CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ecaade2011_122
id ecaade2011_122
authors Chronis, Angelos; Jagannath, Prarthana; Siskou, Vasiliki Aikaterini; Jones, Jonathan
year 2011
title Sensing digital co-presence and digital identity: Visualizing the Bluetooth landscape of the City of Bath
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.87-92
wos WOS:000335665500009
summary The impact of ubiquitous digital technologies on the analysis and synthesis of our urban environment is undoubtedly great. The urban topography is overlaid by an invisible, yet very tangible digital topography that is increasingly affecting our urban life. As W. J. Mitchell (Mitchell 2005) pointed out, the digital revolution has filled our world with “electronic instruments of displacement” that “embed the virtual in the physical, and weave it seamlessly into daily urban life”. The mobile phone, the most integrated mobile device is closely related to the notion of a digital identity, our personal identity on this digital space. The Bluetooth is the mainly used direct communication protocol between mobile phones today and in this scope, each device has its own unique ID, its “MAC address”. This paper investigates the potential use of recording and analysing Bluetooth enabled devices in the urban scale in understanding the interrelation between the physical and the digital topographies.
keywords Pervasive systems; digital presence; urban encounter; digital identity
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2005_350
id sigradi2005_350
authors San Martín, Patricia; Sergio Bertozzi
year 2005
title “Otra Andria” e-learning environment for the architectural designing workshop
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 350-354
summary This work describes results obtained from a test over an experimental prototype “Otra Andria” (OA1) designed by the investigation team of “Obra Abierta: Over the construction of an investigating and learning system in virtual environments”. OA1 is a basic tool. It show us: three simultaneous screens with editing tool bars, an integrated chat for publication and discussion, images and texts, all this in synchronized time. Tools are simultaneously accessible from all boards by the teacher, the students or between pupils. There is a web log, a personal web, and an activities’ organization space for the professors. This experience was helpful to understand the actual needs for virtual environment applications as well as e-learning problems in such cases where the know-how is not available to every attendant to the course. That means we must begin working on hyper-medial language diffusion among all teachers who want to use the ICT in all its actual potentiality. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 5b89
id 5b89
authors Sevaldson, Birger
year 2005
title Developing Digital Design Techniques Investigations on Creative Design Computing
source Oslo School of Architecture and Design, PHD-Thesis
summary 1.1. The themes in this theses 16 1.1.1. Mind the mind gap 16 1.1.2. Prologue: The World Center for Human Concerns 17 1.1.3. Creative computer use 26 1.1.4. Design strategies and techniques 31 1.2. Overview 33 1.2.1. Main issues 34 1.2.2. The material 36 1.2.3. The framework of this thesis 37 2. CURRENT STATE AND BACKGROUND 39 2.1. New tools, old thoughts. 39 2.1.1. A misuse strategy 44 2.1.2. Emergence in design 47 2.1.3. Programming and design 50 2.1.4. Artificial intelligence 53 2.1.5. Human intelligence and artificial representations 53 2.2. Electronic dreams 54 2.2.1. The dream of intuitive software 55 2.2.2. The dream of the designing machine 60 2.2.3. The dream of self-emerging architecture; genetic algorithms in design 61 2.2.4. A cultural lag 62 2.3. Ideas and ideology 64 2.3.1. A personal perspective on the theories of the 1990s 65 2.3.2. "The suffering of diagrams" 68 2.3.3. Architectural theory and design methodology 69 2.4. Ideas on creativity 72 2.4.1. What is creativity? 73 2.4.2. Creativity, a cultural phenomenon. 75 2.4.3. Creativity in the information age 79 2.4.4. Creativity-enhancing techniques 81 2.4.5. Crucial fiicro-cultures 82 2.4.6. A proposal for a practitioner approach to creativity 83 2.5. Summary and conclusion of part 2 84 3. NEW DESIGN TECHNIQUES 86 3.1. Introduction 86 3.2. New technology - new strategy 87 3.3. Thinking through design practice: the inspirational playful design approach 88 3.4. A Corner stone: emergence 89 3.4.1. The source material 94 3.5. Recoding, translation and interpretation 95 A case: Tidsrom 97 3.6. Reconfiguring schemata 109 3.7. Rules and games 113 3.8. Virtuality and virtual models 118 3.8.1. What is "The Virtual"? 118 3.8.2. Virtual reality 119 Investigating "the virtual" 120 3.8.3. Analysing the virtual 126 3.9. Visual thinking (diagrams and visual thinking) 130 3.9.1. Visual Thinking and Abstraction. 130 3.9.2. A heuristic process 132 3.9.3. Visual thinking, skills and tacit knowledge 132 3.9.4. Media for visual thinking 133 3.10. Diagrammatic thinking 138 3.10.1. Descriptive diagrams 142 3.10.2. Generative diagrams 144 3.10.3. Versioning 149 3.10.4. Finding 153 3.10.5. Translation and interpretation 158 3.10.6. From generative diagram to program 168 3.10.7. Dynamic generative diagrams 171 3.11. The question of selection 175 3.12. Summary and conclusion of part 3 178 4. WAYS OF WORKING: FROM DESIGN PRACTICE TOWARDS THEORY AND DIGITAL DESIGN METHODS 179 4.1. Introduction 179 4.1.1. Practice-based research 180 4.1.2. Visual material is central. 180 4.1.3. Two investigation paths 180 4.1.4. Achievements 180 4.2. Methods 181 4.2.1. Explorative and generative research 182 4.2.2. A first-person approach 183 4.2.3. Analysis 184 4.2.4. The Material 185 4.3. Systematising creative computer use. Ways of working; techniques in creative computer use. 186 4.3.1. Categorization 186 4.3.2. Mapping the field of design computing. 187 4.3.3. Generic techniques 190 4.3.4. Specific techniques 192 4.3.5. Table of techniques 193 4.3.6. Examples of techniques 200 4.3.7. Traces of technology. 213 4.4. The further use of the generated material 219 4.4.1. Realisation strategies 221 4.4.2. Templates and scaffolds 223 4.5. Summary of Part 4 240 PART 5. WAYS OF THINKING: INTENTIONS IN CREATIVE COMPUTER USE. 241 5.1. Intentions 241 5.1.1. Categorising intentions 242 5.2. Intention themes 243 5.2.1. Cases and samples from Group one: Formal, phenomenal, spatial and geometrical themes 244 5.2.2. Intentions of response to the complexity of urban systems 297 5.3. The Hybrid Process 317 5.3.1. Hybridization strategies 319 5.3.2. The hybrid process and its elements. 328 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 344 6.1. Principles, concepts and methods for creative design computing 344 6.2. A new type of creativity? 348 6.3. A practice as the field for an investigation 349 6.4. Suggestions for further studies 349
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2007/04/08 14:11

_id 791f
id 791f
authors Stellingwerff, M. C.
year 2005
source Delft University Press
summary This research initiative addresses the issue of Design in relation to Virtual Context.

Central to this study are the innovative potentials and instrumental opportunities of computer based media techniques, capable of generating interactive models and changing perspectives for the benefit of urban and architectural design.

The ambition was to not only make a contribution to the existing body of knowledge concerning digital technologies and their applications, but explore theoretical conditions which might help define and stimulate further study.

From the outset, the focus was on furthering the opportunities for computer based representation media in creative design. On the basis of a series of explorative studies the subject of this research was targeted: the issue of Design in Context, or more specifically: Design(ing) in a Virtual Context.

During the process there was a marked shift in the conception of the subject from – more or less immersive – VR technologies in the direction of approaches which might be expected to become readily available in practice and education and could be effective in actual design processes. This insight also brought about a shift in emphasis from realism per-se towards creating a sense of situatedness.

The design representation system which was developed was intended to not just allow for one type of model view, but to afford an array of different views, from which the designer would be able to choose freely, depending on the phase and focus of design as well as personal preferences. A series of interface prototypes and support tools were developed especially and successively tested experimentally. 

For the intended final design driven experimental study, different virtual context models were considered. Eventually, an integral –  purely fictitious – design ‘environment’ was constructed in the computer, so that the workings of the proposed system and its components would be tested systematically.

A conscious choice was made for an in depth study, on a relatively modest scale, which would a certain amount of mutual involvement between designer and researcher, to confront the participants with the finer aspects of the proposed system in a relatively short time and to gather detailed data. A half dozen design professionals were invited to participate in a closely monitored experimental exercise.

The results of this study therefore do not offer straightforward, indisputable facts, to be considered representative for the design community as a whole, but indicate that the working methods of the individual designers – when discovering aspects of the site, developing and presenting proposals and reflecting on the qualities of represented designs – tend to vary considerably. For this reason the interactive representation system proved to be of value. Participants could express different view preferences, with more or less realistic image modes being used in different phases of their design developments, with varying experiences of situatedness. Some of the design professionals participants were very appreciative of the system’s opportunities, others tended to be more ‘set in their ways’.

The results of this experimental study indicate that there may particularly be opportunities for interface applications which are able to function interactively, offering individual designers –  as well as others involved in evaluating design proposals – a variety of tools with which to approach specific design artefacts in their changing contexts. Virtual models can play not only an important role as a ‘reminder’ for the designer but also to other parties playing an active role in the design and implementation processes. Interactive environment models are not only promising as exploration tools for existing sites, but could be valuable to test the impact of a design on its location. This could be especially interesting if the site is difficult or impossible to visit or as yet a virtual construction. In addition such an approach might be beneficial for objective comparison and evaluation of design proposals in competitions and in education as well as in on-line collaborative design projects where the context is still in the process of being developed.  

series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2005/03/02 21:40

_id cf2005_1_25_77
id cf2005_1_25_77
authors XU Shuhong, HENG Chye Kiang, SUBRAMANIAM Ganesan, HO Quoc Thuan, KHOO Boon Tat and HUANG Yan
year 2005
title Interactive Visualization of Large-Scale Architectural Models over the Grid
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 93-102
summary Virtual reconstruction of the ancient Chinese Chang'an city has been continued for ten years at the National University of Singapore. Motivated by sharing this grand city with people who are geographically distant and equipped with normal personal computers, this paper presents a practical Grid-enabled visualization infrastructure that is suitable for interactive visualization of large-scale architectural models. The underlying Grid services, such as information service, visualization planner and execution container etc, are developed according to the OGSA standard. To tackle the critical problem of Grid visualization, i.e. data size and network bandwidth, a multi-stage data compression approach is deployed and the corresponding data pre-processing, rendering and remote display issues are systematically addressed.
keywords remote visualization, grid-enabled visualization, large-scale architectural models, virtual heritage
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id ecaade2017_184
id ecaade2017_184
authors Almeida, Daniel and Sousa, José Pedro
year 2017
title Tradition and Innovation in Digital Architecture - Reviewing the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2005
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 267-276
summary Please write your aToday, in a moment when digital technologies are taking command of many architectural design and construction processes, it is important to examine the place and role of traditional ones. Designed by Álvaro Siza and Eduardo Souto de Moura in collaboration with Cecil Balmond, the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2005 reflects the potential of combining those two different approaches in the production of innovative buildings. For inquiring this argument, this paper investigates the development of this project from its conception to construction with a double goal: to uncover the relationship between analogical and digital processes, and to understand the architects' role in a geographically distributed workflow, which involved the use of computational design and robotic fabrication technologies. To support this examination, the authors designed and fabricated a 1:3 scale prototype of part of the Pavilion, which also served to check and reflect on the technological evolution since then, which is setting different conditions for design development and collaboration.bstract here by clicking this paragraph.
keywords Serpentine Gallery Pavilion; Computational Design; Digital Fabrication; Wooden Construction; Architectural Representation;
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:13

_id sigradi2012_30
id sigradi2012_30
authors Angeluzzi, Gustavo; Hanns, Daniela Kutschat
year 2012
title Um levantamento de requisitos gerais para o desenvolvimento e posicionamento de DOOTERS – um aplicativo lúdico de listas de tarefas para iPhone [A survey of general requirements for developing and positioning DOOTERS - a to-do list application for iPhone]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 191-195
summary DOOTERS is a to-do list application for iPhone which entertains and motivates the user to get things done. It was developed based on requirements obtained trough: 1. the study of several personal information organizing methods (Covey, 1989; Allen, 2005; Foster, 2006); 2. answers to a task lists user focused questionnaire; 3. observation of to-do list users while creating lists and organizing tasks; 4. comparison of digital and non-digital task list media (paper, computer and mobile device); 5. analysis of profiles, behaviors and to-do list applications for iPhone. In this paper, the authors present the process of obtaining requirements for developing and positioning DOOTERS.
keywords information and interface design, requirements, to-do list application, iPhone, DOOTERS
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p135
id cf2011_p135
authors Chen Rui, Irene; Schnabel Marc Aurel
year 2011
title Multi-touch - the future of design interaction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 557-572.
summary The next major revolution for design is to bring the natural user interaction into design activities. Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) brought a new approach that was more effective compared to their conventional predecessors. In recent years, Natural User Interfaces (NUI) have advanced user experiences and multi-touch and gesture technologies provide new opportunities for a variety of potential uses in design. Much attention has been paid to leverage in the design of interactive interfaces. The mouse input and desktop screen metaphors limit the information sharing for multiple users and also delayed the direct interaction for communication between each other. This paper proposes the innovative method by integrating game engine ‘Unity3D’ with multi-touch tangible interfaces. Unity3D provides a game development tool as part of its application package that has been designed to let users to focus on creating new games. However, it does not limit the usage of area to design additional game scenarios since the benefits of Unity3D is allowing users to build 3D environments with its customizable and easy to use editor, graphical pipelines to openGL (, 2010 ). It creates Virtual Reality (VR) environments which can simulates places in the real world, as well as the virtual environments helping architects and designers to vividly represent their design concepts through 3D visualizations, and interactive media installations in a detailed multi-sensory experience. Stereoscopic displays advanced their spatial ability while solving issues to design e.g. urban spaces. The paper presents how a multi-touch tabletop can be used for these design collaboration and communication tasks. By using natural gestures, designers can now communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the same reference simultaneously using their own input simultaneously. Further studies showed that 3Dl forms are perceived and understood more readily through haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations than through visual representation alone (Gillet et al, 2005). Based on the authors’ framework presented at the last CAADFutures, the benefits of integrating 3D visualization and tactile sensory can be illustrated in this platform (Chen and Wang, 2009), For instance, more than one designer can manipulate the 3D geometry objects on tabletop directly and can communicate successfully their ideas freely without having to waiting for the next person response. It made the work more effective which increases the overall efficiency. Designers can also collect the real-time data by any change they make instantly. The possibilities of Uniy3D make designing very flexible and fun, it is deeply engaging and expressive. Furthermore, the unity3D is revolutionizing the game development industry, its breakthrough development platform for creating highly interactive 3D content on the web ( , 2010) or similar to the interface of modern multimedia devices such as the iPhone, therefore it allows the designers to work remotely in a collaborative way to integrate the design process by using the individual mobile devices while interacting design in a common platform. In design activities, people create an external representation of a domain, often of their own ideas and understanding. This platform helps learners to make their ideas concrete and explicit, and once externalized, subsequently they reflect upon their work how well it sits the real situation. The paper demonstrates how this tabletop innovatively replaces the typical desktop metaphor. In summary, the paper addresses two major issues through samples of collaborative design: firstly presenting aspects of learners’ interactions with physical objects, whereby tangible interfaces enables them constructing expressive representations passively (Marshall, 2007), while focussing on other tasks; and secondly showing how this novel design tool allows designers to actively create constructions that might not be possible with conventional media.
keywords Multi-touch tabletop, Tangible User Interface
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2005_a_1b_b
id caadria2005_a_1b_b
authors Chien-Hung Shih
year 2005
title Project: Illustrate Your Huashan
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 75-82
summary This Project: Illustrate your Huashan attempts to utilize the texture-mapping of characters from the video game industry, as well as real-time graphic in the internet and tablet device of wireless network environment, for the construction of a 3D cyberspace environment that local artists in Huashan could use to freely give expression to their creativity, and for the establishment of a personalized visual space where 3D users can engage in online discussions with collaboration design.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id 2005_819
id 2005_819
authors Dorta, Tomás
year 2005
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 819-827
summary This paper proposes a new paradigm in computer-aided design: hybrid modeling. Considering, on one hand the traditional sketches and mock-ups, and digital techniques on the other, this paradigm fuses the two and proposes a new technique that uses the performance of the digital with the capacities of the analog without replacing or imitating one or the other. In the development of design computer solutions, it is important to know the user well. However, most researchers propose systems that do not consider how designers actually work. Furthermore, two principal elements must be considered in the design process: shape and space. These aspects need to be approached with convenient tools that are adapted to the designers. This new paradigm is presented through two new innovative techniques: the hybrid mock-up (for shape) and drafted virtual reality (for space). A review of the implications of this paradigm on the design process is presented. Not only are the techniques fast and easy to learn and execute, but the results demonstrate that the designers can express both their individuality and the idiosyncrasies of their personal representations; important elements that are difficult to achieve with conventional 3D modeling techniques, especially during the primary stages of the design process.
keywords Manual Media, Design Process, Rapid Prototyping, Sketches, 3D Modeling
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id ascaad2012_003
id ascaad2012_003
authors Elseragy, Ahmed
year 2012
title Creative Design Between Representation and Simulation
source CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE [6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2012 / ISBN 978-99958-2-063-3], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 21-23 February 2012, pp. 11-12
summary Milestone figures of architecture all have their different views on what comes first, form or function. They also vary in their definitions of creativity. Apparently, creativity is very strongly related to ideas and how they can be generated. It is also correlated with the process of thinking and developing. Creative products, whether architectural or otherwise, and whether tangible or intangible, are originated from ‘good ideas’ (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). On one hand, not any idea, or any good idea, can be considered creative but, on the other hand, any creative result can be traced back to a good idea that initiated it in the beginning (Goldschmit and Tatsa, 2005). Creativity in literature, music and other forms of art is immeasurable and unbounded by constraints of physical reality. Musicians, painters and sculptors do not create within tight restrictions. They create what becomes their own mind’s intellectual property, and viewers or listeners are free to interpret these creations from whichever angle they choose. However, this is not the case with architects, whose creations and creative products are always bound with different physical constraints that may be related to the building location, social and cultural values related to the context, environmental performance and energy efficiency, and many more (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). Remarkably, over the last three decades computers have dominated in almost all areas of design, taking over the burden of repetitive tasks so that the designers and students can focus on the act of creation. Computer aided design has been used for a long time as a tool of drafting, however in this last decade this tool of representation is being replaced by simulation in different areas such as simulation of form, function and environment. Thus, the crafting of objects is moving towards the generation of forms and integrated systems through designer-authored computational processes. The emergence and adoption of computational technologies has significantly changed design and design education beyond the replacement of drawing boards with computers or pens and paper with computer-aided design (CAD) computer-aided engineering (CAE) applications. This paper highlights the influence of the evolving transformation from Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) and how this presents a profound shift in creative design thinking and education. Computational-based design and simulation represent new tools that encourage designers and artists to continue progression of novel modes of design thinking and creativity for the 21st century designers. Today computational design calls for new ideas that will transcend conventional boundaries and support creative insights through design and into design. However, it is still believed that in architecture education one should not replace the design process and creative thinking at early stages by software tools that shape both process and final product which may become a limitation for creative designs to adapt to the decisions and metaphors chosen by the simulation tool. This paper explores the development of Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) Tools and their impact on contemporary design education and creative design.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2012/05/15 18:46

_id cf2005_1_52_176
id cf2005_1_52_176
authors GU Ning and MAHER Mary Lou
year 2005
title Dynamic Designs of 3D Virtual Worlds Using Generative Design Agents
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 239-248
summary 3D virtual worlds are networked environments designed using the metaphor of architecture. Recent developments in 3D virtual worlds focus on interactivity, flexibility and adaptability. Rather than creating virtual environments in which the objects have intelligent behaviours, our research takes a different approach to develop an agent model that is associated with an individual person in the 3D virtual world as a personal design agent. This paper presents a Generative Design Agent (GDA), a kind of rational agent capable of representing a person in a virtual world and designing, implementing and demolishing 3D virtual places based on the occupants' current needs in the virtual world. The core of a GDA's design component is a generative design grammar that is able to capture a style of 3D virtual worlds. 3D virtual worlds designed using the GDA model is another kind of architecture for the "moment".
keywords virtual environments, generative design, interactive design, shape grammars
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id fbae
id fbae
authors Horne, Margaret
year 2005
title Virtual Beirut
source CUPUM05 9th International Conference on Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management, London, 29-30 June 2005
summary This paper describes how urban planners in Beirut are applying three-dimensional computer modelling to aid design decision making in the regeneration programme for the city. The study reports on the recent developments of a computer model of Beirut and its effectiveness in communicating the spatial characteristics of Martyr’s Square, a place of historic significance in the city. An international urban design competition for Martyr’s Square, and its new axis to the sea, is underway to identify new ideas for the development of this area. This paper reports on the process of creating the computer model and feedback from users. It considers future plans for further 3D modelling of the city centre to meet the needs of urban designers.
keywords Beirut, 3D Modelling, Urban Planning, Virtual Reality
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2006/06/07 22:05

_id ascaad2016_002
id ascaad2016_002
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2016
title Rigorous Creativity - Ubiquity, Parametrics, Tectonics
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 3-6
summary Architects frequently understand and experience design and creativity as a personal and lonely activity. However, there is, increasingly, a need to collaborate with others in the design and construction of buildings. Digital technology is intricately intertwined with the creative and social aspects of the emerging practice world. A prime example is the use of digital fabrication technology and building information models to directly transfer information among architects, contractors, fabricators and consultants. At the same time, the discipline and practice of creative design is increasingly seen as a valuable cognitive skill, to be emulated, tapped, and understood by other disciplines in various settings. Fields outside of architecture and governmental granting agencies have shown strong interest in understanding, rationalizing and importing the creative design process that architects engage in. The obstacle, however, has been that architects and designers are rarely able to explain their processes in a manner understood by others. The advent of digital tools and social computing further complicates the issues of how designers design with such tools and how designers design with others (Lawson, 2005). Our aim should be to define a discipline of collaborative digital design with clear conceptual frameworks, methodologies, and epistemologies. The goal is two-fold: 1) to formulate a discipline of digital design based on sound theoretical and pragmatic underpinnings, and 2) to elucidate the processes of digital design so that we can better communicate them to other disciplines and thus engage more effectively in interdisciplinary research.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:13

_id cdc2008_243
id cdc2008_243
authors Loukissas, Yanni
year 2008
title Keepers of the Geometry: Architects in a Culture of Simulation
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 243-244
summary “Why do we have to change? We’ve been building buildings for years without CATIA?” Roger Norfleet, a practicing architect in his thirties poses this question to Tim Quix, a generation older and an expert in CATIA, a computer-aided design tool developed by Dassault Systemes in the early 1980’s for use by aerospace engineers. It is 2005 and CATIA has just come into use at Paul Morris Associates, the thirty-person architecture firm where Norfleet works; he is struggling with what it will mean for him, for his firm, for his profession. Computer-aided design is about creativity, but also about jurisdiction, about who controls the design process. In Architecture: The Story of Practice, Architectural theorist Dana Cuff writes that each generation of architects is educated to understand what constitutes a creative act and who in the system of their profession is empowered to use it and at what time. Creativity is socially constructed and Norfleet is coming of age as an architect in a time of technological but also social transition. He must come to terms with the increasingly complex computeraided design tools that have changed both creativity and the rules by which it can operate. In today’s practices, architects use computer-aided design software to produce threedimensional geometric models. Sometimes they use off-the-shelf commercial software like CATIA, sometimes they customize this software through plug-ins and macros, sometimes they work with software that they have themselves programmed. And yet, conforming to Larson’s ideas that they claim the higher ground by identifying with art and not with science, contemporary architects do not often use the term “simulation.” Rather, they have held onto traditional terms such as “modeling” to describe the buzz of new activity with digital technology. But whether or not they use the term, simulation is creating new architectural identities and transforming relationships among a range of design collaborators: masters and apprentices, students and teachers, technical experts and virtuoso programmers. These days, constructing an identity as an architect requires that one define oneself in relation to simulation. Case studies, primarily from two architectural firms, illustrate the transformation of traditional relationships, in particular that of master and apprentice, and the emergence of new roles, including a new professional identity, “keeper of the geometry,” defined by the fusion of person and machine. Like any profession, architecture may be seen as a system in flux. However, with their new roles and relationships, architects are learning that the fight for professional jurisdiction is increasingly for jurisdiction over simulation. Computer-aided design is changing professional patterns of production in architecture, the very way in which professionals compete with each other by making new claims to knowledge. Even today, employees at Paul Morris squabble about the role that simulation software should play in the office. Among other things, they fight about the role it should play in promotion and firm hierarchy. They bicker about the selection of new simulation software, knowing that choosing software implies greater power for those who are expert in it. Architects and their collaborators are in a continual struggle to define the creative roles that can bring them professional acceptance and greater control over design. New technologies for computer-aided design do not change this reality, they become players in it.
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id ijac20053304
id ijac20053304
authors Lyon, Eduardo
year 2005
title Autopoiesis and Digital Design Theory: CAD Systems as Cognitive Instruments
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 3 - no. 3, 317-334
summary In contrast to traditional models of design process fundamentally defined by the abstract manipulation of objects, this study recognizes that the resources available for rethinking architecture are to be found in a reformulation of its theory and practice. This reformation should be based on non-linear design processes in which dynamic emergence and invention take the place of a linear design process fixed on a particular object evolution. Advances in computation thinking and technology have stimulated the design and formulation of a large number of design software. Its elaboration supposes a new conceptualization of our discipline's knowledge, in a body of principles and regulations, which commands the artifact's design and its realization; therefore, it constitutes a preliminary datum for its comprehension, and thereby is of theoretical importance. Despite the continuous increment of power in computers and software capacities, the creative space of freedom defined by them acting as cognitive instruments remains almost unexplored. Therefore, we propose a change from a design knowledge based on objects to one focused on design as a network of processes. In addition, this study explores the concept of Distributed Cognition in order to redefine the use of digital tools in design process as Cognitive Instruments.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id ijac20053302
id ijac20053302
authors Massera, Carmen Aroztegui
year 2005
title The Calabozo:Virtual Reconstruction of a Place Based on Testimonies
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 3 - no. 3, 281-298
summary The objective the research reported here is to create a visualization of a place based on personal experiences. My research addresses this issue through a case study: the visualization of a women's political prison during the Uruguayan military dictatorship (1973–85). The proposed visualization is based on these women's personal experiences of the solitary confinement cell (calabozo). Compared with their male counterpart, women's memories about prison have been traditionally relegated to a second level in Uruguay. The visualization aims to communicate these women's experiences of the calabozo through a video installation. This article first reviews relevant precedents to the case study and to virtual reconstructions and later describes the video installation.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id 2005_067
id 2005_067
authors Pellitteri, Giuseppe, Colajanni Benedetto and Concialdi, Salvatore
year 2005
title Distance Collaboration. A Comparative Analysis of Tools and Procedures
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 67-73
summary Besides design theory and practice, curricula of architectural students should include some experiences referring to professional situations. Among these experiences, Collaborative Design is nowadays somewhat frequent. It is normally practised by large professional studios, using expansive software which is beyond what they can afford on average. Much academic research on the topic has also been carried out often resulting in the proposition of new and too complex description models of the building object. We think that students should instead get acquainted with such a design process: an experience has been planned and carried out in our Department for the purpose of practising the possible paradigm in a more ordinary context. Its purpose was threefold. First, making the students grasp the method’s potentialities and learn the right approach. Second, testing the practical suitability of the most widely used software. Third, comparing their relative efficiency. The software we used was: Architectural Desktop, AutoCad Revit, ArchiCad for Teamwork. We focused special attention on how representing and managing restraints, since they are the main source of conflicts. This was the hardest topic to manage. The results were partly positive inasmuch as the experience showed that it could be possible to adopt the Collaborative Design paradigm which is also used in the AEC field. The drawbacks emerged from the analysis of non-dedicated software are: a relative slow process for the lack of certain specific tools; a subsequent necessity of integrating them with different communication software; the difficulty of managing hard and soft restraints. However, in the final analysis, the experience can be considered as positive.
keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural teaching
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 2005_357
id 2005_357
authors Pita, Javier
year 2005
title Analogous Models and Architecture
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 357-364
summary Among the many possible ways of classifying the concept of “modelling”, Maldonado refers to “homologies” when structure but not shape and function are similar; “analogies” when structure and function are similar, but not shape; and “isomorphisms” when structure and shape are similar, but function may or may not be similar. Traditional artistic representation would basically fall into the category of isomorphisms, whilst analogous models are to be found mainly in activities such as magic, play or industry. Other ways of representing reality, such as architectural models or drawings, are also traditionally regarded as isomorphisms. In the course of the last century, this panorama has been altered somewhat by the post-industrial or second industrial revolution in computing and communications. Using mathematical algorithms, the computing tool has an enormous capacity to describe things of extremely diverse nature: from the shape of everyday objects to relatively complex human behaviours, these can all be described using the common language of bits. Alongside developments in computing, the world of communications has been providing us with increasingly advanced means of transmitting information, including sophisticated systems capable of emulating our own perceptions. This paper is intended as a contribution to the theoretical debate conducted over recent years on the considerable shift that has occurred in architectural representation techniques. The analysis that follows highlights a two-fold change in traditional representation techniques: on the one hand, a change in the nature of the model (as is discussed in this paper); and on the other, a modification of the interfaces or communication and perception mechanisms of the model. The conjunction of these two factors has led to the emergence of representation modes that can no longer be regarded simply as isomorphisms of reality. Insofar as virtual spaces have the capacity for us to move, to interact, in short to inhabit them, they should be regarded as “analogous models” of architectural space. In other words, there has been a shift away from representation modes based on illusion in favour of those based on simulation.
keywords Representation, Models, Virtual Space, Virtual Reality
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

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