CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 562

_id 507caadria2004
id 507caadria2004
authors Christiane M. Herr, Thomas Fischer
year 2004
title Using Hardware Cellular Automata to Simulate Use in Adaptive Architecture
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 815-828
summary In this paper we give an account of our development of a hardware machine-readable cellular automata model for simulating dynamic patterns of use and adaptation in vernacular high-density architecture. In a hypothetical architectural setting that draws its formal expression from illegal façade extensions in Hong Kong and its conceptual framework from the Open Building movement, we examine state evolutions in monotonous matrices of adaptable residential units. The primary objective is to gain a better understanding not only of architectural form but also of dynamic processes in the built environment and hence of the factors that cause adaptive architectures to tend towards different types of overall attractor states. The paper gives a discussion of the project’s theoretical background as well as a detailed description of the hardware model and its modes of application.
series CAADRIA
email ydnac@graduate.hku.hk
last changed 2004/05/20 17:43

_id ddss2004_ra-33
id ddss2004_ra-33
authors Diappi, L., P. Bolchim, and M. Buscema
year 2004
title Improved Understanding of Urban Sprawl Using Neural Networks
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 14020-2408-8, p. 33-49
summary It is widely accepted that the spatial pattern of settlements is a crucial factor affecting quality of life and environmental sustainability, but few recent studies have attempted to examine the phenomenon of sprawl by modelling the process rather than adopting a descriptive approach. The issue was partly addressed by models of land use and transportation which were mainly developed in the UK and US in the 1970s and 1980s, but the major advances were made in the area of modelling transportation, while very little was achieved in the area of spatial and temporal land use. Models of land use and transportation are well-established tools, based on explicit, exogenouslyformulated rules within a theoretical framework. The new approaches of artificial intelligence, and in particular, systems involving parallel processing, (Neural Networks, Cellular Automata and Multi-Agent Systems) defined by the expression “Neurocomputing”, allow problems to be approached in the reverse, bottom-up, direction by discovering rules, relationships and scenarios from a database. In this article we examine the hypothesis that territorial micro-transformations occur according to a local logic, i.e. according to use, accessibility, the presence of services and conditions of centrality, periphericity or isolation of each territorial “cell” relative to its surroundings. The prediction capabilities of different architectures of supervised Neural networks are implemented to the south Metropolitan area of Milan at two different temporal thresholds and discussed. Starting from data on land use in 1980 and 1994 and by subdividing the area into square cells on an orthogonal grid, the model produces a spatial and functional map of urbanisation in 2008. An implementation of the SOM (Self Organizing Map) processing to the Data Base allows the typologies of transformation to be identified, i.e. the classes of area which are transformed in the same way and which give rise to territorial morphologies; this is an interesting by-product of the approach.
keywords Neural Networks, Self-Organizing Maps, Land-Use Dynamics, Supervised Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id avocaad_2003_06
id avocaad_2003_06
authors Arturo F. Montagu and Juan Pablo Cieri
year 2003
title Urbamedia - Development of an urban database of fragments of some Argentinian and Latin-American cities using digital technology
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary The proposal of "Urbamedia" is to undertake the development of 3D virtual and interactive models of historical areas of Latin-American cities. The selected zone is the "Mayo Avenue" including the "Mayo Square", an historical place of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina; this project is financed by the National Agency of Scientific and Technological Development of Argentina and the University of Buenos Aires.We are presenting the first experimental model of the "Mayo Square" that has been developed at ABACUS, Department of Architecture & Building Aids Computer Unit, University of Strathclyde UK. combined with a system analysis of urban activities using the “Atlas.ti” CAQDAS software.This particular use of the “Atlas.ti” software is under experimental applications to this type of urban analysis procedures; allowed us the possibility to analysed a set of activities by means of graph theory as result of a series of interviews to the people working in the area. We are also looking to include historical areas of three cities: Mar del Plata, Rosario and Santa Fe (Argentina) and eventually other cities from Latin América as Rio de Janeiro and Habana.Due that ABACUS has a strong experience in city modelling plus the powerful software and hardware used there, we must develop a VRML customized menu to be adapted to our low cost PC equipment. The 3D model will be used mainly in urban design simulation procedures and the idea is to extend to other type of simulations of the environmental parameters.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
email amontagu@fadu.uba.ar
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id sigradi2004_136
id sigradi2004_136
authors Etienne Delacroix
year 2004
title Studio of art and programming: Reaching out to art and architecture from inside engineering [Studio of art and programming: Reaching out to art and architecture from inside engineering]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Combining aspects of engineering with traditions of studio art we investigate an interface between both worlds: using a substantial acumulation of electrodigital refuse, taken as a .raw expressive medium., an elective course ( TAP: .taller de arte y programacion. . Studio of art and programing. ) takes a large mixed group of students ( engineering, art, architecture, music, etc..) with very different levels of skills, for a sustained immersion into an exploration context. Eliminating in a large measure the problem of .costs. by using obsolete, discarded computer parts, students manipulate, observe, deconstruct, reconstruct functional hardware and use programming to produce an expressive documentation of the process. The objective is not to work on .products. but on the production of .symbolic value. by uncovering and staging the fundamentals of electro-digital-computational knowledge into a form of .theater of technology..
series SIGRADI
email eti@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id ddss2004_ra-193
id ddss2004_ra-193
authors Ohgai, A., Y. Gohnai, S. Ikaruga, M. Murakami, and K. Watanabe
year 2004
title Japan Cellular Automata Modeling for Fire Spreading as a Tool to Aid CommunityBased Planning for Disaster Mitigation
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 193-209
summary As a tool to support collaboration in community-based planning for disaster mitigation in Japanese old wooden built-up areas, we attempt to develop a fire spreading simulation model incorporated a fire fighting activity using Cellular Automata (CA). The proposed model can deal with the process of fire spreading in a building that traditional models can not represent. Whether or not fire can spread is based on a stochastic calculation process to reproduce uncertain fire spreading. The errors caused by the stochastic factor are analyzed by carrying out simulation two or more times under the same condition. Moreover, the reproductivity of the model is examined by comparing simulation results with actual fire records.
keywords Community-Based Planning for Disaster Mitigation, Fire Spreading, Fire Fighting Activity, Cellular Automata Modeling, Planning Support Tool
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 2004_325
id 2004_325
authors Sarawgi, Tina
year 2004
title Using Computers as a Spatial Visualization and Design Exploration Medium
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 325-332
summary The constant advances in the use of computers to simulate light over the past few decades, has led computer-aided rendering to become increasingly photorealistic. However, the rendering is still processor-intensive and time-consuming, difficult to generate in real time. Design students need to be well versed in the depiction of the effects of light in an environment, crucial to spatial visualization. With increasing computing power, advanced algorithms and increased realism, the central pedagogical issue in their use is not what computers can do for us today, but what and how we can make them do what we do better. We have to be careful in not getting seduced by the advancing technology but use it innovatively to build students into better designers. This paper discusses a project demonstrating the apparent potential of computers for spatial visualization and design exploration of light and space, in their present stage. The project shows a departure from the traditional methods of using computers or of teaching lighting in a design school. Computers are used by students to especially create flashy imagery. On the other hand, lighting is explained in clinical terms without exploration of its experiential qualities. This exercise helped the students to develop a better understanding of the physics of light from the method most familiar and expected of students – visual. The project deems it more important to have a quick means to produce an overview of the implication of the design choices than to provide precise information regarding a hypothetical final solution. Hence, after creating the lighting in the space based on the desired experiential qualities, the illumination can be conveyed to a lighting expert for detailed quantitative computations. The project results are shown and outcomes discussed.
keywords Visualization, Light, Space, Digital Technology, Pedagogy
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id acadia04_088
id acadia04_088
authors Bechthold, Martin
year 2004
title Digital Design and Fabrication of Surface Structures
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aidd Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 88-99
summary This paper presents a study in digital design and manufacturing of shells, which are material-efficient systems that generate their load-bearing capacity through curvature. Their complex shapes are chal­lenging to build, and the few current shell projects employ the same shape repetitively in order to reduce the cost of concrete formwork. Can digital design and manufacturing technology make these systems suitable for the needs of the 21st century? The research developed new digitally-driven fabrication processes for Wood-Foam Sandwich Shells and Ferrocement-Concrete Sandwich Shells. These are partially pre-fabricated in order to allow for the application of Computer-Numerically Controlled (CNC) technology. Sandwich systems offer advantages for the digitally-enabled construction of shells, while at the same time improving their structural and thermal performance. The research defines design and manufacturing processes that reduce the need for repetition in order to save costs. Wood-Foam Sandwich shells are made by laminating wood-strips over a CNC-milled foam mold that eventually becomes the structural sandwich core. For Ferrocement-Concrete sandwich shells, a two-stage process is presented: pre-fabricated ferrocement panels become the permanent formwork for a cast-in-place concrete shell. The design and engineering process is facilitated through the use of parametric solid modeling envi­ronments. Modeling macros and integrated Finite-Element Analysis tools streamline the design process. Accuracy in fabrication is maintained by using CNC techniques for the majority of the shaping processes. The digital design and manufacturing parameters for each process are verified through design and fabrication studies that include prototypes, mockups and physical scale models.
keywords Shell, Pre-Fabrication, Prototype, Custom-Manufacturing, Simulation
series ACADIA
email mbechthold@gsd.harvard.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id ddss2004_d-269
id ddss2004_d-269
authors Beetz, J., J. van Leeuwen, and B. de Vries
year 2004
title Towards a Multi Agent System for the Support of Collaborative Design
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 269-280
summary In this paper we are drafting the outline of a framework for a Multi Agent System (MAS) for the support of Collaborative Design in the architectural domain. The system we are proposing makes use of Machine Learning (ML) techniques to infer personalized knowledge from observing a users’ action in a generic working environment using standard tools such as CAD packages. We introduce and discuss possible strategies to combine Concept Modelling (CM)-based approaches using existing ontologies with statistical analysis of action sequences within a domain specific application. In a later step, Agent technologies will be used to gather additional related information from external resources such as examples of similar problems on the users hard disk, from corresponding work of team-members within an intranet or from advises of expert from different knowledge domains, themselves represented by agents. As users deny or reward resulting proposals offered by the agent(s) through an interface the system will be enhanced over time using methods like Reinforced Learning.
keywords Multi Agent Systems, Design & Decision Support Systems, Collaborative Design, Human Computer Interfaces, Machine learning, Data Mining
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ascaad2004_paper9
id ascaad2004_paper9
authors Bennadji, A.; H. Ahriz, and P. Alastair
year 2004
title Computer Aided Sustainable Design
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary One of the most important aspects architects need to consider fairly early on is that of energy saving, cost, thermal comfort and the effect on the environment in terms of CO2 emissions. At present, during the early design stage of a building, different options are assessed using simple tools (tables, graphs and software) that contain a large number of assumptions the very nature of which can bias choice or possibly lead to an inappropriate solution. It can be argued that the only way to provide a rational assessment of options is to use calculation methods that represent in detail the physical processes involved; this usually involves the use of dynamic thermal models. Furthermore if this tool is also used during detailed design it would introduce a consistency that is normally absent from the analytical design process. Many designers are of the opinion that, because not all details are known, then such tools are not suitable for application at early stages in the design. This view can be challenged because, even at the concept stage, a great deal is known about a building. This paper aims to show that a general description of a building can be used to generate sufficient data to drive a valid analysis using a detailed thermal model at the early sketch stage of the design process. The paper describes the philosophy, methodology and the interface developed to achieve this aim. The interface guides the user through the input process using a series of screens giving options for keywords used to describe the building; comprehensive default data built into the software are then attached to these keywords. The resulting data file is a building description that is the best possible interpretation of the design intent. This can then be used to assess options and guide towards a final design.
series ASCAAD
email a.bennadji@rgu.ac.uk
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 2004_387
id 2004_387
authors Cheng, Nancy
year 2004
title Stroke Sequence in Digital Sketching
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 387-393
summary This paper explains how to use animated drawings created with a commercial portable pen to understand and teach design process. By recording and replaying pen strokes, the Logitech Io digital pen allows us to examine the drawing process. We have been using the pen to collect expert drawings, analyse the techniques and then teach drawing strategies. The software’s animation timeline engages viewers by giving narrative sequence to a drawing, revealing sub-steps of the design or drawing process for interactive examination and discussion. The timeline allows viewers to pull apart layers of information, revealing initial strokes of complicated drawings, separating overlaid corrections and facilitating stroke counting for protocol analysis. In the classroom, students can see a variety of expert drawing techniques, use the pen in class and then immediately compare animated versions of their own efforts and expert examples. The ease of collecting new examples makes it possible to widen the range of examples to unconventional techniques.
keywords Drawing, Design Process And Media, Digital Design Tools, Teaching
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email nywc@uoregon.edu
last changed 2007/10/22 05:00

_id sigradi2004_123
id sigradi2004_123
authors Elizabeth Bund y Patricia Recayte
year 2004
title Temporalidad y movimiento en una experiencia proyectual digital [Temporality and Movement in a Digital Design Experience]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This paper proposes an analysis of resulting product of a didactical design experience produced into digital environment in architectural shape context. The line of argument is the study of temporality and movement as necessary conditions of shape to be experienced in two levels: the literal-objective and the phenomenic-perceptual. An hipermedia design proceeding of interconnected character, not lineal, with superposition of project process and presentation strategies in hipertextual organization has been developed. The student involves himself as producer-operator, into rational and intuitive levels simultaneously, to generate and simulate, conditions and architectural experiences by using digital media. As a result of this experience abilities and proper worths of the digital media are recognized, that encourage reflection and creativity, allowing to increase critical and aesthetic capabilities in producing the architectural work.
keywords Time, movement, architecture, didactical experience
series SIGRADI
email elizabethbund@aol.com, precayte@mdp.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 2004_184
id 2004_184
authors Fatah gen. Schieck, Ava
year 2004
title Using Multiple Input Devices
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 184-194
summary The field of computer graphics has developed significantly over the last decade. However, most current CAD systems support only the two most common input devices: a mouse and a keyboard. In addition to that few, if any, systems make it easy for the user or the programmer to add and use new input devices. People tend to use both hands to manipulate 3D real world objects; one hand is used to orient the object while the other hand is used to perform some operation on it. The same thing could be applied to computer modelling in the conceptual phase of the design process. Accordingly, the 3D object can be easily and intuitively changed through interactive manipulation of both hands. This paper investigates the manipulation and creation of free form geometries through the use of interactive interfaces with multiple input devices. It demonstrates that using multiple input devices can offer many opportunities for form generation resulting in visually rich forms. However, the experimental results demonstrated that regulations are needed to avoid developing inefficient two-handed interfaces.
keywords Modelling Interactively, Architectural Design Tools at the Conceptual Phase, Affordable Low-Cost Solution, Multiple Input Devices MID
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id sigradi2004_021
id sigradi2004_021
authors Frank Petzold; Dirk Donath; Christian Bürgy
year 2004
title Computer-supported Building Surveying - The Basis for Planning in Existing Built Contexts
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary In view of declining populations and adequate housing provision in the western world, building in existing built contexts is becoming increasingly relevant. The conservation and use of existing buildings stock is not only ecologically sound but also an economic imperative. A prerequisite for computer-aided planning for existing buildings is both the use of on-site computer-aided surveying and the integration of all participants and disciplines in the planning process using integrated information and communication systems. The aim of this research project is twofold: to design a practice-relevant software concept for the support of the entire building surveying process embedded in the planning process, and to develop a practice-oriented mobile, digitally supported equipment and system environment for the digital architectural surveying of buildings. This paper will discuss the IT concept of a building surveying system, the software and hardware prototypes developed as well as usability aspects of wearable computers.
series SIGRADI
email petzold@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 2004_500
id 2004_500
authors Hanzl, Malgorzata and Wrona, Stefan
year 2004
title Visual Simulation as a Tool for Planning Education - Computer Aided Participation Support
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 500-507
summary Contemporary computer techniques offer many new opportunities to engage citizens into the planning process. There are new possibilities of interaction, introducing an observer into the “game”. The research project presented in the paper assumes the use of a visual 3D language which consists of a series of schematic types of buildings. They form a language which is easy to understand both by professionals and by laymen. Understanding is the very first step towards getting convinced by the ideas presented. The next step is interaction - the user’s action induces the response of the system. The solution proposed by the user meets an evaluation from the part of the system which evokes the user’s interest - in the case presented here the evaluation introduces the simulation of future state of the site. The problem posed is to find out the best way to convince people that some places are less or more suitable for settlement, depending on the media present there, distance from the urban areas and the environment protection. The attempt to create a tool which could be helpful in an educational process is described in the paper. The idea is to prepare a form of a master plan record which uses the visual 3D language and may be accessed via World Wide Web pages. The paper formulates the assessments for the software described above and examines the possibility to create an application. The trial to prepare a web based service using the flash and shockwave technology is presented.
series eCAADe
email skwrona@astercity.net
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id sigradi2004_162
id sigradi2004_162
authors Isabel Amalia Medero Rocha
year 2004
title A concepção arquitetônica em ambiente computacional, a ferramenta como fator interveniente durante a geração de idéias Paavi-projeto de arquitetura em ambientes virtuais interativos [The Conception of Architecture in a Computational Environment - The Tool as an Intervening Factor during the Generation of Ideas (Paavi- Architectural Project in Interactive Virtual Environments)]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This study presents the results obtained as of the teaching of architectural project at a digital workshop using the WEB environment and its graphic and textual interaction tools. Sketches and external and internal 3D modeling of the architectural object formed the corpus of this investigation. The architectural concept phase (generation of ideas) was given pedagogical emphasis, based on a core concept established by conceptual images and to which space, software and formal construction elements are subordinated. The computational tool was seen to become one of the agents in the idea generation process by assisting in the arrangement of the designer.s initial ideas and by establishing project procedures that use computer-based operations. These project procedures reconstruct the object perceived as architectural concept. The central notion in the architectural proposition is the decisive element in the choice and use of the graphic software in the design process, considering its different steps.
series SIGRADI
email isabel@portoweb.com.br, isabel@prisma.unisinos.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id eaea2003_0
id eaea2003_0
authors Kardos, P. and Urland, U. (Eds.)
year 2004
title SPATIAL SIMULATION AND EVALUATION - NEW TOOLS IN ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN DESIGN
source Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7, 144 p.
summary The 5th eaea Conference in Essen yielded four principal findings: • After having been limited to endoscopic picture and film renderings of analog scaled models, the european architectural endoscopy association (eaea) first bridged the gap to digital environmental simulations at this conference. It is not about a better or correct method, but a suitable method of representing the planned reality of a particular project using ways that make sense. The combination of digital and analog simulation media is a source of impetus to the user of both methods. The future belongs to the casespecific application and the numerous integration possibilities of the two different media. • In investigating the perception of pictures produced in both analog and digital form, it was ascertained that it was only after greater effort that the same level of pleasing qualities were achieved in the digital world, compared to pictures of analog scaled models. It seems that for many planning phases model-based pictures are superior to digital photos – with regards to economy, quality of representation and imaginative attributes. This last point seems to be especially important in the draft planning stages: the less sharp a picture is, the more remaining room for viewer interpretation there is. In particular, the high degree of precision characteristic of digital simulations no longer allows room for imagination in the individual viewer. • 3D environmental simulations will increasingly be incorporated with success in architecture and urban design courses at universities and colleges both here in Germany as well as abroad. The further spread of these techniques to other universities and colleges is desirable. Over and above application as a pedagogic tool, the use of these simulations by architects and city planners, private planning agencies and municipal planning administrators will also be in evidence in the future – for checking designs, for informing the involved parties, for establishing the decisions of government bodies, for marketing the project. • Also, the interactive use of endoscopic simulation facilities continually opens new fields of research – whether it be for registering subjective distance perception, whether it be for determining orientation possibilities in open spaces.
series EAEA
type normal paper
email a_urland@yahoo.com
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ddss2008-08
id ddss2008-08
authors Koshak, Nabeel A.; Abdullah Fouda
year 2008
title Analyzing Pedestrian Movement in Mataf Using GPSand GIS to Support Space Redesign
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary Evaluating the use of architectural and urban spaces is an important issue for architects and urban designers who wish to enhance space usability. Space usability is crucial in crowded spaces such as Mataf areas. Millions of people come to the city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia every year to perform Hajj (Islamic Pilgrimage) and Umrah. A cornerstone of Hajj and Umrah spirituals is to perform Tawaf, which is the circumambulation of the Ka'bah in the center of the Holy Mosque in Makkah. The areas of performing Tawaf (called Mataf) become very crowded during Hajj and the last ten days of Ramadan. This paper demonstrates how we utilized Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze pedestrian movement while performing Tawaf. During the Hajj of 1424 H (2004 in the Georgian Calendar), several GPS devices were used to collect pedestrian movement coordinates at specific time intervals. Computer software for tracking analysis is used to visualize and analyze the pattern of pedestrian movement in Tawaf. The software allows users to view temporal data, which can be set up with past time windows for historical data analysis. The findings of this research show levels of service and flow rates throughout different zones and times of Mataf. They indicate the most critical zones and times for Tawaf during Hajj. They also visually demonstrate the track pattern of pedestrian movement at different locations in the Tawaf area. The paper concludes with some redesign recommendations to remove obstacles and facilitate pedestrian movement in Tawaf. The approach described in this paper can be implemented in architectural and urban design space modifications to improve pedestrian movement in open spaces.
keywords Pedestrian movement analysis, GPS, GIS, Hajj, Makkah, Tawaf
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id ijac20032109
id ijac20032109
authors Lang, Silke
year 2004
title Interactive Spaces for Advanced Communication using 3D Video
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 1
summary Architects integrate more and more modern information technologies in their projects. Based on this background the use of 3D video in an architectural context is discussed. The combination of real-time 3D video and blue-c technology for a distributed shopping experience in shared virtual shops is described. IN: SHOP illustrates an approach to enhance physical environments in shopping areas and connects geographically distant persons. These technologies offer new architectural design possibilities. The traditional understanding of location, space, and time may be redefined. Interactive spaces are being designed, modified and experienced. We believe that information technologies have an impact on buildings and architecture.
series journal
email lang@arch.ethz.ch
more http://www.multi-science.co.uk/ijac.htm
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id liewh_pdh_2004
id liewh_pdh_2004
authors Liew, Haldane
year 2004
title SGML: a meta-language for shape grammars
source PhD dissertation, Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass
summary A shape grammar develops a drawing through a series of transformations by repeatedly applying if-then rules. Although the rules can be designed, in principle, to construct any type of drawing, the drawings they construct may not necessarily develop in the manner intended by the designer of the grammar. In this thesis, I introduce a shape grammar meta-language that adds power to grammars based on the shape grammar language. Using the shape grammar meta-language, the author of a grammar can: (1) explicitly determine the sequence in which a set of rules is applied; (2) restrict rule application through a filtering process; and (3) use context to guide the rule matching process, all of which provide a guided design experience for the user of the grammar. Three example grammars demonstrate the effectiveness of the meta-language. The first example is the Bilateral Grid grammar which demonstrates how the meta-language facilitates the development of grammars that offer users multiple design choices. The second grammar is the Hexagon Path grammar which demonstrates how the metalanguage is useful in contexts other than architectural design. The third and most ambitious example is the Durand grammar which embodies the floor plan design process described in Précis of the Lectures of Architecture, written by JNL Durand, an eighteenth century architectural educator. Durand's floor plan design process develops a plan through a series of transformations from grid to axis to parti to wall. The corresponding Durand grammar, which consists of 74 rules and 15 macros organized into eight stages, captures Durand's ideas and fills in gaps in Durand's description of his process. A key contribution of this thesis is the seven descriptors that constitute the meta-language. The descriptors are used in grammar rules: (1) to organize a set of rules for the user to choose from; (2) to group together a series of rules; (3) to filter information in a drawing; (4) to constrain where a rule can apply; and (5) to control how a rule is applied. The end result is a language that allows the author to create grammars that guide users by carefully controlling the design process in the manner intended by the author.
series thesis:PhD
email haldane@mit.edu
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id ddss2004_d-209
id ddss2004_d-209
authors Lindekens, J. and A. Heylighen
year 2004
title Re-Using Re-Design Knowledge
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 209-224
summary Addressing the issue of building re-use, this paper reports on the development of a re-design tool, which aims at helping students and novices (and even experienced architects) in understanding design decisions that have steered existing re-design projects. Furthermore the tool tries to support designers in using this understanding in their own design projects. The paper starts by situating the re-design tool within the overall research setup, and continues by motivating the observations that have led to developing this tool. The core of the paper describes the re-design tool itself and illustrates it with a concrete example. Finally, the tool is framed within the wider context of (architectural) design research, so as to explore where the tool accords or collides with generally accepted design theories.
keywords Design Process, Design Method, Design Strategy, Re-Design, Design Tool
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

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