CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2004_061
id sigradi2004_061
authors Leonardo Combes
year 2004
title Arquitectura otra [Architecture "Another"]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This paper describes experimental work carried out in a special architectural design studio. It runs methods that are different of the traditional teaching in the .normal. studios. The entire working time is separated in two characteristic periods: .Creative tasks. and .Design tasks.. The purpose is to clarify the design process assuming that generating ideas has quite different characteristics than leading them to the real world. Creative work means imagination whose limits are difficult to establish. In fact imagination hates imposed limits. Conversely the final task of design is to determine limits. These two opposed forces are conciliated in the design process. Ideas as well as physical objects need special means of representation. These are discussed in order to illustrate the trends underlying this particular design studio. (Architecture, design, teaching, digital representation)
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id liewh_pdh_2004
id liewh_pdh_2004
authors Liew, Haldane
year 2004
title SGML: a meta-language for shape grammars
source PhD dissertation, Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass
summary A shape grammar develops a drawing through a series of transformations by repeatedly applying if-then rules. Although the rules can be designed, in principle, to construct any type of drawing, the drawings they construct may not necessarily develop in the manner intended by the designer of the grammar. In this thesis, I introduce a shape grammar meta-language that adds power to grammars based on the shape grammar language. Using the shape grammar meta-language, the author of a grammar can: (1) explicitly determine the sequence in which a set of rules is applied; (2) restrict rule application through a filtering process; and (3) use context to guide the rule matching process, all of which provide a guided design experience for the user of the grammar. Three example grammars demonstrate the effectiveness of the meta-language. The first example is the Bilateral Grid grammar which demonstrates how the meta-language facilitates the development of grammars that offer users multiple design choices. The second grammar is the Hexagon Path grammar which demonstrates how the metalanguage is useful in contexts other than architectural design. The third and most ambitious example is the Durand grammar which embodies the floor plan design process described in Précis of the Lectures of Architecture, written by JNL Durand, an eighteenth century architectural educator. Durand's floor plan design process develops a plan through a series of transformations from grid to axis to parti to wall. The corresponding Durand grammar, which consists of 74 rules and 15 macros organized into eight stages, captures Durand's ideas and fills in gaps in Durand's description of his process. A key contribution of this thesis is the seven descriptors that constitute the meta-language. The descriptors are used in grammar rules: (1) to organize a set of rules for the user to choose from; (2) to group together a series of rules; (3) to filter information in a drawing; (4) to constrain where a rule can apply; and (5) to control how a rule is applied. The end result is a language that allows the author to create grammars that guide users by carefully controlling the design process in the manner intended by the author.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id 050112_logara-i
id 050112_logara-i
authors Logara, Irena
year 2004
title Finding of Form
source ETH postgraduate studies final thesis, Zurich
summary The intention of the thesis is to explore the spatial effect created when multiple forces interact in the formation of space. Instead of modeling the form, an internal generative logic is articulated which then produces a range of possibilities for the “fi nding of form”. As a first step creative relationships are being built between the objects in the space and different behaviors are assigned to them. This way, objects interact with each other rather than just occupying space. New fields of infl uence are added or new relations made, creating new variations. These interdependencies then become the structuring, organizing principle for the generation and transformation of form. The surface boundary of the whole deforms as fi elds of infl uence vary in their location and intensity. The insertion of the dimension of time gives the opportunity to follow and observe the deformation process and establishes a relation of continuity between the objects and the space.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id ddss2004_ra-129
id ddss2004_ra-129
authors Ma, L., Th. Arentze, A. Borgers, and H. Timmermans
year 2004
title Using Bayesian Decision Networks for Knowledge Representation under Conditions of Uncertainty in Multi-Agent Land Use Simulation Models
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 1-4020-24088, p. 129-144
summary Land suitability analysis typically involves the assessment of the suitability of land units without knowing the future spatial distribution of land use. Traditional planning techniques have used “algebraic equations” to express land suitability as a weighted function of suitability scores across multiple criteria. However, the existing multi-criteria evaluation methods do not systematically account for uncertainty about the land use in adjacent and other cells. This paper proposes an alternative approach to land suitability analysis that does address the problem of uncertainty. In particular, Bayesian decision networks are suggested as a means of knowledge representation for agents in a multi-agent land use simulation system. Bayesian decision networks model the uncertainty in terms of probabilities specified in the network representing the expertise of specialists with respect to specific land uses. This paper discusses the approach and illustrates its use in the context of a retail agent.
keywords Land Suitability Analysis, Multi-Agents, Knowledge Representation, Bayesian Decision Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id bfa9
id bfa9
authors Mahiques, Myriam Beatriz
year 2004
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 55-59.
summary Investigations about urban form are developed in many directions, being the history branch the strongest. It is based on the importance of forms created by previous generations. So, urban morphologists must examine the inhabitants and the processes that originate the urban form. In our discipline, ´´epistemological physicalism´´ is studied through the theory of complex systems and chaos theory. The resultant shape is obtained by selecting some elements of the abstract structure considered (non Euclidean geometry) and simulation software is used for experimentation, like L Systems, Diffusion Limited Aggregated, Cellular Automata. Then we have to discover what is veiled at first sight and to reflect on the optimal model for the community.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/04/07 10:48

_id 876d
id 876d
authors Martin, W Mike; Heylighen, Ann; Cavallin, Humberto
year 2004
source AI & Society, Issue: Online First, July 2004 [ISSN: 1435-5655 (Online)]
summary In response to the lack of systematic study of architectural practice, the Building Stories methodology propounds storytelling as a vehicle for studying active cases, i.e., projects that are in the process of being designed and built. The story format provides a dense, compact way to deal with and communicate the complex reality of a real-world project, while respecting the interrelated nature of events, people and circumstances that shape its conception. With an eye to establishing a valuable knowledge resource of and for the profession, the paper explores how stories can be stored, organized and accessed so as to turn the growing story repository into a convenient instrument for students, educators and practitioners.
keywords architectural practice, storytelling, knowledge exchange, design experience
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/01/26 22:02

_id acadia05_024
id acadia05_024
authors Mathew, Anijo
year 2005
title Smart Homes for the Rural Population: New Challenges and Opportunities
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 24-35
summary “Smart” Homes (domestic environments in which we are surrounded by interconnected technologies that are more or less responsive to our presence and actions) seem increasingly plausible with the emergence of powerful mobile computing devices and real time context aware computing (Edwards and Grinter, 2001). Research at premier technology universities have given birth to home “labs” that experiment with sensors, cameras and monitors to study physical, behavioral and social consequences of such technologies on occupants of such homes. One of the most important problems that “smart” homes will eventually help to address is that of spiraling costs of healthcare. Using ubiquitous technologies to motivate healthy decisions can help prevent the onset of myriad medical problems (Intille, 2004). Moving the focus of attention from the health centers and hospitals to the working home through such technology interventions would eventually lead to decreased financial pressure on the traditional healthcare system. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in the design of “smart” technologies for preventive healthcare in rural homes. It summarizes findings from current ethnographic and demographic studies; and examines other contemporary research in the field of ubiquitous computing and “smart” homes. With the help of these studies, the paper lists different technical, social and functional challenges that we as designers may have to consider before designing “smart” homes for rural populations.
series ACADIA
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id ddss2004_ra-341
id ddss2004_ra-341
authors Murakami, M., K. Higuchi, and A. Shibayama
year 2004
title Relationship between Convenience Store Robberies and Road Environment
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 341-356
summary This study focuses on road environment around robbed convenience stores and elucidates the road characteristics that are conducive to convenience store robberies by using GIS and indexes of graphs and networks. The method of this study is as follows: Five convenience store robberies, which occurred in Metropolitan Tokyo, were selected from newspaper reports. Then, road networks within a 1-kilometer radius of the robbed convenience stores were extracted from digital maps with a scale of one-twenty five hundredth (Geographical Survey Institute and Bureau of City Planning Tokyo Metropolitan Government). After adding the road networks and the attributes such as road width, we investigate the road characteristics using GIS and indexes of graphs and networks. Finally, we demonstrate several factors associated with convenience store robberies based on this compiled information.
keywords Convenience Store Robbery, GIS, Graph Theory, Indexes of Graphs and Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 1410
id 1410
authors Muñoz, Patricia; López Coronel, Juan
year 2004
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 97-104.
summary The purpose of this enquiry was to verify the way in which CAD systems and their tools for visual surfaces analysis interact with morphological knowledge in the determination of continuity in products of industrial design. We acknowledge that geometrical knowledge is necessary but not enough for working with this attribute of form in everyday objects, where cultural factors are involved. Geometry establishes a progressive range of continuity of surfaces that involves the concepts of position, tangency and curvature. In product design we find different degrees of continuity that not necessarily follow this idea of increment. What is understood as discontinuous in products in most cases is geometrically continuous. The control of smoothness in the shape of objects, is influenced by the way in which the form was created and by the different communicational, functional and technological elements that identify a product of industrial design. Subtlety in the suggestion of form, by means of the regulation its continuity, is what turns it suggestive through design. We consider that the development of the geometry of digital drawing systems in three dimensions should be an integrating process, where CAD developers and designers work closer in order to potentiate both activities.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/04/07 10:50

_id 11cb
id 11cb
authors Oguzhan Özcan
year 2004
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 199-203.
summary Many people believe that mathematical thought is an essential element of creativity. The origin of this idea in art dates back to Plato. Asserting that aesthetics is based on logical and mathematical rules, Plato had noticed that geometrical forms were “forms of beauty” in his late years. Unlike his contemporaries, he had stressed that the use of geometrical forms such as lines, circles, planes, cubes in a composition would aid to form an aesthetics. The rational forms of Plato and the rules of geometry have formed the basis of antique Greek art, sculpture and architecture and have influenced art and design throughout history in varying degrees. This emphasis on geometry has continued in modern design, reflected prominently by Kandinsky’s geometric classifications .

Mathematics and especially geometry have found increasing application in the computer-based design environment of our day. The computer has become the central tool in the modern design environment, replacing the brush, the paints, the pens and pencils of the artist. However, if the artist does not master the internal working of this new tool thoroughly, he can neither develop nor express his creativity. If the designer merely learns how to use a computer-based tool, he risks producing designs that appear to be created by a computer. From this perspective, many design schools have included computer courses, which teach not only the use of application programs but also programming to modify and create computer-based tools.

In the current academic educational structure, different techniques are used to show the interrelationship of design and programming to students. One of the best examples in this area is an application program that attempts to teach the programming logic to design students in a simple way. One of the earliest examples of such programs is the Topdown Programming Shell developed by Mitchell, Liggett and Tan in 1988 . The Topdown system is an educational CAD tool for architectural applications, where students program in Pascal to create architectural objects. Different examples of such educational programs have appeared since then. A recent fine example of these is the book and program called “Design by Number” by John Maeda . In that book, students are led to learn programming by coding in a simple programming language to create various graphical primitives.

However, visual programming is based largely on geometry and one cannot master the use of computer-based tools without a through understanding of the mathematical principles involved. Therefore, in a model for design education, computer-based application and creativity classes should be supported by "mathematics for design" courses. The definition of such a course and its application in the multimedia design program is the subject of this article.

series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/04/07 13:36

_id sigradi2004_216
id sigradi2004_216
authors Pablo C. Grazziotin; Benamy Turkienicz; Luciano Sclovsky; Carla M. D. S. Freitas
year 2004
title Cityzoom - A tool for the visualization of the impact of urban regulations
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Visualization has been used for many years as an important way of presenting architectural design and projects. However, beyond design, planning urban areas requires the analysis of different factors. Urban regulations are planning tools used to control and/or stimulate changes in the urban structure and to reproduce a certain level of quality of the urban milieu. Land area, built area, plot rate, average building height, and other important attributes can be easily obtained from the geometric objects in the city model or explicitly associated to them. This paper presents a system, CityZoom, which integrates several performance tools that allow the simulation of different attributes related to a planned or existing city. These attributes are shown in different ways either as tables of attribute values estimated from model evaluation, or 3D scenarios where the user can navigate and observe realistic shadows and daylighting estimation based on the concept of solar envelope.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id avocaad_2003_07
id avocaad_2003_07
authors Penttilä, Hannu
year 2003
title Think Globally – Act Locally in Architectural Information Management
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary This paper tries to describe the conceptual connection between the larger-scale, somewhat idealistic global visions and trends in the architectural-ICT-education, and on the other hand the smaller-scale real-life activities that are carried out in the local educational institutions.The local activities are demonstrated with a handful of case-study experiences from HUT/architecture.A proposal for the future, is to establish a continuous web-forum for architectural schools• To submit and maintain their organizational and educational data• To benchmark their education content with other schools• An early version is already available in:
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
type normal paper
last changed 2009/06/04 05:04

_id ddss2004_d-177
id ddss2004_d-177
authors Rafi, A., T. Hoai Nam, K. Jin Woo, and W. Lau
year 2004
title InnotiveBrowser
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 177-191
summary This paper explains the results of a collaborative research project between Multimedia University (Malaysia) and Innotive Corporation (Korea) to manage, design a multimedia archiving system and visualising knowledge for the students or the users in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University. This research introduces InnotiveBrowser technology, a high performance multimedia display software that enhances the ability of user to search and discover digital content. The unique result of this method is that the images to be viewed are not limited to available RAM, instead the content utilises the available storage directly from the disk (hard drives). In other words, the larger the size of the hard disk, the greater the number of content information can be stored and displayed. This system is employed with Virtual Reality (VR) techniques particularly imparting viewing technology (pixel-ondemand) and navigation strategy to increase the viewing speed of multimedia information in real-time over the Internet, broadband and even via PDA platforms. This research hopes to set the benchmark for multimedia archiving system that can be applied in other CAD, CAAD or most of the design or production-based teaching and learning environment. The early findings of this research have been patented and this paper will demonstrate the research ideas and explain how we implement and customise the technology and content development in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University.
keywords InnotiveBrowser, Digital Asset Management, Multimedia Archiving, VR Technology
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id sigradi2009_1108
id sigradi2009_1108
authors Santos, Denise Mônaco dos; Marcelo Tramontano
year 2009
title O projeto Comunidades_online: espacialidades híbridas sob uma perspectiva social [The Online_communities project: hybrid spacialities under a social perspective]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary This article intends to present the development and the results of an experience about the interlacing information and communication technologies on local communities carried out by the Online_communities project, developed between 2004 and 2008 in Cidade Tiradentes, district of São Paulo. It’s about the elaboration of a critical examination of one interpretation of this project, among many possible, which privileges, on one hand, the links of the different aspects it covers, highlighting its actions which are very distinct. On the other hand, it is about creating hybrid spaces in urban fragments, considering them as spaces constituted from communication insertion through computational systems in communities geographically referred.
keywords Hybrid spaces; Communities; Computational interfaces; Information and Communication Technologies; Digital inclusion
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 2004_325
id 2004_325
authors Sarawgi, Tina
year 2004
title Using Computers as a Spatial Visualization and Design Exploration Medium
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 325-332
summary The constant advances in the use of computers to simulate light over the past few decades, has led computer-aided rendering to become increasingly photorealistic. However, the rendering is still processor-intensive and time-consuming, difficult to generate in real time. Design students need to be well versed in the depiction of the effects of light in an environment, crucial to spatial visualization. With increasing computing power, advanced algorithms and increased realism, the central pedagogical issue in their use is not what computers can do for us today, but what and how we can make them do what we do better. We have to be careful in not getting seduced by the advancing technology but use it innovatively to build students into better designers. This paper discusses a project demonstrating the apparent potential of computers for spatial visualization and design exploration of light and space, in their present stage. The project shows a departure from the traditional methods of using computers or of teaching lighting in a design school. Computers are used by students to especially create flashy imagery. On the other hand, lighting is explained in clinical terms without exploration of its experiential qualities. This exercise helped the students to develop a better understanding of the physics of light from the method most familiar and expected of students – visual. The project deems it more important to have a quick means to produce an overview of the implication of the design choices than to provide precise information regarding a hypothetical final solution. Hence, after creating the lighting in the space based on the desired experiential qualities, the illumination can be conveyed to a lighting expert for detailed quantitative computations. The project results are shown and outcomes discussed.
keywords Visualization, Light, Space, Digital Technology, Pedagogy
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id ijac20042304
id ijac20042304
authors Scaletsky, Celso Carnos
year 2004
title The Kaléidoscope System to Organize Architectural Design References
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 3, 351-369
summary The presentation of a new computer-based tool to assist architectural conception demands reflection on the process of creation itself. There is an articulation between typical conceptual procedures and computerized means. We chose one of these procedures: the utilization of external references (not necessarily architectural) to stimulate new design ideas. This is the basis for the experimental computational model "kaléidoscope", which is characterized as an open reference system for architectural design. There are two essential qualities for such a system: 1) The system should permit an individual interpretation and construction of the referential knowledge, considering that 2) references may proceed from fields other than architecture. The computational model begins with a reference, formed by the association of an image to concepts and / or texts. The concepts are graphically represented and organized in thematic thesauri. The "kaléidoscope" system includes several search and navigation modes, allowing access to references as a means to rouse new design ideas.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id sigradi2004_295
id sigradi2004_295
authors Schawn Jasmann
year 2004
title Architecture and the dialogical space of encounter
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary In the process of contemporary architectural design there is a privileging of measured visual information over other forms of representation as primary vehicles for the construction and construing of meaningful human experience. Within our contemporary cultural context there are other forms of cultural production that have not privileged such empirical models and as such have been utilized to establish an alternate aesthetic, for the purposes of construing meaning, that is entirely contrary to the modernist aesthetic ideal. This paper will focus on one form of alternate cultural production, namely the dialogic, and in so doing will identify how it informs possibilities for the thinking and making of architecture.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id eaea2003_10-schmidt
id eaea2003_10-schmidt
authors Schmidt, J.A.
year 2004
title Integrated Planning and Decision-making Processes with 3D-environmental Simulation – The Ruhrallee Tunnel Road
source Spatial Simulation and Evaluation - New Tools in Architectural and Urban Design [Proceedings of the 6th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 80-227-2088-7], pp. 36-42
summary The Ruhrallee is a historical arterial road connecting the wealthy south of the city of Essen with the region south of the city. The old sycamore alley gives the low-density residential neighborhood its spatial qualities and its own identity. But the spatial and social potentials are not legible and livable due to the heavy traffic on the existing road cutting the neighborhood. The street cannot assume its spatial function. Therefore the City of Essen and the Federal Government want to build a tunnel road under the existing street, in order to improve the situation for the neighborhood. The Institute for Urban Design and Planning in cooperation with the Institute for Traffic Planning at the University of Duisburg-Essen carried through an evaluation of various scenarios in terms of traffic flow and visual intrusion of the planned tunnel road as well as the refurbished old street space. The main focus of the study is the integration of the tunnel entrance and the proposed road alignment into the existing urban fabric. The 3D-environmental simulation plays a key role in the analyses, the planning and design process, but also in the decision making process. The paper examines the results of the analyses and the various design schemes. It shows that analogue simulation is still an important tool for urban design and other related planning disciplines. But the paper also points out that 3D-environmental simulation can help to make urban design topics more comprehensible for other non planning disciplines.
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ddss2004_d-141
id ddss2004_d-141
authors Tabak, V., B. de Vries, and J. Dijkstra
year 2004
title User Behaviour Modelling
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 141-156
summary The aim of the proposed project is to develop methods for the simulation of space utilisation. Up to now no methods for building performance evaluation are available which involve the occupants of the building. Instead, assumptions are made about people’s movement through space and their responses to the environment. These assumptions are input for important design decisions (e.g. capacity of elevators, width of corridors, escape routing) sophisticated calculations (e.g. cooling and lighting calculations) and simulations (e.g. airflow simulation, evacuation simulation). Reliable data on human movement are very scarce and can be valuable input to research in other research areas. New computer technologies allow for dynamic simulations that will provide insight into the building to be built. The research project builds upon existing methods that need to be tailored and/or extended to apply them to the building domain and to support real-time simulation.
keywords Building Simulation, Decision Support Systems, User Behaviour, Petri-nets, Activity Based Modelling
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 306caadria2004
id 306caadria2004
authors Thomas Kvan and Song Gao
year 2004
title Problem Framing in Multiple Settings
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 453-466
summary In order to improve pedagogical effectiveness, this study aims at gaining an insight on architectural students’ problem framing activities using digital versus paper media. The role of problem framing in design process and its contribution to design learning has been variously studied. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the role of problem framing under three settings namely online co-located, online remote and paper-based co-located. Students were asked to spend 40 minutes in solving a wicked design problem collaboratively. The results show that in the online remote setting the activities of problem framing are significantly different compared to those in the other two co-located settings. We find more density of framing activities happened in the online remote setting than in the other two settings. We also find there is no significant difference of problem framing between online co-located and paper-based colocated settings. Through this study we suggest that multiple design tools need to be considered to support design learning and teaching.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:39

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