Qualitative Shape Representation and Featurebased Comparison of Architectural Drawings
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 239-252
summary This paper explains the qualitative shape representation scheme and generic shape analysis procedure based on shape feature categories. It takes two different groups of architectural drawings and compares them. Validation of qualitative shape representation scheme is suggested using statistical methods. Linear regressions are used in characterizing the shape featural relationships of two shape groups.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 16:46

_id avocaad_2003_06
id avocaad_2003_06
authors Arturo F. Montagu and Juan Pablo Cieri
year 2003
title Urbamedia - Development of an urban database of fragments of some Argentinian and Latin-American cities using digital technology
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary The proposal of "Urbamedia" is to undertake the development of 3D virtual and interactive models of historical areas of Latin-American cities. The selected zone is the "Mayo Avenue" including the "Mayo Square", an historical place of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina; this project is financed by the National Agency of Scientific and Technological Development of Argentina and the University of Buenos Aires.We are presenting the first experimental model of the "Mayo Square" that has been developed at ABACUS, Department of Architecture & Building Aids Computer Unit, University of Strathclyde UK. combined with a system analysis of urban activities using the “Atlas.ti” CAQDAS software.This particular use of the “Atlas.ti” software is under experimental applications to this type of urban analysis procedures; allowed us the possibility to analysed a set of activities by means of graph theory as result of a series of interviews to the people working in the area. We are also looking to include historical areas of three cities: Mar del Plata, Rosario and Santa Fe (Argentina) and eventually other cities from Latin América as Rio de Janeiro and Habana.Due that ABACUS has a strong experience in city modelling plus the powerful software and hardware used there, we must develop a VRML customized menu to be adapted to our low cost PC equipment. The 3D model will be used mainly in urban design simulation procedures and the idea is to extend to other type of simulations of the environmental parameters.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id ddss2004_ra-177
id ddss2004_ra-177
authors Ballas, D., R. Kingston, and J. Stillwell
year 2004
title Using a Spatial Microsimulation Decision Support System for Policy Scenario Analysis
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 177-191
summary This paper discusses the potential of a spatial microsimulation-based decision support system for policy analysis. The system can be used to describe current conditions and issues in neighbourhoods, predict future trends in the composition and health of neighbourhoods and conduct modelling and predictive analysis to measure the likely impact of policy interventions at the local level. A large dynamic spatial micro-simulation model is being constructed for the population of Leeds (approximately 715,000 individuals) based on spatial microsimulation techniques in conjunction with a range of data, including 2001 Census data for Output Areas and sample data from the British Household Panel Survey. The project has three main aims as follows: (i) to develop a static microsimulation model to describe current conditions in Leeds; (ii) to enable the performance of ‘What if?’ analysis on a range of policy scenarios; and (iii) to develop a dynamic microsimulation model to predict future conditions in Leeds under different policy scenarios. The paper reports progress in meeting the above aims and outlines the associated difficulties and data issues. One of the significant advantages of the spatial microsimulation approach adopted by this project is that it enables the user to query any combination of variables that is deemed desirable for policy analysis. The paper will illustrate the software tool being developed in the context of this project that is capable of carrying out queries of this type and of mapping their results. The decision support tool is being developed to support policy-makers concerned with urban regeneration and neighbourhood renewal.
keywords Spatial Microsimulation, Spatial Decision Support Systems, Geotools
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss2004_d-33
id ddss2004_d-33
authors Pelizaro, C., T.A. Arentze, and H.J.P. Timmermans
year 2004
title A Spatial Decision Support System for Provision and Monitoring of Urban Green Space
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 33-48
summary A spatial decision support system for the planning, design and maintenance of urban green space is presented. The objective of the system under development is to assist local authorities and green space administrators to strategically enhance the supply of urban greening with the right type and variety of green space that maximizes public welfare. The system is being developed starting from a modelling perspective and GIS functionalities are added conform the needed analysis and subroutines within the system. The system has been written in the C++ Borland Builder 5 programming environment. GIS capabilities and dynamic mapping are added using MapObjects 2.0.
keywords Design & Decision Support Systems, Integrated Urban Models, Urban Planning, Urban Green Space
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ascaad2004_paper4
id ascaad2004_paper4
authors Ahmad, Sumbul and Scott C. Chase
year 2004
title Design Generation of the Central Asian Caravanserai
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary Challenges for the study of Islamic architecture include its abundance and diversity in expression and its classification based on distinct functional or stylistic types. We address these issues by presenting shape grammars as a methodology for the analysis and design generation of Islamic architecture, with a specific example in the form of a parametric shape grammar for central Asian caravanserais. The grammar is developed by identifying distinct design types. Shape rules are created based on a study of the spatial elements and their organisation in the designs. We illustrate the utility of the grammar by deriving an extant design and as well as, previously unknown designs. We conclude by discussing possible extensions to the current grammar and future work involving the development of a grammar based framework for the comparative analysis of medieval Islamic courtyard buildings.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id avocaad_2003_17
id avocaad_2003_17
authors Anna Maria Chrabin, Jaroslaw Szewczyk and Herman Neuckermans
year 2003
title A Critical Evaluation of Early Stages Software in its Capacity of Coping with Contextual Issues
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary In this paper we analyse critically early design stages software in its capacity of coping with contextual data at large (i.e. representing cultural, aesthetical context, etc.). We identified 5 categories of early stages software: geometry based graphic editors, evaluation architectural software, generative and shape-grammar based systems, evolutionary systems and other systems. Calling the object under creation during of the early stages a CAD conceptual model, we will investigate to what extend this software allows the architect to experience and represent the context in which a design is situated. Especially we will focus on its capacity to allow interaction, playful interaction on our way to the design. Designers, and particularly architects, interact with the local context similarly to interacting in a game: the context influences the users’ decisions, surprises them and causes permanent changes to their ways of thinking. On the other hand, architects permanently shape and reshape the context, and reduce the context to a protean point of reference. Such behaviour characterises creative thinking that is crucial for the early stage of design. The investigation led us to the conclusions that the effective interactivity with the context needs simple rules, a plain interface and data reduced as simple as possible, especially when interaction with the context is performed during the early stages of a design process. The findings can be used in organising computer environments for early-stage design.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id eaea2003_11-bremer-sander
id eaea2003_11-bremer-sander
authors Bremer, S. and Sander, H.
year 2004
title View from the Road: Environmental Simulation for the Fractal City of Rhine Ruhr
source Spatial Simulation and Evaluation - New Tools in Architectural and Urban Design [Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7], pp. 43-47
summary Highway seems to be more an issue of traffic planning than of urban design. But the highway can be a very important factor for the modern city pattern. Highways shape the spatial form of the fractal city. The modern highway can define new cores outside and “interior edges” within the city. Seen as a planning tool, highways are the great neglected opportunity in city and regional design. The 1st Architecture Biennial, 1ab, taking place from May 2003 to July 2003 in Rotterdam, explores the creative potentials of modern highways worldwide. An international research team discovered the spatial functions of highways in modern agglomerations. This lecture will give an overview of the results of the worldwide analyses and the design projects that had been undertaken. Both authors are members of the German research team. The German team examined the A 42 running through the Ruhrgebiet, a former coal and steal area in western Germany. The Ruhr Area is converting from an industrially orientated region to an agglomeration of high technology and science. But the regional image remains the same due to the fact that the changes cannot be seen, neither physically, nor from the road. Here, the highway could be used as a catalyst supporting and structuring the spatial changes to make them more legible for the people of Rhine-Ruhr. The nature becomes the most important tool of highway design. Landscape forms a linkage between the different cities of the region. Together with the A 40 and other local highways the region becomes the most important (and largest) public space of the new Rhine-Ruhr. The highway seen as a work of urban art can be designed only from the perspective of the driving car.
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ddss2008-33
id ddss2008-33
authors Charlton, James A.; Bob Giddings and Margaret Horne
year 2008
title A survey of computer software for the urban designprocess
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary Urban design is concerned with the shape, the surface and the physical arrangement of all kinds of urban elements, the basic components that make up the built environment, at the level of buildings, spaces and human activities. It is also concerned with the non-visual aspects of the environment, such as noise, wind and temperature and humidity. The city square is a particular urban element which can take many forms and its geometrical relationships such as maximum dimensions, ratio of width to length and building height to length have been analysed for centuries (Alberti 1475), (Vitruvius 1550), (Sitte 1889), (Corbett 2004). Within the current urban design process there are increasing examples of three dimensional computer representations which allow the user to experience a visual sense of the geometry of city squares in an urban landscape. Computer-aided design and Virtual Reality technologies have recently contributed to this visual assessment, but there have been limited attempts at 3D computer representations which allow the user to experience a greater sense of the urban space. This paper will describe a survey of computer tools which could support a more holistic approach to urban design and which could be used to simulate a number of urban texture and urban quality aspects. It will provide a systematic overview of currently available software that could support the simulation of building density, height, colour and style as well as conditions relating to noise, shading, heat, natural and artificial light. It will describe a methodology for the selection and filtering of appropriate computer applications and offer an initial evaluation of these tools for the analysis and representation of the three-dimensional geometry, urban texture and urban quality of city centre spaces. The paper is structured to include an introduction to the design criteria relating to city centre spaces which underpins this research. Next the systematic review of computer software will be described, and selected tools will undergo initial evaluation. Finally conclusions will be drawn and areas for future research identified.
keywords Urban design, Software identification, 3D modelling, Pedestrian modelling, Wind modelling, Noise mapping, Thermal comfort, VR Engine
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id 041222_ebnoether-i
id 041222_ebnoether-i
authors Ebnöther, If
year 2004
title SkinChair
source ETH postgraduate studies final thesis, Zurich
summary The skin chair project is an exploration of some of the possibilities that CNC technologies offer for designers and makers. At the center of attention is the fascination with the possibility of small-scale, on-demand production without the need for large investments in tooling. A lot of work has already been done in this field. The skin chair project aims to examine a few aspects using specific tools available at ETH Hönggerberg. The idea for the skin chair emerged from a commercial project where I learnt how difficult it can be to manufacture a threedimensional seating surface for a chair in steel. The constructional concept of the skin chair is simple: two ribs at either side of the chair define the shape, a skin (a thin material) is wrapped around these thus a hollow volume is created. The simple principle lends itself to parameterisation and thus the creation of many variants of the intial design. In an attempt to approximate a real-life product scenario, a number of components of the workflow were prototyped.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id sigradi2004_067
id sigradi2004_067
authors Gabriela Celani
year 2004
title The symmetry exercise: Using an old tool in a new way
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary The present paper describes an exercise for architecture students that has two objectives: (1) to present the different types of symmetry and introduce the importance of symmetric design in graphic and architectural composition; and (2) to describe an example of how common CAD tools can be customized and turned into specific symmetric design tools. The final aim is to show how computer drafting can be more efficient than hand drafting in certain cases, especially when the computer.s real-time shape computation abilities can be used to the designer.s help.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ijac20032207
id ijac20032207
authors Liapi, Katherine A.; Kim, Jinman
year 2004
title A Parametric Approach to the Design of Vaulted Tensegrity Networks
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 2
summary Significant new research in tensegrity theory and technology encourages tensegrity’s implementation in architecture. A recently developed technology makes possible the rapid modular assembly of deployable tensegrity units, and the construction of alternate curved configurations by re-using the same modules. Although a form exploration method for tensegrity structures already exists, estimating the structure’s new geometry remains a challenge due to difficulties designers encounter in understanding and following the method’s geometric construction process. Besides, the method doesn’t address the geometry of vaulted configurations. This paper presents algorithms that link together the geometric parameters that determine the shape of tensegrity vaults by addressing different design-construction scenarios, and a software code that generates parametric models of tensegrity vaulted structures.The application of the algorithms to the morphological study of a tensegrity vaulted dome, which constituted the main feature of an entry to arecent international architectural competition, is also presented.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2010/05/16 07:13

_id acadia04_100
id acadia04_100
authors Liapi, Katherine
year 2004
title A computer Based System for the Design and Fabrication of Tensegrity Structures
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 100-109
summary Tensegrity structures are composed of tension compression com­ponents, where the compression components (bars) are discontinu­ously enclosed within continuous tensile components (cables). From an engineering point of view, a tensegrity structure is characterized by geometric non-linearity and large displacements under loading. Therefore, its prestressed shape and deformation under loading are the result of the combined effect of the geometric parameters that determine the initial configuration of the structure, the level of pre­stress applied to cables, and the material properties of the compo­nent members of the structure. A method for generating the initial geometric configuration of tensegrity structures composed of tenseg­rity units and a parametric expression of this geometry have already been developed. A novel technology that makes possible the construction of tensegrity structures from the on-site assembly of deployable tensegrity units, which are fur­nished with a simple mechanism that permits bar-elongation, and, as a result, an increase of the prestress applied to the cables of each unit, is also under development. Also under development is a static analysis method that takes into account the above method for prestressing cables. This paper discusses the features of a system that supports the combined geometric and structural design of tensegrity structures, and integrates a graphical interface to display: a) models of initial geometry, b) geometry of the structure after prestress and loading are applied, and c) magnitude of forces applied to the structure’s component members (bars and cables). The system also provides numerical data to be used in component fabrication, and is therefore expected to become a very valuable tool for the design and construction of tensegrity structures.
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id liewh_pdh_2004
id liewh_pdh_2004
authors Liew, Haldane
year 2004
title SGML: a meta-language for shape grammars
source PhD dissertation, Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass
summary A shape grammar develops a drawing through a series of transformations by repeatedly applying if-then rules. Although the rules can be designed, in principle, to construct any type of drawing, the drawings they construct may not necessarily develop in the manner intended by the designer of the grammar. In this thesis, I introduce a shape grammar meta-language that adds power to grammars based on the shape grammar language. Using the shape grammar meta-language, the author of a grammar can: (1) explicitly determine the sequence in which a set of rules is applied; (2) restrict rule application through a filtering process; and (3) use context to guide the rule matching process, all of which provide a guided design experience for the user of the grammar. Three example grammars demonstrate the effectiveness of the meta-language. The first example is the Bilateral Grid grammar which demonstrates how the meta-language facilitates the development of grammars that offer users multiple design choices. The second grammar is the Hexagon Path grammar which demonstrates how the metalanguage is useful in contexts other than architectural design. The third and most ambitious example is the Durand grammar which embodies the floor plan design process described in Précis of the Lectures of Architecture, written by JNL Durand, an eighteenth century architectural educator. Durand's floor plan design process develops a plan through a series of transformations from grid to axis to parti to wall. The corresponding Durand grammar, which consists of 74 rules and 15 macros organized into eight stages, captures Durand's ideas and fills in gaps in Durand's description of his process. A key contribution of this thesis is the seven descriptors that constitute the meta-language. The descriptors are used in grammar rules: (1) to organize a set of rules for the user to choose from; (2) to group together a series of rules; (3) to filter information in a drawing; (4) to constrain where a rule can apply; and (5) to control how a rule is applied. The end result is a language that allows the author to create grammars that guide users by carefully controlling the design process in the manner intended by the author.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id sigradi2004_393
id sigradi2004_393
authors Mauro Chiarella
year 2004
title Superficies paramétricas y arquitectura: Conceptos, ideación y desarrollo [Parametric Surfaces and Architecture: Concepts, Ideation and Development]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary By incorporating parametric surfaces and spline entities into the shape modeling computer systems, new design and production graphic tools have been created in the conceptual and poetic field of architecture; thus allowing an intuitive approach to the fast production of complex shapes with a minimum amount of data and specific knowledge. The analogous production systems (constrained by the material resources and constructive procedures present in the local existing technologies) are challenged by design and virtual simulation systems, suggesting new relationships between the architectural features and their representation: the creation of a symbolic and dynamic information space where the representation affects the identity of what is being represented. Taking into account this current challenge mentioned above, we have decided to work in the mixture, without reciprocal exclusions or substitutions, proposing some work alternatives to approach the issue under discussion in the Architecture Workshop.
keywords Design, Geometry, NURBS, Unfolding, Pedagogy
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 2004_136
id 2004_136
authors Mullins, Michael and Zupancic Strojan, Tadeja
year 2004
title Depth Perception in CAVE and Panorama
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 136-141
summary This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings. Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions – that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE and Panorama are quantifiably different, and that differences are attributable to prior contextual experience of the viewer. The role of prior or tacit knowledge in these environments is established from the empirical data. It is concluded that the CAVE offers a higher potential for spatial experience and learning than the Panorama. The results also suggests that knowledge gained in physical contexts is more readily transferred to its virtual simulation, while that gained in virtual experience is not reliably transferred to its equivalent physical context. The paper discusses implications for spatial ability, learning and training in virtual environments; in architectural education; and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual reality techniques.
keywords Virtual Reality; Perception; Spatial Ability; Learning; Virtual Context
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 1410
id 1410
authors Muñoz, Patricia; López Coronel, Juan
year 2004
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 97-104.
summary The purpose of this enquiry was to verify the way in which CAD systems and their tools for visual surfaces analysis interact with morphological knowledge in the determination of continuity in products of industrial design. We acknowledge that geometrical knowledge is necessary but not enough for working with this attribute of form in everyday objects, where cultural factors are involved. Geometry establishes a progressive range of continuity of surfaces that involves the concepts of position, tangency and curvature. In product design we find different degrees of continuity that not necessarily follow this idea of increment. What is understood as discontinuous in products in most cases is geometrically continuous. The control of smoothness in the shape of objects, is influenced by the way in which the form was created and by the different communicational, functional and technological elements that identify a product of industrial design. Subtlety in the suggestion of form, by means of the regulation its continuity, is what turns it suggestive through design. We consider that the development of the geometry of digital drawing systems in three dimensions should be an integrating process, where CAD developers and designers work closer in order to potentiate both activities.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/04/07 10:50

_id ijac20032108
id ijac20032108
authors Rana, Sanjay; Batty, Mike
year 2004
title Visualising the Structure of Architectural Open Spaces Based on Shape Analysis
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 1
summary This paper proposes the application of some well known two-dimensional geometrical shape descriptors for the visualisation of the structure of architectural open spaces. The paper demonstrates the use of visibility measures such as distance to obstacles and amount of visible space to calculate shape descriptors such as convexity and skeleton of the open space. The aim of the paper is to indicate a simple, objective and quantifiable approach to understand the structure of open spaces otherwise impossible due to the complex construction of built structures.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

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