CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 547

_id acadia05_226
id acadia05_226
authors Biloria, N., Oosterhuis, K. and Aalbers, C.
year 2005
title Design Informatics
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 226-235
summary The research paper exemplifies a novel information integrated design technique developed at ONL (Oosterhuis and Lenard), Netherlands, specifically appropriated for envisaging complex geometric forms. The ‘informed design technique’, apart from being highly instrumental in conceptualizing and generating the geometric component constituting architectural form in a parametric manner, is also efficiently utilized for precise computer aided manufacturing and construction of the speculated form. Geometric complexities inherent in contemporary architectural constructs and the time spent in appropriation of such topologies, fueled the ‘informed design’ approach, which caters to issues of timely construction, precision oriented design and production (visual and material) and parametric modeling attuned to budgetary fluctuations. This design-research approach has been tested and deployed by ONL, for conceiving ‘the Acoustic Barrier’ project, Utrecht Leidsche Rijn in the Netherlands and is treated as a generic case for exemplifying the ‘informed design’ technique in this research paper. The design methodology encourages visualizing architectural substantiations from a systems perspective and envisages upon a rule based adaptive systems approach involving extrapolation of contextual dynamics/ground data in terms of logical ‘rules’. These rules/conditionalities form the basis for spawning parametric logistics to be mapped upon geometric counterparts exemplifying the conception. The simulated parametric relations bind dimensional aspects (length, width, height etc.) of the geometric construct in a relational manner, eventually culminating in a 3D spatial envelope. This evolved envelope is subsequently intersected with a ‘parametric spatio-constructive grid’, creating specific intersecting points between the two. The hence extorted ‘point cloud’ configuration serves as a generic information field concerning highly specific coordinates, parameters and values for each individual point/constructive node it embodies. The relations between these points are directly linked with precise displacements of structural profiles and related scaling factors of cladding materials. Parallel to this object oriented modeling approach, a detailed database (soft/information component) is also maintained to administer the relations between the obtained points. To be able to derive constructible structural and cladding components from the point cloud configuration customized Scripts (combination of Lisp and Max scripts) process the point cloud database. The programmed script-routines, iteratively run calculations to generate steel-wireframes, steel lattice-structure and cladding panels along with their dimensions and execution drawing data. Optimization-routines are also programmed to make rectifications and small adjustments in the calculated data. This precise information is further communicated with CNC milling machines to manifest complex sectional profiles formulating the construct hence enabling timely and effective construction of the conceptualized form.
series ACADIA
email n.biloria@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id caadria2005_b_6b_d
id caadria2005_b_6b_d
authors Ganapathy Mahalingam
year 2005
title A Computational Model of A Sensor Network for the Optimization and Control of Acoustical Performance Criteria in Spatial Enclosures
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 475-483
summary The technology of nanoblock-based circuits is enabling the creation of ultra-small sensors that can transmit their location and readings using radio frequencies. This technology has the potential to enhance the optimization of environmental performance criteria in spatial enclosures, using a wide range of actuators that function at different scales. The combination of such ultra-small sensors with actuators will enable the creation of spatial enclosures that are complex adaptive systems, which dynamically optimize the various environmental performance criteria for the enclosures. Defining a model for the optimization process in these systems presents significant challenges. This paper will set out a model for the use of ultra-small sensor systems in optimizing environmental performance criteria in spatial enclosures, especially acoustical performance criteria.
series CAADRIA
email Ganapathy.Mahalingam@ndsu.edu
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id caadria2006_179
id caadria2006_179
authors KEATRUANGKAMALA K., NILKAEW P.
year 2006
title STRONG VALID INEQUALITY CONSTRAINTS FOR ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 179-185
summary In the past decades, many attempts have been made to solve the challenging architectural layout design problem such as non-linear programming and evolutionary algorithm (Michalek and Papalambros, 2002). The Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) (Kamol and Krung, 2005) was recently developed to find the global optimal solution. However, the problem can be shown to belong to the class of NP-hard problem (Michalek and Papalambros, 2002). Hence, only the small instances of the problem can be solved in a reasonable time. In order to deal with large problem sizes, this paper utilizes the strong valid inequalities (George and Laurence). It cut off the infeasible points in the integral search space by formulated the disconnected constraints involved with line configurations of three rooms. It is shown to significantly increase the computational speed to more than thirty percents. This exhibits the practical use of the MIP formulation to solve the medium size architectural layout design problems.
series CAADRIA
email kamolkeat@hotmail.com, tuan@mail.cmu.ac.th
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id caadria2005_b_4a_b
id caadria2005_b_4a_b
authors Ruchi Choudhary, Jeremy Michalek
year 2005
title Design Optimization in Computer-Aided Architectural Design
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 149-159
summary The proposition of using design optimization to formalize and add rigor to the decision-making process in building and construction was earlier compiled by Radford et al. in 1988, providing an in-depth demonstration of techniques available at the time. Much has changed since, both in the available solution methods and the nature of the problems themselves. This paper provides an updated insight into past and current trends of using this engineering design paradigm to solve architectural design problems, with an emphasis on continuous nonlinear formulations of simulation-based problems. The paper demonstrates different problem formulations and current techniques for solving them. Examples from recent research are used to demonstrate significant achievements and existing challenges associated with formalizing and solving decision-making tasks in architecture.
series CAADRIA
email ruchi.choudhary@coa.gatech.edu, michalek@umich.edu
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id 2005_229
id 2005_229
authors Sowa, Agnieszka
year 2005
title Computer-Aided Architectural Design vs. Architect-Aided Computing Design
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 229-236
summary This paper presents a recent design project – a group work of postgraduate students of CAAD Chair at Architecture Faculty at Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (henceforth ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland. In this project a broad variety of possibilities provided by CAD and CAM in architectural design was used, in terms of both the design and production. The paper will present the entire process step by step from its conception to production. Nowadays CAAD technologies seem to dominate not only in visualization and drafting. They have also started to play a more important role in the generation and optimization of the design, which have always traditionally been perceived as the domain of architects. Therefore, the focus in the paper will be placed not only on extensive usage of digital tools, but also on analysis of advantages and difficulties in architect/computer cooperation.
keywords Structure Generation; Structure Optimization; Rapid Prototyping; CNC Production; CAAD Education
series eCAADe
email qleczka@intelcom.pl
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id acadia05_200
id acadia05_200
authors Tsou, J.-Y., Chan Yi Lee, Mak Kwok Pui, Ru Xu Du, Liang Jian, Yeung Kim
year 2005
title Applying Scientific Simulation to Integrate Thermoelectric Conductor Module into Architectural Design – Smart Wall for Thermal Comfort
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 200-210
summary This paper presents the innovative architectural design concept, which is to integrate the new material and technology into the building design to achieve the thermal comfort and at the same time reduce the energy consumption of the building by making use of the renewable energy, including solar and wind energy. The system is developed based on the idea of regional thermal comfort in building. The advantage of the system is the environmental friendly approach, costless operation, reliability, flexibility, scalability and adaptability for the integration to the building design. With the design concept, we tried to do two application designs in two virtual sites. One is a badminton court for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and the other is a cooling pond in a shopping mall. We will introduce how computational simulation can contribute to the prediction of the performance of the design. We will also discuss how the computation simulation can help in the design optimization process. Through the development of the new design integration of the material to the building, we would like to feedback to the material industry to encourage further collaboration and development in the material enhancement, so that both industries and the society can benefit from the advancement.
series ACADIA
email kpmak@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id caadria2005_a_7b_a
id caadria2005_a_7b_a
authors Abdullah, A.Q.M. ; Md. Emran Hossain, Md. Shabab Habib Khan
year 2005
title Digital Perception, Development and Presentation in Architecture: a study of Bangladesh with global context
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 255-267
summary In the recent past the computer has become an important tool in both the design and presentation media/method in architecture. In this paper digitalization in architectural practice and architectural education in both the global and Bangladesh contexts have been studied. A survey questionnaire was carried out to find how and to what extent available software are being used in Bangladesh for this purpose. Opinion, views, expectations of architects from leading architectural firms of Bangladesh were studied to understand the future prospect of this field in Bangladesh.
series CAADRIA
email abdullah@bracuniversity.ac.bd, emran@bracuniversity.ac.bd, jitul@vfemail.net
last changed 2007/07/23 05:08

_id cf2005_1_64_168
id cf2005_1_64_168
authors ACHTEN Henri
year 2005
title Resolving some Ambiguities in Real-time Design Drawing Recognition by means of a Decision Tree for Agents
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 311-320
summary In this paper, we present a theoretical study on automated understanding of the design drawing. This can lead to design support through the natural interface of sketching. In earlier work, 24 plan-based conventions of depiction have been identified, such as grid, zone, axial system, contour, and element vocabulary. These are termed graphic units. Graphic units form a good basis for recognition of drawings as they combine shape with meaning. We present some of the theoretical questions that have to be resolved before an implementation can be made. The contribution of this paper is: (i) identification of domain knowledge which is necessary for recognition; (ii) outlining combined strategy of multi-agent systems and online recognition; (iii) functional structure for agents and their organisation to converge on sketch recognition.
keywords multi-agent system, decision tree, pattern recognition, sketch
series CAAD Futures
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id caadria2005_a_2b_a
id caadria2005_a_2b_a
authors Affleck, Janice; Kvan Thomas
year 2005
title REINTERPRETING VIRTUAL HERITAGE
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 169-178
summary This paper describes the context and proposal for an alternative approach to the common pattern of application of digital tools in the area of cultural heritage, also know as Virtual Heritage (VH). It investigates and addresses arising issues in a digital case study developed to implement a theoretical framework and investigate how and if existing technology can support it.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
email janiceaffleck@hkusua.hku.hk, tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2007/07/23 05:08

_id ascaad2014_023
id ascaad2014_023
authors Al-Maiyah, Sura and Hisham Elkadi
year 2014
title Assessing the Use of Advanced Daylight Simulation Modelling Tools in Enhancing the Student Learning Experience
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 303-313
summary In architecture schools, where the ‘studio culture’ lies at the heart of students’ learning, taught courses, particularly technology ones, are often seen as secondary or supplementary units. Successful delivery of such courses, where students can act effectively, be motivated and engaged, is a rather demanding task requiring careful planning and the use of various teaching styles. A recent challenge that faces architecture education today, and subsequently influences the way technology courses are being designed, is the growing trend in practice towards environmentally responsive design and the need for graduates with new skills in sustainable construction and urban ecology (HEFCE’s consultation document, 2005). This article presents the role of innovative simulation modelling tools in the enhancement of the student learning experience and professional development. Reference is made to a teaching practice that has recently been applied at Portsmouth School of Architecture in the United Kingdom and piloted at Deakin University in Australia. The work focuses on the structure and delivery of one of the two main technology units in the second year architecture programme that underwent two main phases of revision during the academic years 2009/10 and 2010/11. The article examines the inclusion of advanced daylight simulation modelling tools in the unit programme, and measures the effectiveness of enhancing its delivery as a key component of the curriculum on the student learning experience. A main objective of the work was to explain whether or not the introduction of a simulation modelling component, and the later improvement of its integration with the course programme and assessment, has contributed to a better learning experience and level of engagement. Student feedback and the grade distribution pattern over the last three academic years were collected and analyzed. The analysis of student feedback on the revised modelling component showed a positive influence on the learning experience and level of satisfaction and engagement. An improvement in student performance was also recorded over the last two academic years and following the implementation of new assessment design.
series ASCAAD
email sura.almaiyah@port.ac.uk
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id caadria2014_042
id caadria2014_042
authors Alam, Jack and Jeremy J. Ham
year 2014
title Towards a BIM-Based Energy Rating System
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 285–294
summary Governments in Australia are faced with policy implementation that mandates higher energy efficient housing (Foran, Lenzen & Dey 2005). To this effect, the National Construction Code (NCC) 2013 stipulates the minimum energy performance for residential buildings as 114MJ/m2 per annum or 6 stars on an energy rating scale. Compliance with this minimum is mandatory but there are several methods through which residential buildings can be rated to comply with the deemed to satisfy provisions outlined in the NCC. FirstRate5 is by far the most commonly used simulation software used in Victoria, Australia. Meanwhile, Building Information Modelling (BIM), using software such as ArchiCAD has gained a foothold in the industry. The energy simulation software within ArchiCAD, EcoDesigner, enables the reporting on the energy performance based on BIM elements that contain thermal information. This research is founded on a comparative study between FirstRate5 and EcoDesigner. Three building types were analysed and compared. The comparison finds significant differences between simulations, being, measured areas, thermal loads and potentially serious shortcomings within FirstRate5, that are discussed along with the future potential of a fully BIM-integrated model for energy rating certification in Victoria.
keywords Building Information Modelling, energy rating, FirstRate 5, ArchiCAD EcoDesigner, Building Energy Model
series CAADRIA
email Jack.alam@gmail.com
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id caadria2005_a_8c_b
id caadria2005_a_8c_b
authors Alejandro Arismendy Echeverri
year 2005
title Time-based computer aided architectural research for mapping techniques in multicultural space re-definitions.
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 444-450
summary This paper shall explore the process of research for the development of time-based computer aided applications as an alternative for mapping techniques. As part of an on going research, it was determined the necessity of implementing computer design strategies for time-based mapping due to the complexity and real-time variability of multicultural societies within its chrono-geo-ghraphical constrains for architectural space re-definitions.
series CAADRIA
email alegrandote@yahoo.com
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id caadria2005_1
id caadria2005_1
authors Anand Bhatt (ed.)
year 2005
title CAADRIA '05
source Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 81-902816-0-7 / New Delhi India) 28-30 April 2005, 472 p. [vol. 1] / 515 p. [vol. 2]
summary anand.bhatt@ab-a.net
series CAADRIA
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id caadria2005_a_7c_a
id caadria2005_a_7c_a
authors Anandan Karunakaran
year 2005
title Organisation of Pedestrian Movements: an Agent-Based Approach
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 305-313
summary Cities are becoming more complex in this digital era due to technological changes. Thinking of cities without such technological changes is equivalent to an embryonic state in the morphology of city growth, that is, the growth seems less advanced. So it is appropriate to think of the non digital city digitally. Urban design is one state which establishes the perfect relationship between the street, people and building. The relationship of the people with the building and street is becoming one of the key factors in architecture. It has been observed that the design of a city has been influenced by the pedestrian movement. Many cities prior to the industrial era were largely determined by the social interactions based on walking. Thus the pedestrians play a key role in the formation of the city. They are a very important component in any representation of transport movements. They generally terminate or initiate a chain of linked activities, and if observed carefully, a single pedestrian movement is meant to include various sub journeys from one location to another. In order to organize pedestrians, we need to understand the pedestrian movement system. Though there is a lot of development of urban models in this aspect, it is still in a nascent state in comparison with the digital advancement. Thus much research work is carried out which can be applied to any given environmental setting, and as a result urban designers can respond to the changing socio-cultural technologies.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id 2005_811
id 2005_811
authors Anay, Hakan
year 2005
title A Critical Approach to the Use of Computers in Architectural Design
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 811-817
summary There are two dominant approaches to architectural and urbanistic problem solving: program based approaches and paradigm based approaches. Beyond these two, this paper proposes the critical/formalist approach as a paradigm for architectural design while summarizing the epistemological foundations of it, and investigates the possible contribution of the computers to this approach. The primary aim is to set a starting point for a more comprehensive future research.
keywords Design Theory, Design Methodology, Computer Aided Design, Formalism, Architectural Form
series eCAADe
email e056756@mail.metu.edu.tr
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id acadia05_104
id acadia05_104
authors Anders, Peter and Lonsing, Werner
year 2005
title AmbiViewer: A Tool for Creating Architectural Mixed Reality
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 104-113
summary This paper presents a new mixed reality system for architecture, AmbiViewer. The system employs digital video, onboard modeler and global positioning to merge physical and simulated entities on the screen. The system can be used to model projects on-site, and in view of the project environs. The paper also discusses the use of AmbiViewer in creating cybrids, compositions of virtual and material reality. The paper concludes with a description of a small project undertaken with AmbiViewer and its implications for cybrid architecture.
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id caadria2005_b_5b_d
id caadria2005_b_5b_d
authors Andre Brown, Michael Knight, Martin Winchester
year 2005
title Representation and Delivery of City Models
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 344-352
summary City modelling has a considerable range of potential applications and because of this, as a field of research has attracted a great deal of attention over recent years. Here we reflect on work already reported by the authors in this area, describe some more recent work on improving the system that had been developed and show an example of how city modelling is being applied in practice as a planning tool in the UK.
series CAADRIA
email andygpb@liv.ac.uk
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id caadria2005_b_5b_c
id caadria2005_b_5b_c
authors Andreas Voigt, Helena Linzer
year 2005
title Added Value: Implementation of User Requirements in City Simulators
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 337-343
summary The following contribution discusses the possible consequences of the concept of City Simulators and Digital City Models, which can be obtained from a previously conducted user inquiry in an Urban Planning Department. At the core of the examination are the additional benefit (added value) and the increasing acceptance of digital planning techniques by its users which can be made possible by the implementation of user requirements in City Simulators. Various experiments for cooperative planning in the urban space are formulated.
series CAADRIA
email voigt@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at, linzer@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id acadia05_012
id acadia05_012
authors Anshuman, Sachin
year 2005
title Responsiveness and Social Expression; Seeking Human Embodiment in Intelligent Façades
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 12-23
summary This paper is based on a comparative analysis of some twenty-six intelligent building facades and sixteen large media-facades from a socio-psychological perspective. It is not difficult to observe how deployment of computational technologies have engendered new possibilities for architectural production to which surface-centeredness lies at that heart of spatial production during design, fabrication and envelope automation processes. While surfaces play a critical role in contemporary social production (information display, communication and interaction), it is important to understand how the relationships between augmented building surfaces and its subjects unfold. We target double-skin automated facades as a distinct field within building-services and automation industry, and discuss how the developments within this area are over-occupied with seamless climate control and energy efficiency themes, resulting into socially inert mechanical membranes. Our thesis is that at the core of the development of automated façade lies the industrial automation attitude that renders the eventual product socially less engaging and machinic. We illustrate examples of interactive media-façades to demonstrate how architects and interaction designers have used similar technology to turn building surfaces into socially engaging architectural elements. We seek opportunities to extend performative aspects of otherwise function driven double-skin façades for public expression, informal social engagement and context embodiment. Towards the end of the paper, we propose a conceptual model as a possible method to address the emergent issues. Through this paper we intend to bring forth emergent concerns to designing building membrane where technology and performance are addressed through a broader cultural position, establishing a continual dialogue between the surface, function and its larger human context.
series ACADIA
email sanshuman@hotmail.com
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id ascaad2006_paper25
id ascaad2006_paper25
authors Artopoulos, Giorgos; Stanislav Roudavski and Francois Penz
year 2006
title Adaptive Generative Patterns: design and construction of Prague Biennale pavilion
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary This paper describes an experimental practice-based research project that considered design process, implementation and construction of a pavilion built to be part of the Performative Space section of the International Biennale of Contemporary Art, Prague 2005. The project was conceptualized as a time-bound performative situation with a parasite-like relationship to its host environment. Its design has emerged through an innovative iterative process that utilized digital simulative and procedural techniques and was formed in response to place-specific behavioral challenges. This paper presents the project as an in-depth case-study of digital methods in design, mass customization and unified methods of production. In particular, it considers the use of Voronoi patterns for production of structural elements providing detail on programming and construction techniques in relationship to design aspirations and practical constraints.
series ASCAAD
email fp12@cam.ac.uk
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

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