CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 548

_id caadria2005_a_2b_b
id caadria2005_a_2b_b
authors Sooyeon Oh, Rieko Kadobayashi, Tsuyoshi Sasada, Katsumi Tanaka
year 2005
title Collaborative Project To Conserve and Personalize the 3D Digital Archives of Historical Architecture
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 179-187
summary In this paper, we will discuss methods for supporting a collaborative experience of 3D digital archives of historical architecture. We will use a prototype system for 3D digital archives of historical architecture using VR technology. Moreover, a prototype system using web technology such as Weblogs will also be used. In addition, we are refining the present system by applying it to the Turkish Republic Gemiler Island Church Restoration Project.
series CAADRIA
email sooyeon@nict.go.jp
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id 2005_573
id 2005_573
authors Oh, Sooyeon, Tanaka, Katsumi and Sasada, Tsuyoshi
year 2005
title 3D Digital Archive Experience for Historical Architectures
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 573-580
summary Digital archives that use 3D CG models, for example, relating to historical architecture and archaeological sites, are now commonly created for a wide range of purposes. Unlike actually visiting historical architecture, access to digital archives and browsing of their content are computer-related. Thus, users cannot easily gain a deep understanding of the content and are less likely to truly enjoy it. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to support collaborative experiencing of 3D digital archives related to historical architecture. To achieve this goal, we developed a prototype system for a 3D digital archive of historical architecture using VR technology. The system offers an interactive interface.
keywords 3D Digital Archive; Experience; Comparison; VR
series eCAADe
email sooyeon@nict.go.jp
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 2005_211
id 2005_211
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Fioravanti, Antonio
year 2005
title The Quest for the Holy Grail – Holistic Collaborative Design
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 211-218
summary Architectural design, due to phenomena such as globalisation of the construction process, delocalisation of professional and industrial activities, spread of new construction materials and components, and the challenges of environmental sustainability, has become so comlex that traditional ways of managing the process are no longer sufficient. What is more, architectural works are required to be ever more performing and integrated - holistic. The paradigm of collaborative design is gaining ground as a way of dealing with these problems. Various process/ product models have been proposed over the years, making more or less use of advanced tools. In this field this study proposes a model in which operators from various cultural contexts are each supported by Intelligent Assistants (agents). The model simulates the design of works of architecture to the best professional practice. Exchange of information and knowledge between the operators is essential to enhance the design process. From this follows the need to interface not just data, but also meanings. This article shows how to improve communications between different applications, used by different operators, so as to integrate information and knowledge, whether formalised or not, in a project managed collaboratively by means of XML.
keywords Collaborative Design; Design Process Model; Distributed Knowledge Bases; Semantic Interfaces; aecXML
series eCAADe
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id sigradi2005_300
id sigradi2005_300
authors Cavieres, Andrés P.; Marcelo Quezada G.
year 2005
title Analysis of the possibilities offered by the application of parametric modeling technologies in the design processes shared between architects and industrial designers: The prefabricated house case.
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 300-303
summary Traditionally, the teaching of digital design systems has been focused on the operative learning of software. However, this almost exclusively technical approach has leaded to a partial view of these systems, as well suited platforms to exploration of project’s possibilities. Consequently their relevance as a base for project representation and therefore as a useful instrument for conceptual exploration for design and experimental research of their processes have been undervalued. On the other hand, this restrictive perspective results in an important waste of the teaching possibilities lying in CAD software related with interdisciplinary teamwork. The following academic experience obeys to a new insight of how to teach these tools, based upon problem solving in Design by interdisciplinary students work teams from Architecture and Industrial Design. In this bet, the learning process is flexible, shared and collaborative, according to the requirements of each project, powered by the commitment of facing common goals. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email acaviere@uchile.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id caadria2005_a_2c_a
id caadria2005_a_2c_a
authors Ivan Redi, Andrea Redi
year 2005
title A.N.D.I. - A new Digital Instrument for networked creative collaboration in architecture and net.art
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 209-215
summary A.N.D.I. (A New Digital Instrument), an open source software project, has objective to develop a run-time environment with the focus on the applications for the networked international and cross-disciplinary production in the creative sphere of architecture, urban planning, design and net.art. It is a digital environment which opens the possibilities to generate advanced projects in a networked society. This new working tools will increase the creativity, productivity and competitiveness of the involved actors by drawing upon and developing technologies for virtual, augmented and mixed realities. A.N.D.I. has two basic aspects. On the one hand it is a database driven collaborative environment and on the other hand it will enable the development of future software and tools for networked creative collaboration.
series CAADRIA
email office@ortlos.com
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id acadia06_538
id acadia06_538
authors Senagala, Mahesh
year 2006
title Light Exchange
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 538-539
summary The notions of collaborative exchanges, leadership, and entrepreneurialism that cross disciplinary boundaries were promoted in a digital design-build studio taught in spring 2005. With the starting funds of one dollar, the studio took up the challenge of building two full-scale tensile fabric structures that mark the entrances to a downtown San Antonio building. Structures of 1200 square feet total surface area were successfully designed, engineered, and executed within a semester framework at a final cost of $102,490. Collaborations were fostered with 24 industry partners from Asia, Europe, Australia, and USA, including four structural engineers. Innovative pedagogical, collaborative and project management methods were employed. The studio was structured as a self-organized design “firm.” Positions were created and students were “hired” into the firm to play different roles. The studio utilized web-based communication and project management tools. After a four-week warm-up project that established an innovative studio culture, professional schedules were prepared and the engineers were engaged in the collaborative process of designing the anchors, cables, connections and PTFE/PVC membranes. The peculiarities of digitally designing, fabricating and erecting tensile fabric structures were comprehensively explored. The studio completed all the CNC fabrication, concrete footings and membrane fabrication at local workshops through special partnerships.
series ACADIA
email mahesh@mahesh.org
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id acadia05_068
id acadia05_068
authors Silver, Michael
year 2005
title Discrete Space: Automason Ver. 1.0
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 68-77
summary This paper will demonstrate the power of digital technology by encouraging architects to become more involved in the creation of small scale, ad-hoc and task specific software tools. Rather than appropriating code originally designed to solve the visualization problems faced in other fields, designers should instead develop their own programming culture. Through the acquisition of new skills and better collaborative exchanges architects can advance the unpredictable desires of the poetic imagination while addressing the practical challenges faced by craftsmen, engineers and project managers.
series ACADIA
email rndnyc@excite.com
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id 2005_415
id 2005_415
authors Tramontano, Marcelo and Mônaco dos Santos, Denise
year 2005
title Online_communities
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 415-423
summary Research on contemporary habitation spaces is directly related to the study of the relationship between new media and everyday life. This paper presents ongoing in-depth research which intends to discuss these relationships in different ways on a conceptual basis. A collaborative multi-users interface is being specially designed, supported by different kinds of electronic equipment. Furthermore, the project’s objective is to analyze how these information and communication technologies are to be used, as well as their impact on poor communities. As a hypothesis, our intention is to verify if the access to information will be able to broaden social interactions and improve new services which have been set up, in order to guarantee a better quality of life. Beyond being a conceptual approach, the study intends to present and examine facts obtained from intervening in a poor district in São Paulo city, Brazil. Using an existing public telecenter as an access provider to the internet, individual TV-connected set-top boxes in 220 apartments in a local social housing complex are being installed, enabling users to communicate through a collaborative multiusers digital interface. Adding a virtual instance to a geographically-based community, the aim of the project is to provide new possibilities to improve dialogue and debates, to encourage more income and cultural activities. It also intends to evaluate the effects of the technological mediation of social relationships, both inside and outside the community, as well as within the physical urban space such as in the dwellings. The results of this study will be useful in defining public policies to be implemented by the Sao Paulo Local Government. The work is being sponsored by FAPESP, which is the Sao Paulo State Funding Agencie, but also by public institutions, private partners and universities. Researchers involved belong to complementary fields such as architecture, urbanism, computer sciences, social sciences, psychology and electronic engineering.
keywords Virtual Communities, Collaborative Networks, Digital Inclusion
series eCAADe
email tramont@sc.usp.br
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id acadia05_226
id acadia05_226
authors Biloria, N., Oosterhuis, K. and Aalbers, C.
year 2005
title Design Informatics
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 226-235
summary The research paper exemplifies a novel information integrated design technique developed at ONL (Oosterhuis and Lenard), Netherlands, specifically appropriated for envisaging complex geometric forms. The ‘informed design technique’, apart from being highly instrumental in conceptualizing and generating the geometric component constituting architectural form in a parametric manner, is also efficiently utilized for precise computer aided manufacturing and construction of the speculated form. Geometric complexities inherent in contemporary architectural constructs and the time spent in appropriation of such topologies, fueled the ‘informed design’ approach, which caters to issues of timely construction, precision oriented design and production (visual and material) and parametric modeling attuned to budgetary fluctuations. This design-research approach has been tested and deployed by ONL, for conceiving ‘the Acoustic Barrier’ project, Utrecht Leidsche Rijn in the Netherlands and is treated as a generic case for exemplifying the ‘informed design’ technique in this research paper. The design methodology encourages visualizing architectural substantiations from a systems perspective and envisages upon a rule based adaptive systems approach involving extrapolation of contextual dynamics/ground data in terms of logical ‘rules’. These rules/conditionalities form the basis for spawning parametric logistics to be mapped upon geometric counterparts exemplifying the conception. The simulated parametric relations bind dimensional aspects (length, width, height etc.) of the geometric construct in a relational manner, eventually culminating in a 3D spatial envelope. This evolved envelope is subsequently intersected with a ‘parametric spatio-constructive grid’, creating specific intersecting points between the two. The hence extorted ‘point cloud’ configuration serves as a generic information field concerning highly specific coordinates, parameters and values for each individual point/constructive node it embodies. The relations between these points are directly linked with precise displacements of structural profiles and related scaling factors of cladding materials. Parallel to this object oriented modeling approach, a detailed database (soft/information component) is also maintained to administer the relations between the obtained points. To be able to derive constructible structural and cladding components from the point cloud configuration customized Scripts (combination of Lisp and Max scripts) process the point cloud database. The programmed script-routines, iteratively run calculations to generate steel-wireframes, steel lattice-structure and cladding panels along with their dimensions and execution drawing data. Optimization-routines are also programmed to make rectifications and small adjustments in the calculated data. This precise information is further communicated with CNC milling machines to manifest complex sectional profiles formulating the construct hence enabling timely and effective construction of the conceptualized form.
series ACADIA
email n.biloria@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id sigradi2005_344
id sigradi2005_344
authors Bustos, Gabriela I. L.; Iván V. Burgos P., Javier Oliva
year 2005
title Multi-user virtual worlds: 3D interactive visualization in synthetic environments for design workshops
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 344-349
summary The goal of this research is to describe a methodology of architectural design by using digital technology with three-dimensional interactive simulation in multi-user virtual worlds. In addition, this study will focus on the application of this method in the workshops at the School of Architecture in the University of Zulia. With this proposal, it is possible to integrate many users, in real time, from different locations on the same virtual world in Internet. In the same way, each visitor is able to interact and modify the virtual world using virtual menus while sharing ideas or modifications regarding the design of the project. This strategy allows modeling, visualizing, developing and evaluating the designed projects during the conceptual and parametric phase in the process of design. This application is a powerful tool to develop creativity and skills of spatial perception among the students. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email bustosgabriela@yahoo.es
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia05_156
id acadia05_156
authors Cabrinha, Mark
year 2005
title From Bézier to NURBS: Integrating Material and Digital Techniques through a Plywood Shell
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 156-169
summary The development of digital fabrication has reintroduced material processes with digital processes. There has been much discussion about the tool and the objects of the tool, but little discussion of the implication of the material process on the digital process. A brief historical review on the development of computer numerical control and the origins of the Bézier curve reveals an instrumental fact: computer numerical controlled tools necessitated advancements in computational surfaces which eventually led to NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) surfaces. In other words, the origins of NURBS surfaces resides in its relation to material processes, rather than many current approaches that develop free form surfaces and then force the tool onto the material without regard to the material properties. From this historical and mathematical review, this project develops toward more intelligent construction methods based on the integration of NURBS differential geometry paired with material qualities and processes. Specifically, a digital technique of developing conceptual NURBS geometry into piecewise surface patches are then flattened based on the material thickness and density. From these flattened patches, a material technique is developed to intelligently remove material to allow the rigid flat material to re-develop into physical surface patches. The goal of this research is to develop digital and material techniques toward intelligent construction based on the correspondence between digitally driven surface and digitally driven material processes. The application of this technique as a rational and flexible system is to support the dynamic response of form and material toward such performative aspects as structure, daylight, ventilation, and thermal properties.
series ACADIA
email cabrinharch@yahoo.com
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id 2005_599
id 2005_599
authors Couceiro, Mauro
year 2005
title Architecture and Biological Analogies
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 599-606
summary The study described in this paper evolves within the larger context of a research aimed at inquiring into analogies between architecture and nature, and more specifically between architecture and biology. Biology is a recursive source of architectural inspiration due to the tight relationship between form and function, the natural balance of forces and the corresponding geometric solutions found in living beings. Roughly, one can classify historical analogies between architecture and biology into two main categories. The first tries to mimic biological forms and the second biological processes. The specific goal of the described study is to find how new technologies can redefine and support the process of constructing such analogies. It uses as a case study a tower project designed by the architect Manuel Gausa (ACTAR, Barcelona) called Tornado Tower because of its complex shape inspired in the frozen form of a tornado. Due to the geometric irregularities of the tower, Gausa’s team had difficulties in designing it, especially because solving the structural problems required constant redrawing. This paper describes the first part of the study which primary goal was to conceive a parametric program that encoded the overall shape of the Tornado Tower. The idea was to use the program to simplify the drawing process. This required a mathematical study of spirals and helices which are at the conceptual basis of the external structure and shape of the tower. However, the program encodes not only the shape of Gausa’s tower, but also the shapes of other buildings with conceptual similarities. Such class of shapes is very recurrent in nature with different scales and with different utilities. Therefore, one can argue that the program makes a mathematical connection between a given natural class of shapes and architecture. The second part of the study will be devoted to extending the program with a genetic algorithm with the goal of guiding the generation of solutions taking into account their structural fitness. This way, the analogy with genetic procedures will be emphasized by the study of the evolution of forms and its limits of feasibility. In summary, the bionic shape analogy is made by the generation of mimetic natural forms and a genetic process analogy starts with the parametric treatment of shape based on code manipulations. At the end the program will establish an analogy between architecture and biology both terms of form and process.
keywords Genetics; Evolutionary Systems; Parametric Design
series eCAADe
email mauro@bluebottle.com
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id sigradi2013_217
id sigradi2013_217
authors Martin Iglesias, Rodrigo
year 2013
title Modelos Analógicos para la Visualización del Tiempo. [Analogical Models for Visualization of Time]
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 112 - 115
summary We present the foundations of a research project which is currently in development. This project aims to explore new dimensions and configurations of a traditionally one-dimensional Time. Initially we have systematized the material produced since 2005 with students of History of Architecture in relation to analogical (multidimensional) Timemaps, while we sought for theoretical tools that allows its interpretation. We have characterized different times and durations, from phenomenological aspects of temporal construction and perception, to historical and natural phenomena of long duration. Finally, we explored analogical and digital visualization tools to understand the intrinsic complexity of Time and its models.
keywords Visualization; Time; Timemaps; Analogical models; Topoheterochronics
series SIGRADI
email rodrigo.martin.iglesias@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id sigradi2005_806
id sigradi2005_806
authors Torres, Gerson J. M
year 2005
title Modeling and visualizing the architectural project and their relationship with the nature and the environment using Biocad and CAACD: Computer Architectural Aided Climatic Design
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 2, pp. 806-810
summary Architecture is built in artificial and natural environments, some are real others are virtual. Until now, CAAD, CAD, and 3D modeling and simulation software have not included the environment and are therefore limited to imprecise representations. This challenges the algorithmic complexity of the software that simulates elements of nature, air, natural and artificial light using techniques of radiosity and raytracing. Today, CAACD (Computer Architectural Aided Climate Design) software needs information like geographic location, atmospheric and climatic conditions of the place to use it in conceptual decisions during the design process and to be able to guarantee environmental comfort in the project. This situation has provided me, together with professors and postgraduate students in the discipline of landscape architecture, with the fundamental framework for my study, namely: The virtual construction of a region, including digital representation of the built environment and the tropical flora. This paper describes the basic methodology used in such a process. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email gerson@univalle.edu.co
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id cf2005_1_71_148
id cf2005_1_71_148
authors STREHLKE Kai and LOVERIDGE Russell
year 2005
title The Redefinition of Ornament
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 373-382
summary Architectural ornament, the art of decorative patterning, is commonly perceived as an historical characteristic which declined in the beginning of the 20th century. The lecture of Adolf Loos in 1908 “Ornament and Crime” can certainly be seen as a crucial contribution in the architectural discussion about the exclusion of ornament. Although the modernist emphasis on unadorned form, the upcoming international style and the replacement of craftsmanship by the rise of mass production yielded to a systematic elimination of ornament, we are experiencing its revival in contemporary architecture through experiments using digital technologies. This paper describes our ongoing research and teaching activities in the field of architectural ornamentation, surface modeling and texturing, as well as the related CNC manufacturing processes.
keywords 3D modeling, parametric design, image processing, design education, CAM
series CAAD Futures
email strehlke@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id sigradi2005_511
id sigradi2005_511
authors Barrow, Larry R.
year 2005
title Man and machine: ideation and Making
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 511-516
summary The realization of architecture, that is the building of the physical artifact, requires numerous collaborative participates that requires a communication network in order to realize the vision. All efforts to communicate a design idea prior to physical realization, that is manufacturing or construction, are forms of visualization (i.e. representation). Herein lies the fundamental problem, the designer(s) must en-vision, and communicate that which is to BE ... physical, yet is NOT... physical. In this paper, we will review the emerging Human-Computer-Interface and technology influences on process and product; here we find the “humanistic” component is a critical factor in the success of “digital” strategies.
series SIGRADI
email lbarrow@coa.msstate.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id cf2005_1_44_228
id cf2005_1_44_228
authors BURRY Jane, BURROW Andrew, AMOR Robert and BURRY Mark
year 2005
title Shared Design Space
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 217-226
summary Collaborative design activity that involves remote multilateral, multidisciplinary communication has become more commonplace with the electronic means to communicate across any distance in real time. The communication itself can be both an important repository of project information and an important part of the process of conceptualisation and design development. This research has explored the apparent shortcomings inherent in commonly used means of communication and how these impact on the design process. This paper describes research that has taken as a starting point the analysis and observation of actual design communication from the archive of an internationally published collaborative project involving disciplinarily diverse and globally scattered participants. Through the analysis, we have identified characteristics of communication tools or information environments that would address the particular issues found to impede collaboration while fostering those aspects that support it. The findings have been used to inform the design, specification and implementation of collaborative information spaces based on Wiki software.
keywords collaborative design, communication, design process, digital media, computer mediated communication
series CAAD Futures
email jane.burry@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id 2005_303
id 2005_303
authors Clark, Steve and Maher, Mary Lou
year 2005
title Learning and Designing in a Virtual Place
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 303-309
summary This paper reports on a study of the role of place in a virtual learning environment for digital media design. Using an immersive 3D Virtual World based on Active Worlds, we have created a virtual learning place for students in a Website Design course. The virtual learning place has two distinct parts: a classroom-like place surrounded by student galleries. Students can navigate and communicate (synchronous chat) within the environment in the form of an avatar (virtual person). We recorded the conversations and activities of the students in discussions held in the virtual learning place and applied a communication coding scheme to analyze their discussions. In this paper we present our approach to developing an understanding of the role of place and evidence of its effect on the conversations of design students in a virtual learning environment. We show how we identified the characteristics of place and specifically how it provides a context for identity and presence for supporting collaborative and constructivist student centred learning.
keywords Virtual Learning Environments, Place, Virtual Design Studios
series eCAADe
email scla7247@mail.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 2005_037
id 2005_037
authors Côté, Pierre, Léglise, Michel and Estévez, Daniel
year 2005
title Virtual Architecture as Representation for Creative Design Process - Through a Collaborative eDesign Studio
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 37-45
summary Using Virtual Architecture (VA) as a general scheme for representations to sustain the reflection activities involved in the design process can help students to initiate creative design ideas. Because of its implicit abstract nature, VA can be used, to represent original ideas or processes, or well-known architectural theories to articulate design ideas. Furthermore, VA as a mean of expression, turn out to be a source of inspiration for students who perceive it as medium with very few limits with which to develop, explore and express their design intuitions. A recent collaborative edesign studio experience is reported to illustrate the benefit observed. Using three examples out of ten student projects, we show how designs and design process have been characterized by those virtual representations. In fall semester 2004, the edesign studio took place between the Schools of Architecture of Toulouse and Université Laval in Québec. VA was both an academic and a studio topic at Laval while the other school students had a traditional design task to tackle, namely the rehabilitation of Chapou University Residences for students in Toulouse. Students from both schools composed each edesign team. In addition, three common architectural themes were web-documented and introduced to both classes: room, as defined by Louis Kahn: “a space which knows what it wants to be is a room”; color, as an architectural medium in dialectic with structure; and body-space relationships, as articulated by Gilles Deleuze and its projection to cyberspace. From the edesign studio results, we are arguing that virtual architecture should be looked at not only as new domain to be investigated by architects and taught in academic studios but also as a new medium of design to develop and explore design intuitions through virtual representations.
keywords Virtual Architecture; Virtual Representations; Medium; eDesign; Design by Collaboration
series eCAADe
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

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