CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2004_353
id sigradi2004_353
authors Alice Theresinha Cybis Pereira; Berenice Santos Gonçalves
year 2004
title O ambiente virtual de aprendizagem em arquitetura e design da UFSC - Do projeto à realidade [The Virtual Learning Environment in Architecture and Design at UFSC – From Project to Reality]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This article presents the theoretical basis and the structure that supports the virtual learning process on a collaborative environment for Architecture and Design: VLE-AD. The virtual environment is modelled based on the presuppositions of the Problems Based Learning (PBL) and on the distance collaboration based with the fundamentals of constructivism and socio-interacionism. A specific environment for problems resolution is offered together with syncronic and assyncronic communication tools. The site is structured with learning activities in several modalities: contents, exercises and problems. The evaluation was preformed with the on-line course .Color applied in Graphical Design..The results has proven to be very positive for design and architecture distant learning in applying the tripod: Communication and Information Technology, Theoretical contents and Problems. The online participation and the resolution steps of the problems has been highlighted as a main factor to improve learning and avoid the ghost of loneliness pointed by students from some distant learning courses and responsible for the high number of abandonment.
series SIGRADI
email alice@ava.egr.ufsc.br, berenice@ava.egr.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ddss2006-pb-101
id DDSS2006-PB-101
authors Aloys W.J. Borgers, I.M.E. Smeets, A.D.A.M. Kemperman, and H.J.P. Timmermans
year 2006
title Simulation of Micro Pedestrian Behaviour in Shopping Streets
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Progress in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN-10: 90-386-1756-9, ISBN-13: 978-90-386-1756-5, p. 101-116
summary Over the years, scholars have developed various models of pedestrian movement. These models can be used to assess the effects of detailed design decisions or to predict pedestrian behaviour under conditions of crowding. To date, not much attention has been paid to pedestrians' shopping behaviour at the micro level. Therefore, the main purpose of this project is to test a model that aims at simulating micro pedestrian behaviour in shopping streets, including entering shops. The model assumes a detailed network of links to represent the structure of street segments and entrances to the shops. The basic principle underlying the model is that a pedestrian moves from one link in the network to another, adjacent link. In fact, a pedestrian enters a segment at one side, heading for the other side of the segment. However, a pedestrian might enter the segment by leaving a shop as well. Then, the pedestrian might be heading for either side of the segment. While transferring from the current link to the next link, the pedestrian will be attracted by the shops along both sides of the street. The study area is Antwerp's main shopping street. During a one-week workshop in July 2004, students observed pedestrian movement in this shopping street. An inventory of some physical characteristics of the shopping street was made and pedestrians were tracked through two separate segments of the shopping street. In total, 334 pedestrians were tracked. A conventional multinomial logit model is used to simulate pedestrians' micro behaviour. The process of consecutively selecting links continues until the pedestrian has reached one of the terminal links or a shop. The model performs very well. Simulated routes were used to assess the validity of the model. Observed and simulated link loading correspond fairly well, however, the model seems to slightly mispredict the attraction of a number of shops.
keywords Micro pedestrian behaviour, Shopping street, Simulation
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id 2004_350
id 2004_350
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 2004
title Computer, Creativity and Unpredictability
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 350-357
summary Computers in designing are usually considered as a tool for preparing technical documentation, storage and managing information, coordinating of flow of design process, modelling and all kind of visualisations (renderings, animation, VR models). At the early design stages, when an idea of the form is created, computer is not used very often. The reason for this is that traditional computer drawing is too completed to be used at this stage. In new methods of supporting creativity, computer should be used for creation of less precise, unpredictable but more inspiring images. This method are based on the thesis that emotional elements have a great affect on the decision making process in designing. Intuition, unpredictability and no logic are the essence of creativity in the selection of associations. Confirmation of this statement we may find in many theories of creativity (theory of incubation elaborated by Wallas, genploration (Finke, Ward and Smith), redundant generation (Lem), synectics (Gordon)). All these theories emphasize the role of unpredictable associations and metaphors in creativity. Process of metaphorisation is characteristic for our era and plays important role in creative process. That’s why we need the new methods of graphic computer and non-computer transformation, which allows us a fuller exploration of design metaphors. The final conclusion is built on the thesis that too precise tools promote cause to decrease differences.
keywords Creativity; Design Theory; Metaphors
series eCAADe
email asan@pb.bialystok.pl
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 411caadria2004
id 411caadria2004
authors Bauni Hamid
year 2004
title Visualizing Urban Resettlement Project in the Context of Community-Based Development
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 707-716
summary This research was focused on visualizing new housing model and its customization based on people’s option as part of implementing community-based development principle. There are two significant research findings that are discussed in this paper that will be basis for developing a user-friendlier digital model as part of longterm research in visualizing whole resettlement process. The role of local person who is authorized to handle the model and to customize it to other inhabitants in the resettlement area is very essential in order to achieve the maximum versatility of the model. Another significant finding is potential of VRML model as information nodes for other digital modeling alternatives in an integrated information system for urban revitalization project.
series CAADRIA
email bauni@indosat.net.id
last changed 2004/05/20 17:41

_id acadia04_000
id acadia04_000
authors Beesley, P., Cheng, N.Y.-W. and Williamson, R.S. (eds.)
year 2004
title FABRICATION: EXAMINING THE DIGITAL PRACTICE OF ARCHITECTURE
source Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 09696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004.
summary We are presenting design ideas, technical innovation, and fabrication expertise that address crucial issues. Authors investigate how to effectively design and practice architecture with automated prototyping and manufacturing. We want to understand where this might lead, and how it might change the nature of architecture itself. We are just beginning to discover the opportunities to be found in integrating automated fabrication within the practice of architecture. At the same time, the new century has brought very mixed perspectives on confident Modern progress. A cautious scrutiny of 'innovation' is needed. Fabrication is an old word with the straightforward meaning, to make. The roots of the word lead to the origins of architecture. Making has been considered a virtue by ancient writers and modern politicians alike. Fabrication (and homo faber, 'one who makes') have served as fundamental terms that constitutions and contract laws have been built upon. Shaping and working with materials is at the core of Western civilization. However at a point in human history where nature is steadily being replaced by human artifice, the consequences of making are far from simple. Whether for good or ill, our new fabricated environment is transforming the world.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2005/03/07 06:14

_id ascaad2004_paper9
id ascaad2004_paper9
authors Bennadji, A.; H. Ahriz, and P. Alastair
year 2004
title Computer Aided Sustainable Design
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary One of the most important aspects architects need to consider fairly early on is that of energy saving, cost, thermal comfort and the effect on the environment in terms of CO2 emissions. At present, during the early design stage of a building, different options are assessed using simple tools (tables, graphs and software) that contain a large number of assumptions the very nature of which can bias choice or possibly lead to an inappropriate solution. It can be argued that the only way to provide a rational assessment of options is to use calculation methods that represent in detail the physical processes involved; this usually involves the use of dynamic thermal models. Furthermore if this tool is also used during detailed design it would introduce a consistency that is normally absent from the analytical design process. Many designers are of the opinion that, because not all details are known, then such tools are not suitable for application at early stages in the design. This view can be challenged because, even at the concept stage, a great deal is known about a building. This paper aims to show that a general description of a building can be used to generate sufficient data to drive a valid analysis using a detailed thermal model at the early sketch stage of the design process. The paper describes the philosophy, methodology and the interface developed to achieve this aim. The interface guides the user through the input process using a series of screens giving options for keywords used to describe the building; comprehensive default data built into the software are then attached to these keywords. The resulting data file is a building description that is the best possible interpretation of the design intent. This can then be used to assess options and guide towards a final design.
series ASCAAD
email a.bennadji@rgu.ac.uk
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
email conrad.boton@tudor.lu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id eaea2003_15-breen
id eaea2003_15-breen
authors Breen, J. and Giro, H.
year 2004
title The DXI Experience. Ten Years of Design Visualization Developments in an Educational Laboratory Context
source Spatial Simulation and Evaluation - New Tools in Architectural and Urban Design [Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7], pp. 71-77
summary Design visualisation is an essential aspect of virtually every form of design enquiry. The effects of potential environmental interventions may be simulated in order to gain the types of insights, which cannot be acquired easily from two-dimensional notations. Three-dimensional representations may be generated for very different reasons. The most direct form of design imaging is traditionally for the benefit of the designer him/herself, in order to test whether the working concepts offer fitting solutions to the complex array of design conditions such as context, programme and feasibility. Alternately, images may be generated for the benefit of communication, in order to offer insights into the expected workings of a particular proposal (possibly including alternatives). This may lead to greater understanding and possibly to reaching consensus amongst different ‘actors’ involved in the design and realisation process. In many cases the results of such visualisation studies contribute to ‘bridging the gap’ between the professionals and other parties involved more indirectly in design decision-making or the appraisal of the proposals. Designers can use distinctly different methods when going about such imaging procedures. Their choices for particular techniques may depend on their familiarity or the availability of certain media devices. Being confronted with new modelling and/or visualisation instruments can stimulate the interest in fresh approaches. In this respect, the design education environment can play an important role in not only teaching ‘proven’ applications to future designers, but also in creating a platform for the active development of innovative approaches to the design visualisation practices: education as a ‘laboratory’ for new insights and potentially a ‘breeding ground’ for the extension of the designer’s instrumentation. This contribution documents the experiences gained in some ten years within an educational application, involving active use of design driven media applications. The emphasis lies on the evolvement of techniques for eye-level imaging, whereby use can be made of different types of models: physical scale models as well as digital, virtual models. Changing attitudes towards dynamic and serial vision are considered, whereby storyboard approaches on the level of integral presentation are considered. By analysing a selection of cases and their underlying approaches an indication is given of the changing attitudes and combinations of multimedia techniques, which offer opportunities to design visualisation and communication.
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id eaea2003_11-bremer-sander
id eaea2003_11-bremer-sander
authors Bremer, S. and Sander, H.
year 2004
title View from the Road: Environmental Simulation for the Fractal City of Rhine Ruhr
source Spatial Simulation and Evaluation - New Tools in Architectural and Urban Design [Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7], pp. 43-47
summary Highway seems to be more an issue of traffic planning than of urban design. But the highway can be a very important factor for the modern city pattern. Highways shape the spatial form of the fractal city. The modern highway can define new cores outside and “interior edges” within the city. Seen as a planning tool, highways are the great neglected opportunity in city and regional design. The 1st Architecture Biennial, 1ab, taking place from May 2003 to July 2003 in Rotterdam, explores the creative potentials of modern highways worldwide. An international research team discovered the spatial functions of highways in modern agglomerations. This lecture will give an overview of the results of the worldwide analyses and the design projects that had been undertaken. Both authors are members of the German research team. The German team examined the A 42 running through the Ruhrgebiet, a former coal and steal area in western Germany. The Ruhr Area is converting from an industrially orientated region to an agglomeration of high technology and science. But the regional image remains the same due to the fact that the changes cannot be seen, neither physically, nor from the road. Here, the highway could be used as a catalyst supporting and structuring the spatial changes to make them more legible for the people of Rhine-Ruhr. The nature becomes the most important tool of highway design. Landscape forms a linkage between the different cities of the region. Together with the A 40 and other local highways the region becomes the most important (and largest) public space of the new Rhine-Ruhr. The highway seen as a work of urban art can be designed only from the perspective of the driving car.
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 2004_312
id 2004_312
authors Burry, J., Felicetti, P., Tang, J., Burry, M. and Xie, M.
year 2004
title Dynamical Structural Modeling - A Collaborative Design Exploration
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 312-317
summary This paper will report on a generative performative modeling approach that engages architects and structural engineers in close dialog. We focus on knowledge shared between architects and engineers to apply the Finite Element Analysis based structural design technique Evolutionary Structural Optimization [ESO] as a way to understand or corroborate the performance factors that are significant in determining architectural form. ESO is very close conceptually to the dynamical system of matter and forces of growth itself. It has parallels both mathematical and metaphorical with natural evolution and morphogenesis so it has been poignant to apply the approach to a formal architectural case study in which the generative influence of these processes is inherent.
keywords Evolutionary Structural Optimization; Finite Element Analysis; Architect Engineer Collaboration; Performance-Based Design; Form Finding
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 0131
id 0131
authors Chiarella, Mauro
year 2004
title GEOMETRY AND ARCHITECTURE: NURBS, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 135-139.
summary Geometry regarded as a tool for understanding is perhaps the part of Mathematics which is the most intuitive, concrete and linked to reality. From its roots as a tool to describe and measure shapes, geometry as ‘the space science’ , has grown towards a theory of ideas and methods by means of which it is possible to build and study idealised models, not only from the physical world but also from the real world. In graphic architecture thought, geometry usually appears as an instrumental support for project speculation. Geometric procedures are presented as representational resources for the graphic testing of reflection and for the exposition of ideas in order to build a logical order as regards representation and formal prefiguration. The fast rise of computing in the last decades has made it possible for architects to work massively and in a graphic and intuitive way with mathematical representations of tridimensional geometry, such as the NURBS . These organic surfaces of free shapes defined by vectorial curves have allowed access to a rapid generation of complex shapes with a minumum amount of data and of specific knowledge.

The great development of modelling achieved by the digital media and the limitations in the technical and building areas and in the existence of materials which are coherent with the resultant shapes reveal a considerable distance between the systems of ideation and simulation characteristic of the computing era and the analogous systems of production inherited from the slow industrial development. This distance has been shortened by CAD/CAM systems, which are, however, not very accessible to the architectural field. If we incorporate to the development of these divergent media the limitations which are distinctive of the material resources and procedures of the existent local technology, the aforementioned distance seems even greater.

Assuming the metaphor of living at the threshold of two ages (industrial-computing, analogical-digital, material-virtual) and the challenge of the new conceptual and operational tools in our field, we work in the mixture, with no exclusions or substitutions, proposing (by means of the development of informational complements) some alternatives of work to approach the issue under discussion from the Architecture Workshop.

keywords Geometry, Design, NURBS, Unfolding, Pedagogy
series other
type normal paper
email chiarell@fadu.unl.edu.ar
last changed 2005/04/07 10:51

_id 316caadria2004
id 316caadria2004
authors Chor-Kheng Lim
year 2004
title A Revolution of the Design Process
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 571-583
summary Along with the development of computer technologies and CAD/CAM, digital tools are increasingly adapted in architectural design. Developed thus far, functions of digital tools are no long limited to two-dimensional drafting or final presentation; they have become tools that can assist design thinking. Because of the involvement of digital tools, the design process has been greatly affected; or, one may say that digital tools liberated the confines of forms and structuring of architectures. This research aims to explore the procedures in the design process using digital tools. In the conclusion, we found that in an attempt to abridge the gap between design ideas and actual implementation, the designer used the digital reality simulation function very frequently to assist in decision making, and in order to process more complex and freer forms, the designer relied on the 3D design environment to carry out his thinking process and amendments. In addition, the digital design process is mainly conducted through the methods of 1, 3D modeling, 2, Simulation, 3, Generation, and 4, Fabrication. The steps and methods in the digital design process are obviously different from the traditional ones, which focus mainly on mass-production of 2D drawings; therefore, it is certain that the new tools will change the outcome of the designs.
series CAADRIA
email kheng@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2004/05/20 17:39

_id 2005_037
id 2005_037
authors Côté, Pierre, Léglise, Michel and Estévez, Daniel
year 2005
title Virtual Architecture as Representation for Creative Design Process - Through a Collaborative eDesign Studio
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 37-45
summary Using Virtual Architecture (VA) as a general scheme for representations to sustain the reflection activities involved in the design process can help students to initiate creative design ideas. Because of its implicit abstract nature, VA can be used, to represent original ideas or processes, or well-known architectural theories to articulate design ideas. Furthermore, VA as a mean of expression, turn out to be a source of inspiration for students who perceive it as medium with very few limits with which to develop, explore and express their design intuitions. A recent collaborative edesign studio experience is reported to illustrate the benefit observed. Using three examples out of ten student projects, we show how designs and design process have been characterized by those virtual representations. In fall semester 2004, the edesign studio took place between the Schools of Architecture of Toulouse and Université Laval in Québec. VA was both an academic and a studio topic at Laval while the other school students had a traditional design task to tackle, namely the rehabilitation of Chapou University Residences for students in Toulouse. Students from both schools composed each edesign team. In addition, three common architectural themes were web-documented and introduced to both classes: room, as defined by Louis Kahn: “a space which knows what it wants to be is a room”; color, as an architectural medium in dialectic with structure; and body-space relationships, as articulated by Gilles Deleuze and its projection to cyberspace. From the edesign studio results, we are arguing that virtual architecture should be looked at not only as new domain to be investigated by architects and taught in academic studios but also as a new medium of design to develop and explore design intuitions through virtual representations.
keywords Virtual Architecture; Virtual Representations; Medium; eDesign; Design by Collaboration
series eCAADe
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id avocaad_2003_03
id avocaad_2003_03
authors Dag Boutsen
year 2003
title AN INCLUSIVE ‘WORK-METHOD’ AND A SPECIFIC SEARCH FOR FULLY SUPPORTED SOLUTIONS THROUGH SUBJECTORIENTED DESIGN (INSTEAD OF OBJECT-ORIENTED)!
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary This paper talks about the hardness of CAAD.And it talks about the necessity to develop ‘soft’ CAAD.A lot of architectural adventures are stopped in the beginning or the middle of the road. Because of decisions far away from the designers or the clients. These decisions break in against some aspects of the design. Small details often kill a whole design-process.Does architectural design only belong to architects and planners ?To a “Me, myself and I”-world ? For the last 10 years, we have gained a lot of experience of designing architectural landscapes in a specific way. We design in such a way that developing projects can change or evolve strongly within themselves without losing their typical spirit. Change because of external and non-predictable events, change because of unexpected or changing circumstances, change because of the participation of new intervening people….New housing projects in Apeldoorn and Dordrecht,Rehabilitation projects in Gennevilliers (Paris) and Hellersdorf (Berlin), …Schools and hospitals in Amsterdam, …Each time very local aspects are incorporated in the different design-spirits.The networks are similar because of specific design-methods.This paper wants to explain something about this process-spirit.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
type normal paper
email dag.boutsen@archb.sintlucas.wenk.be
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id ddss2004_ra-33
id ddss2004_ra-33
authors Diappi, L., P. Bolchim, and M. Buscema
year 2004
title Improved Understanding of Urban Sprawl Using Neural Networks
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 14020-2408-8, p. 33-49
summary It is widely accepted that the spatial pattern of settlements is a crucial factor affecting quality of life and environmental sustainability, but few recent studies have attempted to examine the phenomenon of sprawl by modelling the process rather than adopting a descriptive approach. The issue was partly addressed by models of land use and transportation which were mainly developed in the UK and US in the 1970s and 1980s, but the major advances were made in the area of modelling transportation, while very little was achieved in the area of spatial and temporal land use. Models of land use and transportation are well-established tools, based on explicit, exogenouslyformulated rules within a theoretical framework. The new approaches of artificial intelligence, and in particular, systems involving parallel processing, (Neural Networks, Cellular Automata and Multi-Agent Systems) defined by the expression “Neurocomputing”, allow problems to be approached in the reverse, bottom-up, direction by discovering rules, relationships and scenarios from a database. In this article we examine the hypothesis that territorial micro-transformations occur according to a local logic, i.e. according to use, accessibility, the presence of services and conditions of centrality, periphericity or isolation of each territorial “cell” relative to its surroundings. The prediction capabilities of different architectures of supervised Neural networks are implemented to the south Metropolitan area of Milan at two different temporal thresholds and discussed. Starting from data on land use in 1980 and 1994 and by subdividing the area into square cells on an orthogonal grid, the model produces a spatial and functional map of urbanisation in 2008. An implementation of the SOM (Self Organizing Map) processing to the Data Base allows the typologies of transformation to be identified, i.e. the classes of area which are transformed in the same way and which give rise to territorial morphologies; this is an interesting by-product of the approach.
keywords Neural Networks, Self-Organizing Maps, Land-Use Dynamics, Supervised Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 2004_174
id 2004_174
authors Duarte, José P., Caldas, Luisa G. and Rocha, João
year 2004
title Free-form Ceramics - Design and Production of Complex Architectural Forms with Ceramic Elements
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 174-183
summary This paper describes a studio experiment developed with the aim of exploring the design and fabrication of complex architectural forms using ceramic elements. History has examples of double-sided curved forms built in ceramics. Such examples would not fulfill contemporary functional and aesthetic principles, neither would they be feasible or cost-effective considering current construction standards. There are recent examples of such forms built in other materials. These examples are difficult to emulate when ceramics is concerned, as they imply the fabrication of unique parts and sophisticated assembly techniques. Creating a double-curved surface in ceramics thus seems a difficult task. There are, however, advantages to such a formulation of design problems. They prompt the questioning of traditional wisdom, the rejection of accepted types, and the raising of interesting questions. What are the design strategies that should be followed when creating ceramic free-forms? What is the design media required to design them? And what are the techniques needed to fabricate and construct them? These are the questions investigated in the design project pursued jointly by students at an American and a Portuguese school, in collaboration with a professional research center and a ceramics factory. The students tested various possibilities, and in the process learned about state-of-art design and production techniques. The final projects are very expressive of their investigations and include a twisted glass tunnel, large-scale ceramic ‘bubbles,’ a rotated-tile wall, and a load-bearing wall system.
keywords Design Education: Rapid Prototyping; Remote Collaboration; Ceramics; Innovation; Free-Form Architecture
series eCAADe
email jduarte@civil.ist.utl.pt
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id sigradi2004_345
id sigradi2004_345
authors Eleanna Cadalso; Alejandro Haiek Coll; Pedro Soza Ruiz
year 2004
title Modelación por captura de movimiento [Modeling by means of Movement Capture]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Keyframing, Morphing, Inverse Kinematics; they are all animation technics which have been explored by diverse groups of architects, academics and students, searching for new horizons in the proyecting process development, pushing forward the present limits of proyecting methodology. We define this project starting by the explorative use of animation tools as experimental variables in reformulating our design processes. Data input have been traditionally carried out using classic interfaces such as keyboard, mouse, graphics tablet, among others. Despite this is accepted by many as the standard way of communicating with machines, we think this is still very far from the ideal way to design and model new proposals. In this context we propose to investigate a new way to approach to the computed aided modelling process, questioning and reformulating traditional interfaces in user .machine communication.
series SIGRADI
email eccode@hotmail.com, haiek@uchile.cl, psoza@uchile.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id fa6e
id fa6e
authors Escayola, Rosa María; Bauleo, Silvina A.; Diez, Leonardo Pablo
year 2004
title DISTANCE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS FOR STUDENTS OF ARCHITECTURE: IS IT POSSIBLE?
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 105-109.
summary On the basis of our experience as teachers of Mathematics in the School of Architecture of the University of Buenos Aires and with the support of an expert designer of image and sound, we undertook the task of distance teaching the subject Mathematics II for students of Architecture. The academic guidance of Ms Spinadel, PhD, the university’s authorization and the support of a computer platform provided by Nueva Internet S.A. have enabled the completion of this project. We were encouraged to set up the distance teaching of the subject by the many advantages the system offers, namely, the chance for students to work at home with a computer-based platform containing all of the subject’s contents and to integrate and apply all the knowledge acquired in architectural contexts; and the chance for teachers to offer on-line guidance and tutorials. Distance teaching is not to be understood or configured as an accumulation of calculus procedures. Rather, it should be thought of as having the major aim of promoting the full development of the students’ imagination for the solution of architectural design problems. For that purpose, students must become familiar with the interface to be used as the virtual classroom, read the theoretical introduction to every one of the units, solve application problems (the students are provided with all the material, which they can visualize on line or print), and send their tutor all the queries they may have so that the process of teaching and learning is facilitated and enriched. The solution to exercises is presented in a didactic manner and students can resort to additional bibliography, image and formula galleries and a technical help forum provided by the software firm. A virtual classroom has been set up where students and teachers interact all the time. Students must also submit integrative assignments, which are corrected by the tutor and will form part of the subject’s final assessment, together with an in-person exam at the end of the semester. Excellent results have been obtained so far, being that this is the first time a subject of the Architecture course is taught this way. This paper is intended to share this experience and show how, in spite of the modality of the subject, the interaction achieved between students and teachers has proved to be very enriching.
series other
type normal paper
email vspinade@fibertel.com.ar
last changed 2005/04/07 10:50

_id sigradi2004_136
id sigradi2004_136
authors Etienne Delacroix
year 2004
title Studio of art and programming: Reaching out to art and architecture from inside engineering [Studio of art and programming: Reaching out to art and architecture from inside engineering]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Combining aspects of engineering with traditions of studio art we investigate an interface between both worlds: using a substantial acumulation of electrodigital refuse, taken as a .raw expressive medium., an elective course ( TAP: .taller de arte y programacion. . Studio of art and programing. ) takes a large mixed group of students ( engineering, art, architecture, music, etc..) with very different levels of skills, for a sustained immersion into an exploration context. Eliminating in a large measure the problem of .costs. by using obsolete, discarded computer parts, students manipulate, observe, deconstruct, reconstruct functional hardware and use programming to produce an expressive documentation of the process. The objective is not to work on .products. but on the production of .symbolic value. by uncovering and staging the fundamentals of electro-digital-computational knowledge into a form of .theater of technology..
series SIGRADI
email eti@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 2004_558
id 2004_558
authors Gatermann, Harald
year 2004
title The Didactic Triangle - Using CAD, Photography and Descriptive Geometry as Educating Tools with Mutual Influence
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 558-562
summary Teaching of architectural photography is still not very popular at universities. We developed a didactic concept of teaching architectural photography in response to caad and to descriptive geometry. The first edge of the triangle (descriptive geometry): By having knowledge in descriptive geometry, students will be more aware of geometrical context in caad and in photography. On the other hand the teaching and understanding of descriptive geometry is much easier, when students have already a basic knowledge of photography. The second edge of the triangle (caad, animation): This kind of teaching architectural photography is not only necessary to open the eyes for „young“ student to learn photography - it also helps to understand the basics of constructing perspectives in descriptive geometry or computer aided design up to different kinds of visualisation. The third edge of the triangle (photography): In the age of non-slr-cameras students are no longer used to take sophisticated photographs. They are mostly only able to take snapsshots (even in the time of digital cameras). One of our main methods is to make them acquainted to slrcameras (analog and digital), to tripods and spirit levels as essential tools and to teach the basic geometrical context. The didactic concept is continued by teaching knowledge about colours, light, different points of view etc. Our didactical concept („Didactic Triangle“) is based on teaching all three elements (photography, caad, descr. geometry) by the same teacher in the same semester to the same students. This guarantees the mutual understanding of the three disciplines. Interactive, digital teaching elements (virtual „mock-up-studio“) support the acceptance.
keywords Descriptive Geometry, Photography, CAD
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

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