CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 485

_id cf2005_1_36_100
id cf2005_1_36_100
authors BILDA Zafer and GERO John S.
year 2005
title Do We Need CAD during Conceptual Design?
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 155-164
summary This paper presents the results of experiments to test whether a designer necessarily needs to produce and utilize external representations in the very early phases of conceptual design. Three architects are engaged in two separate design processes, one is the experiment condition where they were not allowed sketch, and the other, the control condition where they were allowed to sketch. In the experiment condition, architects were required to put on a blindfold and think aloud while designing. The results show that in both conditions the design outcomes fit in the given dimensions of the site, accommodate the space requirements and allow an effective use for the clients. Thus, when the participants were blindfolded, they were able to produce designs by using their cognitive resources to create and hold an internal representation of the design rather than by sketching, or using a CAD tool. We finally raise the question: do architects need CAD representations during the conceptual phase of the design activity?
keywords representations, protocol studies, conceptual design
series CAAD Futures
email zafer@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id 2005_665
id 2005_665
authors Brito, Tiago, Fonseca, Manuel J. and Jorge, Joaquim A.
year 2005
title DecoSketch – Towards Calligraphic Approaches to Interior Design
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 665-670
summary Computer-Aided Design tools have long played an important role in architecture design. However, we need to go beyond direct manipulation to devise new tools that will expedite the interior design and decoration. Indeed, conventional CAD systems, while providing ever increasing functionality, do not provide equal support to the drafting and drawing tasks. This makes even the simplest drawings a complicated endeavor. Draftspeople struggle with different concepts that those learnt from their earlier days in school and have to think long and hard to translate familiar sequences of operations to commands which require navigating a dense jungle of menus. The term calligraphic interfaces was coined by us to designate a large family of applications organized around the drawing paradigm, using a digital stylus and a tablet-and-screen combination as seen most recently in Tablet PCs®. Using these, users can enter drawings in a natural manner, largely evocative of drafting techniques that were perfected for pencil-and-paper media. This paper presents a simple calligraphic interface to explore interior design literally from the ground up. The Decosketch application is a modeling and visualization tool structured around 2 _D architectural plants. Its purpose is to help architects or customers easily creating and navigating through house designs starting from the floorplan and moving to their three-dimensional representation. Moreover, both 2D and 3D representations can be independently edited, providing a natural interface that tries to adhere to well-known representations and idioms used by architects when drafting using pencil and paper.
series eCAADe
email jorgej@acm.org
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 2005_729
id 2005_729
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 2005
title Computer Renderings – „Reality is Overrated”
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 729-735
summary In this paper, two problems concerning truthfulness of computer-generated visualization are considered. The first one concerns relationships between reality and its representation by computer renderings. The second problem concerns the kind of representations people need. These problems are analyzed for static perception of architectural forms based on computer visualization, and for dynamic walk-through perception of urban space. The thesis of the paper is that many photorealistic renderings are excessively realistic and thus not true. In this context, a new question arises: do we need the true representation of an object? The author claims that we need “adequate” pictures. Adequate means a picture that is satisfactory in particular situation. The problem of equivalence of media (renderings and animations) and reality is not that important here. Much research is concerned with the truthfulness and falsity of information. However, they do not take into consideration that frequently what seems to be real exerts bigger influence on people than what is in fact real. Understanding this problem may help us in producing images that better correspond to people’s expectations.
keywords Perception, Rendering, Non-Photorealistic Rendering
series eCAADe
email asan@pb.bialystok.pl
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 2005_819
id 2005_819
authors Dorta, Tomás
year 2005
title HYBRID MODELING: MANUAL AND DIGITAL MEDIA IN THE FIRST STEPS OF THE DESIGN PROCESS
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 819-827
summary This paper proposes a new paradigm in computer-aided design: hybrid modeling. Considering, on one hand the traditional sketches and mock-ups, and digital techniques on the other, this paradigm fuses the two and proposes a new technique that uses the performance of the digital with the capacities of the analog without replacing or imitating one or the other. In the development of design computer solutions, it is important to know the user well. However, most researchers propose systems that do not consider how designers actually work. Furthermore, two principal elements must be considered in the design process: shape and space. These aspects need to be approached with convenient tools that are adapted to the designers. This new paradigm is presented through two new innovative techniques: the hybrid mock-up (for shape) and drafted virtual reality (for space). A review of the implications of this paradigm on the design process is presented. Not only are the techniques fast and easy to learn and execute, but the results demonstrate that the designers can express both their individuality and the idiosyncrasies of their personal representations; important elements that are difficult to achieve with conventional 3D modeling techniques, especially during the primary stages of the design process.
keywords Manual Media, Design Process, Rapid Prototyping, Sketches, 3D Modeling
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email tomas.dorta@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 2005_279
id 2005_279
authors Walz, Steffen P., Schoch, Odilo, Ochsendorf, Mathias and Spindler, Torsten
year 2005
title Serious Fun: Pervasive game design as a CAAD teaching and research method
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 279-286
summary Today and in the future, architectural students must be prepared for designing both physical and adaptive, computer-integrated spaces. The question is: How do we easily and effectively convey architecturally relevant theories and practices of pervasive computing in teaching? In this paper, we present a didactic model that has proved to be a possible answer. During a semester long design class, we supervised an interdisciplinary group of architecture and computer science students who teamworked on an early so called serious pervasive game prototype, entitled “ETHGame”. The class culminated in a two week compact phase and a presentation before ETH representatives involved in e-learning projects. The resulting interactive prototype takes advantage of our campus’s extensive wireless local area network infrastructure, allowing for user positioning and location based learning, servicing, and peer-to-peer communication. The game mutates the whole of the ETH Zurich campus into a knowledge space, issuing position dependent and position relevant questions to players. The ETHGame forces participants to engage with a given space in the form of a quiz and rewards them for collaborating both face-to-face and facelessly. The game helps them build a collective academic and space aware identity whilst being immersed in a sentient environment. Thus, in this paper we are introducing serious pervasive game design as a novel design research and teaching paradigm for CAAD, as well as a e-learning design strategy.
keywords Pervasive Computing; Pervasive Game Design; Serious Games; LocationBased Learning; Knowledge Space
series eCAADe
email spindler@hbt.arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id acadia05_012
id acadia05_012
authors Anshuman, Sachin
year 2005
title Responsiveness and Social Expression; Seeking Human Embodiment in Intelligent Façades
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 12-23
summary This paper is based on a comparative analysis of some twenty-six intelligent building facades and sixteen large media-facades from a socio-psychological perspective. It is not difficult to observe how deployment of computational technologies have engendered new possibilities for architectural production to which surface-centeredness lies at that heart of spatial production during design, fabrication and envelope automation processes. While surfaces play a critical role in contemporary social production (information display, communication and interaction), it is important to understand how the relationships between augmented building surfaces and its subjects unfold. We target double-skin automated facades as a distinct field within building-services and automation industry, and discuss how the developments within this area are over-occupied with seamless climate control and energy efficiency themes, resulting into socially inert mechanical membranes. Our thesis is that at the core of the development of automated façade lies the industrial automation attitude that renders the eventual product socially less engaging and machinic. We illustrate examples of interactive media-façades to demonstrate how architects and interaction designers have used similar technology to turn building surfaces into socially engaging architectural elements. We seek opportunities to extend performative aspects of otherwise function driven double-skin façades for public expression, informal social engagement and context embodiment. Towards the end of the paper, we propose a conceptual model as a possible method to address the emergent issues. Through this paper we intend to bring forth emergent concerns to designing building membrane where technology and performance are addressed through a broader cultural position, establishing a continual dialogue between the surface, function and its larger human context.
series ACADIA
email sanshuman@hotmail.com
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2005_1_82_21
id cf2005_1_82_21
authors DE VRIES Bauke and HARINK Jeroen
year 2005
title Construction Analysis during the Design Process
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 413-422
summary 4D CAD systems are used by contractors for visually checking the construction process. To enable simulation of the construction process, the construction planner links building components from a CAD model with the activities from a project planning. In this paper we describe a method to generate a project planning directly from a CAD model using basic construction knowledge. A case study is discussed briefly to show the current results and the shortcomings. Finally an outlook is presented on a more advanced implementation that is (also) useful for designers.
keywords 4D CAD, design process, construction analysis, automatic planning
series CAAD Futures
email B.d.Vries@tue.nl
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id 2005_197
id 2005_197
authors Hsieh, Chih-Wen
year 2005
title A Networked Sketching Environment for Supporting Collective Creativity
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 197-204
summary In the early conceptual design, individual designers often make extensive use of sketches to explore design problems. Moreover, within the collaborative design sessions, designers communicate and discuss with each other by sharing their temporary sketches. These private design artifacts are used to externalize ideas and share them with other designers in order to facilitate the performance of design sessions. During such social interaction performance, some abstraction behaviors behind social activities like collective creativity are synchronized. However, the existent tele-communication tools proposed for separated design groups, slightly hold back the activities of collective creativity. It makes designers dedicated just in the table discussion, and negatively influenced on collective creativity sharing. Thus, some private design artifacts became isolated in tele-communicative environments. In order to respect this, we propose an approach that uses the notion of Digital Backchannel to realize the sub-channel communications. In this paper, we also present the implementation of a working prototype of groupware application. Finally, we discussed some points from our studies.
keywords CSCD: CSCW; Natural User Interface; Digital-Backchannel; Collective Creativity
series eCAADe
email unnormal@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id ascaad2016_002
id ascaad2016_002
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2016
title Rigorous Creativity - Ubiquity, Parametrics, Tectonics
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 3-6
summary Architects frequently understand and experience design and creativity as a personal and lonely activity. However, there is, increasingly, a need to collaborate with others in the design and construction of buildings. Digital technology is intricately intertwined with the creative and social aspects of the emerging practice world. A prime example is the use of digital fabrication technology and building information models to directly transfer information among architects, contractors, fabricators and consultants. At the same time, the discipline and practice of creative design is increasingly seen as a valuable cognitive skill, to be emulated, tapped, and understood by other disciplines in various settings. Fields outside of architecture and governmental granting agencies have shown strong interest in understanding, rationalizing and importing the creative design process that architects engage in. The obstacle, however, has been that architects and designers are rarely able to explain their processes in a manner understood by others. The advent of digital tools and social computing further complicates the issues of how designers design with such tools and how designers design with others (Lawson, 2005). Our aim should be to define a discipline of collaborative digital design with clear conceptual frameworks, methodologies, and epistemologies. The goal is two-fold: 1) to formulate a discipline of digital design based on sound theoretical and pragmatic underpinnings, and 2) to elucidate the processes of digital design so that we can better communicate them to other disciplines and thus engage more effectively in interdisciplinary research.
series ASCAAD
email jabiw@cardiff.ac.uk
last changed 2017/05/25 11:13

_id 2005_565
id 2005_565
authors Kabata, Michal and Koszewski, Krzysztof
year 2005
title A Model of Dispersed Historic Architectural Knowledge Base
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 565-572
summary This paper is based on the experience with creation of a small knowledge base about the between-war architecture of one of the Warsaw districts. Design, as a process of creation, combines processing of procedural and declarative knowledge. There is a vast amount of declarative knowledge of different kinds to be collected even before the design process starts. Advances in ICT (Information and Communications Technologies), particularly in such field as databases, data warehousing and knowledge engineering, make it a lot easier to design complex systems, which will allow to combine procedural and declarative knowledge. We used historic-architectural knowledge as an example of the second kind mentioned here. The sources of this kind of information are dispersed, the data is gathered in various formats, using different standards and for various purposes. Past experiences with creating detailed architectural heritage inventories in Poland led us to a conclusion that such a subject specific knowledge base may be a part of larger hierarchical structure, which still needs to be built. These are the reasons for adopting a data-warehouse-like structure, which responds with it’s tools to such needs. The assumptions for such system are presented and the context-based structure is discussed. During our work we also came for some more general conclusions. These concern a need for disseminating an OpenSource Society ideas through all the keepers of information related to architectural heritage.
keywords Information and Knowledge Management, Database Systems, Architectural Heritage, Data Warehouse Technology
series eCAADe
email xys@arch.pw.edu.pl
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 6795
id 6795
authors KOUZELEAS Stelios
year 2005
title DEFINITION OF A METHOD OF LIMITS OF THE SIMPLIFICATION OF A HALL MODEL IN A CAD SYSTEM TO DIMINISH FALSIFICATION OF ACOUSTIC SIMULATION RESULTS
source International Congress eCAADe 2005 (Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe), subject : “Digital Desing : the quest for new paradigms”, ISBN 0-9541183-2-4, pp. 695-704, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal, 21-24 September 2005
summary During the modelling, because of the sometimes complex architectural shape of halls, we were forced to introduce simplifications in order to carry out calculations and simulation operations on these halls, as the calculation software requires plane surfaces. This paper presents a developed tool adapted on a CAD modelling system (AutoCAD), which defines an “average limits” of the model simplification operation in order to control and diminish the falsification of calculation and simulation results on this model, such as the architectural acoustic simulation. The process of the elaboration and the adjustment of the simplified models of the Grand Theatre of Bordeaux (GTB) based on acoustical measurements and their calculation results are described in detail in a previous article (Kouzeleas and Semidor, 2001). The analysis process of the consequences of the hall model simplification on the acoustical simulation results and the applied simplification methods are described in a PhD thesis (Kouzeleas, 2002). This article is based on this analysis process in order to apply it on several simplified models of the Amphitheatre of the Architecture School of Bordeaux (Amphi-EAPB). The comparison in a CAD system (AutoCAD) of the acoustical calculation results and the areas after simplification of the simplified models of these two halls made with AutoCAD, via the developed tool adapted on the AutoCAD, permit to define a “limits average of a hall model simplification” before the falsification of these calculation results.
series other
type normal paper
email stelios_kouzeleas@yahoo.fr
more http://www.civil.ist.utl.pt/ecaade05/
last changed 2005/10/25 10:19

_id 2005_695
id 2005_695
authors Kouzeleas, Stelios Th.
year 2005
title Definition of a Method of Limits of the Simplification of a Hall Model in a CAD System to Diminish Falsification of Acoustic Simulation Results
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 695-704
summary During the modelling, because of the sometimes complex architectural shape of halls, we were forced to introduce simplifications in order to carry out calculations and simulation operations on these halls, as the calculation software requires plane surfaces. This paper presents a developed tool adapted on a CAD modelling system (AutoCAD), which defines an “average limits” of the model simplification operation in order to control and diminish the falsification of calculation and simulation results on this model, such as the architectural acoustic simulation. The process of the elaboration and the adjustment of the simplified models of the Grand Theatre of Bordeaux (GTB) based on acoustical measurements and their calculation results are described in detail in a previous article (Kouzeleas and Semidor, 2001). The analysis process of the consequences of the hall model simplification on the acoustical simulation results and the applied simplification methods are described in a PhD thesis (Kouzeleas, 2002). This article is based on this analysis process in order to apply it on several simplified models of the Amphitheatre of the Architecture School of Bordeaux (Amphi- EAPB). The comparison in a CAD system (AutoCAD) of the acoustical calculation results and the areas after simplification of the simplified models of these two halls made with AutoCAD, via the developed tool adapted on the AutoCAD, permit to define a “limits average of a hall model simplification” before the falsification of these calculation results.
keywords Calculation Cad Program Integrated Development ; Design Process ; 3D Modeling ; Performance Simulation ; Acoustic Simulation Results
series eCAADe
email stelios_kouzeleas@yahoo.fr
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id cf2005_1_43_191
id cf2005_1_43_191
authors KRAFT Bodo and SCHNEIDER Gerd
year 2005
title Semantic Roomobjects for Conceptual Design Support
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 207-216
summary The conceptual design at the beginning of the building construction process is essential for the success of a building project. Even if some CAD tools allow elaborating conceptual sketches, they rather focus on the shape of the building elements and not on their functionality. We introduce semantic roomobjects and roomlinks, by way of example to the CAD tool ArchiCAD. These extensions provide a basis for specifying the organisation and functionality of a building and free architects from being forced to directly produce detailed constructive sketches. Furthermore, we introduce consistency analyses of the conceptual sketch, based on an ontology containing conceptual relevant knowledge, specific to one class of buildings.
keywords conceptual design, semantic modelling, ontology
series CAAD Futures
email kraft@cs.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id sigradi2005_433
id sigradi2005_433
authors Muñoz, Patricia Laura; Juan López Coronel
year 2005
title Looking at CAD from Morphology
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 433-437
summary Our knowledge on Morphology of Industrial Design was increased through its relation to CAD systems. It was not just a functional change, because there was an integration of conceptual and operational morphological knowledge with 3D modelling systems. Over almost ten years of research we identified three different stages: exploration, surpassing of restrictions and expansion. We worked mainly in the generative systems of curve spatial surfaces and on their determination and communication, combining both digital and analogous resources. Throughout these stages we were able to understand CAD systems as instruments of inquiry that enable morphological explorations that would be unfeasible without them. If we can look beyond their visualizing faculties we can enter this challenging research area that will allow us to broaden the vision and scope of our discipline. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email patricia@plm.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id cf2011_p115
id cf2011_p115
authors Pohl, Ingrid; Hirschberg Urs
year 2011
title Sensitive Voxel - A reactive tangible surface
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 525-538.
summary Haptic and tactile sensations, the active or passive exploration of our built surroundings through our sense of touch, give us a direct feeling and detailed information of space, a sense of architecture (Pallasmaa 2005). This paper presents the prototype of a reactive surface system, which focuses its output on the sense of touch. It explains how touch sensations influence the perception of architecture and discusses potential applications that might arise from such systems in the future. A growing number of projects demonstrate the strong impact of interaction design on the human senses and perception. They offer new ways of sensing and experiencing architectural space. But the majority of these interaction concepts focus on visual and auditory output-effects. The sense of touch is typically used as an input generator, but neglected as as a potential receiver of stimuli. With all the possibilities of sensors and micro-devices available nowadays, there is no longer a technical reason for this. It is possible to explore a much wider range of sense responding projects, to broaden the horizon of sensitive interaction concepts (Bullivant 2006). What if the surfaces of our surroundings can actively change the way it feels to touch them? What if things like walls and furniture get the ability to interactively respond to our touch? What new dimensions of communication and esthetic experience will open up when we conceive of tangibility in this bi-directional way? This paper presents a prototype system aimed at exploring these very questions. The prototype consists of a grid of tangible embedded cells, each one combining three kinds of actuators to produce divergent touch stimuli. All cells can be individually controlled from an interactive computer program. By providing a layering of different combinations and impulse intensities, the grid structure enables altering patterns of actuation. Thus it can be employed to explore a sort of individual touch aesthetic, for which - in order to differentiate it from established types of aesthetic experiences - we have created the term 'Euhaptics' (from the Greek ευ = good and άπτω = touch, finger). The possibility to mix a wide range of actuators leads to blending options of touch stimuli. The sense of touch has an expanded perception- spectrum, which can be exploited by this technically embedded superposition. The juxtaposed arrangement of identical multilayered cell-units offers blending and pattern effects of different touch-stimuli. It reveals an augmented form of interaction with surfaces and interactive material structures. The combination of impulses does not need to be fixed a priori; it can be adjusted during the process of use. Thus the sensation of touch can be made personally unique in its qualities. The application on architectural shapes and surfaces allows the user to feel the sensations in a holistic manner – potentially on the entire body. Hence the various dimensions of touch phenomena on the skin can be explored through empirical investigations by the prototype construction. The prototype system presented in the paper is limited in size and resolution, but its functionality suggests various directions of further development. In architectural applications, this new form of overlay may lead to create augmented environments that let inhabitants experience multimodal touch sensations. By interactively controlling the sensual patterns, such environments could get a unique “touch” for every person that inhabit them. But there may be further applications that go beyond the interactive configuration of comfort, possibly opening up new forms of communication for handicapped people or applications in medical and therapeutic fields (Grunwald 2001). The well-known influence of touch- sensations on human psychological processes and moreover their bodily implications suggest that there is a wide scope of beneficial utilisations yet to be investigated.
keywords Sensitive Voxel- A reactive tangible surface
series CAAD Futures
email inge@sbox.tugraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p018
id cf2011_p018
authors Sokmenoglu, Ahu; Cagdas Gulen, Sariyildiz Sevil
year 2011
title A Multi-dimensional Exploration of Urban Attributes by Data Mining
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 333-350.
summary The paper which is proposed here will introduce an ongoing research project aiming to research data mining as a methodology of knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis. To address the increasing multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires a multidisciplinary approach to urban analysis. This research is an attempt to establish a link between knowledge discovery methodologies and automated urban feature analysis. Therefore, in the scope of this research we apply data mining methodologies for urban analysis. Data mining is defined as to extract important patterns and trends from raw data (Witten and Frank, 2005). When applied to discover relationships between urban attributes, data mining can constitute a methodology for the analysis of multi-dimensional relational complexity of urban environments (Gil, Montenegro, Beirao and Duarte, 2009) The theoretical motivation of the research is derived by the lack of explanatory urban knowledge which is an issue since 1970’s in the area of urban research. This situation is mostly associated with deductive methods of analysis. The analysis of urban system from the perspective of few interrelated factors, without considering the multi-dimensionality of the system in a deductive fashion was not been explanatory enough. (Jacobs, 1961, Lefebvre, 1970 Harvey, 1973) To address the multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires the consideration of diverse spatial, social, economic, cultural, morphological, environmental, political etc. features of urban entities. The main claim is that, in urban analysis, there is a need to advance from traditional one dimensional (Marshall, 2004) description and classification of urban forms (e.g. Land-use maps, Density maps) to the consideration of the simultaneous multi-dimensionality of urban systems. For this purpose, this research proposes a methodology consisting of the application of data mining as a knowledge discovery method into a GIS based conceptual urban database built out of official real data of Beyoglu. Generally, the proposed methodology is a framework for representing and analyzing urban entities represented as objects with properties (attributes). It concerns the formulation of an urban entity’s database based on both available and non-available (constructed from available data) data, and then data mining of spatial and non-spatial attributes of the urban entities. Location or position is the primary reference basis for the data that is describing urban entities. Urban entities are; building floors, buildings, building blocks, streets, geographically defined districts and neighborhoods etc. Urban attributes are district properties of locations (such as land-use, land value, slope, view and so forth) that change from one location to another. Every basic urban entity is unique in terms of its attributes. All the available qualitative and quantitative attributes that is relavant (in the mind of the analyst) and appropriate for encoding, can be coded inside the computer representation of the basic urban entity. Our methodology is applied by using the real and official, the most complex, complete and up-to-dataset of Beyoglu (a historical neighborhood of Istanbul) that is provided by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IBB). Basically, in our research, data mining in the context of urban data is introduced as a computer based, data-driven, context-specific approach for supporting analysis of urban systems without relying on any existing theories. Data mining in the context of urban data; • Can help in the design process by providing site-specific insight through deeper understanding of urban data. • Can produce results that can assist architects and urban planners at design, policy and strategy levels. • Can constitute a robust scientific base for rule definition in urban simulation applications such as urban growth prediction systems, land-use simulation models etc. In the paper, firstly we will present the framework of our research with an emphasis on its theoretical background. Afterwards we will introduce our methodology in detail and finally we will present some of important results of data mining analysis processed in Rapid Miner open-source software. Specifically, our research define a general framework for knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis and enable the usage of GIS and data mining as complementary applications in urban feature analysis. Acknowledgments I would like to thank to Nuffic, the Netherlands Organization for International Cooperation in Higher Education, for funding of this research. I would like to thank Ceyhun Burak Akgul for his support in Data Mining and to H. Serdar Kaya for his support in GIS.
keywords urban feature analysis, data mining, urban database, urban complexity, GIS
series CAAD Futures
email ahusokmenoglu@yahoo.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ijac20053106
id ijac20053106
authors özener, Ozan önder; Akleman, Ergun; Srinivasan, Vinod
year 2005
title Interactive Rind Modeling for Architectural Design
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 3 - no. 1, 93-106
summary The paper presents a new modeling technique for architectural design. Rind modeling provides for the easy creation of surfaces resembling peeled and punctured rinds. We show how the method's two main steps of creation of a shell or crust and then opening holes in the crust by punching or peeling can be encapsulated into a real time semi-automatic interactive algorithm.The rind modeling method allows us to develop a user-friendly tool for designers and architects. The new tool extends the abilities of polygonal modeling and allows designers to work on structured and consistent models for architectural design purposes. Rind modeling gives architects and designers a processing flexibility. It can be used in conceptual modeling during the early design phase. It can also be efficiently used for creating variety of shell structures for architectural design.
series journal
more http://www.multi-science.co.uk/ijac.htm
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id sigradi2005_806
id sigradi2005_806
authors Torres, Gerson J. M
year 2005
title Modeling and visualizing the architectural project and their relationship with the nature and the environment using Biocad and CAACD: Computer Architectural Aided Climatic Design
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 2, pp. 806-810
summary Architecture is built in artificial and natural environments, some are real others are virtual. Until now, CAAD, CAD, and 3D modeling and simulation software have not included the environment and are therefore limited to imprecise representations. This challenges the algorithmic complexity of the software that simulates elements of nature, air, natural and artificial light using techniques of radiosity and raytracing. Today, CAACD (Computer Architectural Aided Climate Design) software needs information like geographic location, atmospheric and climatic conditions of the place to use it in conceptual decisions during the design process and to be able to guarantee environmental comfort in the project. This situation has provided me, together with professors and postgraduate students in the discipline of landscape architecture, with the fundamental framework for my study, namely: The virtual construction of a region, including digital representation of the built environment and the tropical flora. This paper describes the basic methodology used in such a process. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email gerson@univalle.edu.co
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id 2005_010
id 2005_010
authors Aish, Robert
year 2005
title From Intuition to Precision
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 10-14
summary Design has been described as making inspire decisions with incomplete information. True, we may use prior knowledge, we may even think we understand the causalites involved, but what really matters is exploration: of new forms, of new materials, and speculation about the response to the resulting effects. Essentially, this exploration has its own dynamics, involving intuition and spontaneity, and without which there is no design. But of course we all know that this is not the whole story. Design is different to 'craft'; to directly 'making' or 'doing'. It necessarily has to be predictive in order to anticipate what the consequence of the 'making' or 'doing' will be. Therefore we inevitably have to counter balance our intuition with a well developed sense of premeditation. We have to be able to reason about future events, about the consequence of something that has not yet being made. There is always going to be an advantage if this reasoning can be achieved with a degree of precision. So how can we progress from intuition to precision? What abstractions can we use to represent, externalize and test the concepts involved? How can we augment the cognitive processes? How can we record the progression of ideas? And, how do we know when we have arrived? Design has a symbiotic relationship with geometry. There are many design issues that are independent of any specific configurations. We might call these “pre-geometric” issues. And having arrived at a particular configuration, there may be many material interpretations of the same geometry. We might call these “post-geometric” issues. But geometry is central to design, and without appropriate geometric understanding, the resulting design will be limited. Geometry has two distinct components, one is a formal descriptive system and the other is a process of subjective evaluation.
series eCAADe
email Robert.Aish@bentley.com
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

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