CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 549

_id cf2005_2_32_203
id cf2005_2_32_203
authors CHASE Scott and AHMAD Sumbul
year 2005
title Grammar Transformations: Using Composite Grammars to Understand Hybridity in Design
source Learning from the Past a Foundation for the Future [Special publication of papers presented at the CAAD futures 2005 conference held at the Vienna University of Technology / ISBN 3-85437-276-0], Vienna (Austria) 20-22 June 2005, pp. 89-98
summary Hybrid designs are those that develop from multiple sources. This paper presents the methodology of composite grammars, developed by merging multiple grammars, for the analysis of hybrid designs. The methodology is discussed with an example from Islamic architecture, which is known to have developed by borrowing from various sources. The methodology is seen to be useful for the analysis of the evolution of historic architecture, as well as for the development of new languages of designs.
keywords shape grammars, generative design, historical analysis, Islamic architecture, hybridity
series CAAD Futures
email s.c.chase@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2005/05/05 05:06

_id caadria2005_b_4c_c
id caadria2005_b_4c_c
authors Sumbul Ahmad, Scott C. Chase
year 2005
title Transforming grammars of historical architecture for the generation of contemporary designs: With an example from Islamic courtyard buildings
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 246-252
summary A primary issue facing architects of the Islamic world is the generation of contemporary designs based on architecture of the past. We discuss shape grammars as a framework for the design generation of plans of courtyard buildings of Islamic architecture and describe ongoing research for the transformation of grammars of historic Islamic building types to generate new, contemporary designs or design styles. We raise issues in the grammar transformation framework and discuss directions of exploration that could be relevant to the design methods of Islamic architecture.
series CAADRIA
email sumbul.ahmad@strath.ac.uk, s.c.chase@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2005_773
id sigradi2005_773
authors Tramontano, Marcelo; Edson Salerno Junior
year 2005
title Beyond HCI: Colaboratives graphic interfaces.
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 2, pp. 773-777
summary This article intends to present a research work in process which targets the production of design principles for multi-users graphic interfaces, allowing the creation of dialog spaces for a communitarian purpose, using the knowledge from system-user and user-interface interaction and from semiotic and cognitive psychology. It blends studies in both technological and perceptive fields, focusing on interfaces production with a non-linear structure, with an associative navigability, mostly commanded by signs and graphic elements of easy comprehension. The research goal is to understand how to allow users to build an individualized portion of cyberspace, where dialogs can be established with other community members. This work is part of Nomads.usp, Center for Habitation and Ways of Living Studies - University of São Paulo, that studies and produces criteria to rethink nowadays spaces design, considering its recent history, the transformations occurred in families groups, and its behavior tendencies. [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
email tramont@sc.usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id cf2005_1_52_176
id cf2005_1_52_176
authors GU Ning and MAHER Mary Lou
year 2005
title Dynamic Designs of 3D Virtual Worlds Using Generative Design Agents
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 239-248
summary 3D virtual worlds are networked environments designed using the metaphor of architecture. Recent developments in 3D virtual worlds focus on interactivity, flexibility and adaptability. Rather than creating virtual environments in which the objects have intelligent behaviours, our research takes a different approach to develop an agent model that is associated with an individual person in the 3D virtual world as a personal design agent. This paper presents a Generative Design Agent (GDA), a kind of rational agent capable of representing a person in a virtual world and designing, implementing and demolishing 3D virtual places based on the occupants' current needs in the virtual world. The core of a GDA's design component is a generative design grammar that is able to capture a style of 3D virtual worlds. 3D virtual worlds designed using the GDA model is another kind of architecture for the "moment".
keywords virtual environments, generative design, interactive design, shape grammars
series CAAD Futures
email ning@design-ning.net
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id cf2005_1_72_160
id cf2005_1_72_160
authors SASS Lawrence
year 2005
title Wood Frame Grammar
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 383-392
summary This paper demonstrates a novel method to generate house designs completely from 3/4” plywood sheets. A shape grammar routine is employed to divide an initial solid shape into constructible components for fabrication by CNC wood routing. The paper demonstrates programmable functions that can be performed using CAD scripting. Future goals for the grammar are to develop CAD programs for digital fabrication using CNC routers. The programs will automate the fabrication process allowing the designer to focus on the visual aspect of design evaluation at any scale with little concern for constructability.
keywords CNC , shape grammars, scripting
series CAAD Futures
email lsass@mit.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id caadria2007_585
id caadria2007_585
authors Menegotto, José Luis
year 2007
title The Nazca Lines and their Digital Architectural Representation
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary This paper relates to a digital architectural design experience in 2005 for the Nazca Competition. Nazca is an archaeological site situated about 400 kilometers south of Lima, Peru. It is a large desert with gigantic millenary geoglyphs carved on the surface, which can only be seen clearly from above. The Nazca geoglyphs are made up of hundreds of lines, spirals and triangular plazas, as well as zoomorphic figures like birds, fish, spider, etc. The Nazca Competition asked for an observatory-lodge of approximately 1.000m2 with 20 rooms, communal bathrooms, supporting areas and an observatory tower of at least 100 meters. The observatory-lodge was designed using a digital representation technique called "Genetically Constructed Structures". The structure was created using the geometric principle of the affinity of two conic sections: circle and ellipse. The form was produced transforming the circle and the ellipse by performing basic geometric transformations (translation, rotation, reflection and scaling). According to this technique, the sequence of transformations was codified in the form of an alphanumerical string, metaphorically named the "DNA structure". The code was inserted as extended data into the entities which shaped the structure profiles. The algorithms were programmed with AutoLISP language. The "DNA code" allowed the structure to be constructed and deconstructed from any point, generating many different forms, to be studied and compared. One year later, the same 3D model was used to test another digital technology called "musical box" where their geometrical points are captured, read and translated into musical parameters, generating music. In this paper we will present the graphical form of the tower as well as the music associated.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id 2005_647
id 2005_647
authors Caldas, Luisa G.
year 2005
title Three-Dimensional Shape Generation of Low-Energy Architectural Solutions using Pareto Genetic Algorithms
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 647-654
summary This paper extends on a previous work on the application of a Generative Design System [GDS] to the evolution, in a computational environment, of three-dimensional architectural solutions that are energy-efficient and adapted to the climatic environment where they are located. The GDS combines a well-known building energy simulation software [DOE2.1E] with search procedures based on Genetic Algorithms and on Pareto optimization techniques, successfully allowing to tackle complex multi-objective problems. In the experiments described, architectural solutions based on a simplified layout were generated in response to two often-conflicting requirements: improving the use of daylighting in the space, while controlling the amount of energy loss through the building fabric. The choice of a cold climate like Chicago provided an adequate framework for studying the role of these opposing forces in architectural form generation. Analysis of results shows that building characteristics that originate successful solutions extend further than the building envelope. Issues of massing, aspect ratio, surface-to-volume ratio, orientation, and others, emerge from the analysis of solutions generated by the GDS, playing a significant role in dictating whether a given architectural form will prove adapted to its climatic and energy requirements. Results suggest that the questions raised by the exploration of form generation driven by environmental concerns are complex, deserving the pursuit of further experiments, in order to better understand the interaction of variables that the evolutionary process congregates.
keywords Generative Design System, Genetic Algorithms, Evolutionary Architecture, Artificial Intelligence in Design, Building Energy Simulation, Bioclimatic Architecture, Environmental Design.
series eCAADe
email luisa@civil.ist.utl.pt
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id ad19
id ad19
authors Calderon, C., and Noble, R
year 2005
title BEYOND MODELLING: AVANT-GARDE COMPUTER TECHNIQUES IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS.
source I Jornadas de Investigacion en Construccion, Madrid, 2-4 June, 2005.
summary If the result of computer innovations can be interpreted as an emerging “difference” in the quality of constructed space, then in order to truly understand what future applications may be regarding architecture at present, we should look at what advanced functions are available in the process of designing forms and space (DeLuca and Nardini, 2002). Recently the so called parametric approach, a technique for describing a large class of designs with a small description in programming code, has become a focus of attention in architectural computing. In this paper, we reflect on the current use of parametric tools using real case studies as well as our own proof of concept parametric programmes and report on how the avant-garde computer techniques may help to increase the quality of residential building.
keywords Building Quality, Parametric Design
series other
type normal paper
email carlos.calderon@ncl.ac.uk
last changed 2005/12/02 10:42

_id 2005_547
id 2005_547
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2005
title Crisis? What Crisis?
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 547-556
summary The paper describes the current situation concerning career opportunities in the field of architecture in developed western countries. Several aspects that are almost universal mark this situation. Firstly, there are too many architects chasing traditional work in competition with structural (civil) engineers. This is not surprising in consideration of the fact, that the architectural education industry produces far too many new architects for the economy to absorb. In Germany, the number is almost three times too many. Secondly, the needs of the building industry have changed over the past twenty years so that the skills that architects want to offer are not necessarily those that are sought. Lastly, the constant specialisation of work has continued unabated. Architects, as generalists, have idly watched their areas of expertise be usurped from neighbouring fields like civil and structural engineering The reasons for this crisis are manifold. In the schools of architecture, the discussions often deal with form or formal arguments, which, in fact, have little or no relevance to the building industry. This position was tenable so long as the clients were willing to accept formal arguments in order to receive buildings of high quality or current social relevance (i.e. current architectural fashion). With the dual aspects of globalisation and a shift to maintaining building stocks rather than producing new buildings, the tolerance for “architectural” discussions has been reduced even further. Indeed, the monetary pressures overwhelm almost all other aspects, including so-called green issues. What is more, most of the monetary issues are time based. Time represents, perhaps, the largest pressure in any current planning project. The clients expect expedient, accurate and inexpensive solutions. If architects are not able to produce these, the clients will (and do) go elsewhere. The authors argue that there remain serious problems to be solved for architects and the metier in general. Ever cheaper, ever faster and ever encompassing information technologies offer the architectural community a chance to turn recent trends on their head. By using information technologies to their full potential, architects can reassert themselves as the coordinators of building information and processes. Simply put, this means less photorealistic rendering and more databases, which may be unappealing for those architects who have positioned themselves as “designers” and are able to talk long on form, but short on cost or logistics. Nonetheless, the situation is not lost, so long as architects are able to recognise what is desired from the point of view of the client and what is desired from the point of view of the architect. It is not a question of one or the other. Architects must be able to offer innovative design solutions that not only address the fiscal, legal and programmatic constraints, but also push the boundaries at to the position of architecture in the community at large. For educators, it must be made clear that the real potential architects possess is their encompassing knowledge of the building process including their expertise concerning questions of architectural form, function, history and art. Precisely while they are generalists are architects invaluable in a sea of specialists. The biggest hurdle to asserting this in the past has been the control of the vast amounts of information. This is no longer a problem and also no longer an excuse. In the education of architects, it must be made clear that their role dictates sovereignty over architectural information. Architectural Information Management is a necessary skill alongside the more traditional architectural skills. A brief outlook as to how this might come about is detailed in the paper. The authors propose didactic steps to achieve this. Primarily, the education of computer supported planning should not simply end with a series of lectures or seminars, but culminate in integrated Design Studios (which including Design-Build scenarios).
keywords Architectural Information Mangement, Computer Supported Design Studios, CSCW
series eCAADe
email dietrich.elger@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id cf2005_1_53_133
id cf2005_1_53_133
authors HERR Christiane M. and KVAN Thomas
year 2005
title Using Cellular Automata to Generate High-Density Building Form
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 249-258
summary This paper presents an investigation into the use of cellular automata systems for the design of high-density architecture for Asian cities. In this architectural context, urban form is shaped by architectural solutions that are developed in a copy-and-paste manner. To this background, cellular automata are introduced and discussed with respect to the specific potential of cellular systems to support architectural design addressing large projects as well as cost and speed constraints. Previous applications of cellular automata to architectural design have been conceptual and are typically limited by the rigidity of classical automata systems as adopted from other fields. This paper examines the generative design potential of cellular automata by applying them to the re-modelling of an existing architectural project. From this application it is concluded that cellular automata systems for architectural design can benefit from challenging and adapting classic cellular automata features, such as uniform volumetric high-resolution models and globally consistent rule execution. A demonstration example is used to illustrate that dynamic, state-dependent geometries can support an architectural design process.
keywords cellular automata, high density architecture, urban morphology, generative design
series CAAD Futures
email ydnac@graduate.hku.hk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id 2005_147
id 2005_147
authors Lai, Ih-Cheng
year 2005
title Infilling Time into Space - A Pedagogical Approach for Evolving Space Using Digital Media
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 147-154
summary This paper presents a pedagogical approach to explore the relationships between time and space by using digital media. Based on a pedagogical model called e-Space proposed by Lai (2004), we apply motion as a spatial issue to approach this study. Through integrating with the characteristics of digital media, students are encouraged to evolve architectural space and form by decomposing, re-organizing, interpreting and realizing the spatial composition. Simultaneously, diverse digital media applications integrated with design thinking in a design process enables students to bridge two design spaces - physical and virtual. This process introduces the students to a new approach of design-creation and form finding. Finally, we use an advanced digital media course as an example to understand the impacts of the pedagogical approach. The students’ outcomes are also reported in this paper
keywords Digital Media, Pedagogy, Motion, Design Space, Design Learning
series eCAADe
email ihcheng@ms32.hinet.net
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id acadia05_212
id acadia05_212
authors Luhan, Gregory A.
year 2005
title Modern Translations, Contemporary Methods: DL-1_Resonance House®
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 212-225
summary As the first design-build-fabricate-assemble experiment at our school, the intent of the studio was to design a framework from which to examine a “lived space” through digital-to-digital processes. Moving from digital models and physical stereo lithographic models to hand-fabrication and digital assembly allowed the students to move from creation to completion. As part of our holistic design process, the studio fabricated almost all components for the project. These elements include the wood flooring, the copper and wood skins, the building’s structural panels, and the two-story light vortex. This single-family, in-fill house is located within an historic downtown neighborhood and is subject to historic district zoning regulations, design guidelines, and Board of Architecture Review approvals. The project is analogous to design challenges presenting themselves in historic districts throughout the United States including the Savannah, Georgia site for the 2005 ACADIA Conference. The scale of the project relates well to the horizontal nature of this context and after a formal, televised review process with the local Board of Architecture Review, the project represents a dynamic, yet sympathetic architectural dialogue with the surrounding buildings. The project develops simultaneously from the exterior and interior resulting in two courtyards that mediate the urban “front door” and the private “terrace.” The students designed these areas through a series of two-dimensional axonometric drawings, three-dimensional physical and digital models, and four-dimensional time-based animations. The building massing separates into two core elements: gabled copper volume and wood screen volume. These elements maintain their conceptual purity by using the same types of modulations on their skins. The copper form with its deep-cut reveals and proportionally placed light scoring patterns reflects the horizontal datum lines of the floor, sill, threshold, and ceiling. In contrast, the wood volume reflects these same lines as applied “shadow screens” which create depths that seamlessly tie together the side, rear, and front facades.The hinge point of the house is the light vortex. Designed in Rhino, translated in Catia, fabricated out of aluminum, and clad in stainless steel, this two-story sculptural element will literally wrap light around its surfaces. Like a sunflower, the light vortex, with its angel hair stainless steel finish, responds to the incremental differentiation of light throughout the day. Photosensitive floor-mounted lights designed to augment the volume of natural light will provide a continuous light rendition on the sculpture. The project, scheduled for completion at the end of the 2005 summer session, is at the time of this submission about 60% complete.
series ACADIA
email galuhan@uky.edu
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id cf2005_1_55_94
id cf2005_1_55_94
authors SCHEURER Fabian
year 2005
title Turning the Design Process Downside-up
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 269-278
summary This paper describes the latest results of an ongoing research project that aims at using the power of self-organization for the design and optimisation of irregular spatial structures in real-world applications. An example is presented, which uses a growing swarm to define the configuration of randomly positioned columns in a large concrete structure. This agent based simulation, developed in cooperation with the building's architects and engineers, was successfully used in the final design stage of a project in the Netherlands to resolve the conflicting structural and functional requirements arising from the initial design.
keywords self-organization, emergent design, spatial structure, dynamic simulation
series CAAD Futures
email scheurer@hbt.arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id cf2011_p018
id cf2011_p018
authors Sokmenoglu, Ahu; Cagdas Gulen, Sariyildiz Sevil
year 2011
title A Multi-dimensional Exploration of Urban Attributes by Data Mining
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 333-350.
summary The paper which is proposed here will introduce an ongoing research project aiming to research data mining as a methodology of knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis. To address the increasing multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires a multidisciplinary approach to urban analysis. This research is an attempt to establish a link between knowledge discovery methodologies and automated urban feature analysis. Therefore, in the scope of this research we apply data mining methodologies for urban analysis. Data mining is defined as to extract important patterns and trends from raw data (Witten and Frank, 2005). When applied to discover relationships between urban attributes, data mining can constitute a methodology for the analysis of multi-dimensional relational complexity of urban environments (Gil, Montenegro, Beirao and Duarte, 2009) The theoretical motivation of the research is derived by the lack of explanatory urban knowledge which is an issue since 1970’s in the area of urban research. This situation is mostly associated with deductive methods of analysis. The analysis of urban system from the perspective of few interrelated factors, without considering the multi-dimensionality of the system in a deductive fashion was not been explanatory enough. (Jacobs, 1961, Lefebvre, 1970 Harvey, 1973) To address the multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires the consideration of diverse spatial, social, economic, cultural, morphological, environmental, political etc. features of urban entities. The main claim is that, in urban analysis, there is a need to advance from traditional one dimensional (Marshall, 2004) description and classification of urban forms (e.g. Land-use maps, Density maps) to the consideration of the simultaneous multi-dimensionality of urban systems. For this purpose, this research proposes a methodology consisting of the application of data mining as a knowledge discovery method into a GIS based conceptual urban database built out of official real data of Beyoglu. Generally, the proposed methodology is a framework for representing and analyzing urban entities represented as objects with properties (attributes). It concerns the formulation of an urban entity’s database based on both available and non-available (constructed from available data) data, and then data mining of spatial and non-spatial attributes of the urban entities. Location or position is the primary reference basis for the data that is describing urban entities. Urban entities are; building floors, buildings, building blocks, streets, geographically defined districts and neighborhoods etc. Urban attributes are district properties of locations (such as land-use, land value, slope, view and so forth) that change from one location to another. Every basic urban entity is unique in terms of its attributes. All the available qualitative and quantitative attributes that is relavant (in the mind of the analyst) and appropriate for encoding, can be coded inside the computer representation of the basic urban entity. Our methodology is applied by using the real and official, the most complex, complete and up-to-dataset of Beyoglu (a historical neighborhood of Istanbul) that is provided by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IBB). Basically, in our research, data mining in the context of urban data is introduced as a computer based, data-driven, context-specific approach for supporting analysis of urban systems without relying on any existing theories. Data mining in the context of urban data; • Can help in the design process by providing site-specific insight through deeper understanding of urban data. • Can produce results that can assist architects and urban planners at design, policy and strategy levels. • Can constitute a robust scientific base for rule definition in urban simulation applications such as urban growth prediction systems, land-use simulation models etc. In the paper, firstly we will present the framework of our research with an emphasis on its theoretical background. Afterwards we will introduce our methodology in detail and finally we will present some of important results of data mining analysis processed in Rapid Miner open-source software. Specifically, our research define a general framework for knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis and enable the usage of GIS and data mining as complementary applications in urban feature analysis. Acknowledgments I would like to thank to Nuffic, the Netherlands Organization for International Cooperation in Higher Education, for funding of this research. I would like to thank Ceyhun Burak Akgul for his support in Data Mining and to H. Serdar Kaya for his support in GIS.
keywords urban feature analysis, data mining, urban database, urban complexity, GIS
series CAAD Futures
email ahusokmenoglu@yahoo.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2005_275
id sigradi2005_275
authors Tosello, María Elena; Ma. Georgina Bredanini
year 2005
title Transversal design workshop: uncentering the digital
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 275-279
summary The transversal design implies to explore “rizomatic” ways to enter upon the design process, nourishing itself of different artistic expressions, not only to stimulate and unlash the heuristic process, but to found the project´s decisions. In this workshop we encourage the students to understand creative processes from an integrative scope, combining different methods of plastic experimentation, enhanced from digital environment, and different design scales; using digital media as the tool of production and communication. This is an interdisciplinary workshop since it was led by architects, an actress and a literature professor; and it was directed to architecture and visual communication design students. The experience was very exciting, mainly for the students, they responded with enthusiasm to the professors´ proposals. The relationship between teachers was founded in the fact of sharing conceptual basis and pedagogical objectives, and the respect of particular concerns. Interdisciplinary work opens rich possibilities of interchange, knowledge and intellectual growing. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email mtosello@fadu.unl.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id cdc2008_243
id cdc2008_243
authors Loukissas, Yanni
year 2008
title Keepers of the Geometry: Architects in a Culture of Simulation
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 243-244
summary “Why do we have to change? We’ve been building buildings for years without CATIA?” Roger Norfleet, a practicing architect in his thirties poses this question to Tim Quix, a generation older and an expert in CATIA, a computer-aided design tool developed by Dassault Systemes in the early 1980’s for use by aerospace engineers. It is 2005 and CATIA has just come into use at Paul Morris Associates, the thirty-person architecture firm where Norfleet works; he is struggling with what it will mean for him, for his firm, for his profession. Computer-aided design is about creativity, but also about jurisdiction, about who controls the design process. In Architecture: The Story of Practice, Architectural theorist Dana Cuff writes that each generation of architects is educated to understand what constitutes a creative act and who in the system of their profession is empowered to use it and at what time. Creativity is socially constructed and Norfleet is coming of age as an architect in a time of technological but also social transition. He must come to terms with the increasingly complex computeraided design tools that have changed both creativity and the rules by which it can operate. In today’s practices, architects use computer-aided design software to produce threedimensional geometric models. Sometimes they use off-the-shelf commercial software like CATIA, sometimes they customize this software through plug-ins and macros, sometimes they work with software that they have themselves programmed. And yet, conforming to Larson’s ideas that they claim the higher ground by identifying with art and not with science, contemporary architects do not often use the term “simulation.” Rather, they have held onto traditional terms such as “modeling” to describe the buzz of new activity with digital technology. But whether or not they use the term, simulation is creating new architectural identities and transforming relationships among a range of design collaborators: masters and apprentices, students and teachers, technical experts and virtuoso programmers. These days, constructing an identity as an architect requires that one define oneself in relation to simulation. Case studies, primarily from two architectural firms, illustrate the transformation of traditional relationships, in particular that of master and apprentice, and the emergence of new roles, including a new professional identity, “keeper of the geometry,” defined by the fusion of person and machine. Like any profession, architecture may be seen as a system in flux. However, with their new roles and relationships, architects are learning that the fight for professional jurisdiction is increasingly for jurisdiction over simulation. Computer-aided design is changing professional patterns of production in architecture, the very way in which professionals compete with each other by making new claims to knowledge. Even today, employees at Paul Morris squabble about the role that simulation software should play in the office. Among other things, they fight about the role it should play in promotion and firm hierarchy. They bicker about the selection of new simulation software, knowing that choosing software implies greater power for those who are expert in it. Architects and their collaborators are in a continual struggle to define the creative roles that can bring them professional acceptance and greater control over design. New technologies for computer-aided design do not change this reality, they become players in it.
email yanni@mit.edu
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id caadria2005_b_5b_b
id caadria2005_b_5b_b
authors Dean Bruton, Arus Kunkhet
year 2005
title Grammatical Design and Crowd Behaviour: A study of factors that influence human movement in urban spaces
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 328-336
summary Crowd behaviour in traffic and emergency situations has been recorded and documented since the early 1990s, often using digital representations of balls as an indicator of mass and movement. This paper reports the investigation of the factors that influence human movement in urban spaces and visualises the impact on human movements of changes to an urban design space. Using an agent-oriented approach is the common method for investigating the simulation of crowd behaviour. The relation of grammatical design to crowd behaviour is proposed as an important research area. This area developed since the technology for the advanced design visualisation of avatars or animated characters became available. The authors of the software used in Lord of the Rings and other well-known crowd movies have contributed to knowledge of the key issues in crowd behaviour in particular contexts and general situations. This paper relates experiments in teaching grammatical approaches to architectural design with digital media as a tool with three different implementations: a café, restaurant and gallery. Using a variety of design visualisation techniques gives different understandings of the use of a design space. By representing human movement in a design space in more complex visualisations we see more alternatives for better design more readily. Using notions of grammar, contingency and play to explore simple changes in design, the resulting crowd animations present an insightful early research stage experiment with the theories and models of crowd behaviour.
series CAADRIA
email dean.bruton@adelaide.edu.au
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id cf2005_2_21_64
id cf2005_2_21_64
authors ROMÃO Luís
year 2005
title SGtools: A Computer Tool for Exploring Designs with Set Grammars
source Learning from the Past a Foundation for the Future [Special publication of papers presented at the CAAD futures 2005 conference held at the Vienna University of Technology / ISBN 3-85437-276-0], Vienna (Austria) 20-22 June 2005, pp. 53-62
summary A set grammar interpreter is presented in this paper. It differs from previous interpreters in many ways: it accepts any shapes for edition, the user rather than symbols, manipulates shapes, and rules can be stored and retrieved. This tool is intended as a conceptual design tool and not as a tool for full design development. The tool has been developed in the AutoLisp language as a plug-in to AutoCAD, thereby taking advantage of the existent means of visualizations.
keywords shape grammars, human-computer interaction, collaboration
series CAAD Futures
email lromao@mit.edu
last changed 2005/05/05 05:06

_id caadria2014_042
id caadria2014_042
authors Alam, Jack and Jeremy J. Ham
year 2014
title Towards a BIM-Based Energy Rating System
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 285–294
summary Governments in Australia are faced with policy implementation that mandates higher energy efficient housing (Foran, Lenzen & Dey 2005). To this effect, the National Construction Code (NCC) 2013 stipulates the minimum energy performance for residential buildings as 114MJ/m2 per annum or 6 stars on an energy rating scale. Compliance with this minimum is mandatory but there are several methods through which residential buildings can be rated to comply with the deemed to satisfy provisions outlined in the NCC. FirstRate5 is by far the most commonly used simulation software used in Victoria, Australia. Meanwhile, Building Information Modelling (BIM), using software such as ArchiCAD has gained a foothold in the industry. The energy simulation software within ArchiCAD, EcoDesigner, enables the reporting on the energy performance based on BIM elements that contain thermal information. This research is founded on a comparative study between FirstRate5 and EcoDesigner. Three building types were analysed and compared. The comparison finds significant differences between simulations, being, measured areas, thermal loads and potentially serious shortcomings within FirstRate5, that are discussed along with the future potential of a fully BIM-integrated model for energy rating certification in Victoria.
keywords Building Information Modelling, energy rating, FirstRate 5, ArchiCAD EcoDesigner, Building Energy Model
series CAADRIA
email Jack.alam@gmail.com
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

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